Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 183

Search results for: reversible watermarking

183 High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee


Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error precompensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighbouring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error precompensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, error precompensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
182 Effects of Reversible Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance

Authors: Andrew Lock, Alastair Allen


Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems, particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition. We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images to unmodified images, and matching watermarked images to watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the importance of investigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms cause significant reduction in recognition performance. However, in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is improved by the watermarking process.

Keywords: biometrics, iris recognition, reversible watermarking, vision engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
181 Reversible and Adaptive Watermarking for MRI Medical Images

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon


A new medical image watermarking scheme delivering high embedding capacity is presented in this paper. Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Companding technique and adaptive thresholding are used in this scheme. The proposed scheme implants, recovers the hidden information and restores the input image to its pristine state at the receiving end. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images are used for experimental purposes. The scheme first segment the MRI medical image into non-overlapping blocks and then inserts watermark into wavelet coefficients having a high frequency of each block. The scheme uses block-based watermarking adopting iterative optimization of threshold for companding in order to avoid the histogram pre and post processing. Results show that proposed scheme performs better than other reversible medical image watermarking schemes available in literature for MRI medical images.

Keywords: adaptive thresholding, companding technique, data authentication, reversible watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
180 Secure Watermarking not at the Cost of Low Robustness

Authors: Jian Cao


This paper describes a novel watermarking technique which we call the random direction embedding (RDE) watermarking. Unlike traditional watermarking techniques, the watermark energy after the RDE embedding does not focus on a fixed direction, leading to the security against the traditional unauthorized watermark removal attack. In addition, the experimental results show that when compared with the existing secure watermarking, namely natural watermarking (NW), the RDE watermarking gains significant improvement in terms of robustness. In fact, the security of the RDE watermarking is not at the cost of low robustness, and it can even achieve more robust than the traditional spread spectrum watermarking, which has been shown to be very insecure.

Keywords: robustness, spread spectrum watermarking, watermarking security, random direction embedding (RDE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
179 Optimized and Secured Digital Watermarking Using Fuzzy Entropy, Bezier Curve and Visual Cryptography

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Recent development in the usage of internet for different purposes creates a great threat for the copyright protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking can be used to address the problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field of secured, robust and imperceptible watermarking. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (2, 2) share visual cryptography and Bezier curve based algorithm to improve the security of the watermark. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method. The algorithm is optimized using fuzzy entropy for better results.

Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, visual cryptography, Bezier curve, fuzzy entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
178 Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison

Authors: H. Kelkoul, Y. Zaz


Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.

Keywords: digital cinema, watermarking, wavelet DWT, spread spectrum, JPEG2000 MPEG4

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
177 Prosperous Digital Image Watermarking Approach by Using DCT-DWT

Authors: Prabhakar C. Dhavale, Meenakshi M. Pawar


In this paper, everyday tons of data is embedded on digital media or distributed over the internet. The data is so distributed that it can easily be replicated without error, putting the rights of their owners at risk. Even when encrypted for distribution, data can easily be decrypted and copied. One way to discourage illegal duplication is to insert information known as watermark, into potentially valuable data in such a way that it is impossible to separate the watermark from the data. These challenges motivated researchers to carry out intense research in the field of watermarking. A watermark is a form, image or text that is impressed onto paper, which provides evidence of its authenticity. Digital watermarking is an extension of the same concept. There are two types of watermarks visible watermark and invisible watermark. In this project, we have concentrated on implementing watermark in image. The main consideration for any watermarking scheme is its robustness to various attacks

Keywords: watermarking, digital, DCT-DWT, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
176 Digital Watermarking Using Fractional Transform and (k,n) Halftone Visual Cryptography (HVC)

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh Malik


Development in the usage of internet for different purposes in recent times creates great threat for the copy right protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking is the best way to rescue from the said problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field and categorized like spatial and transform domain, blind and non-blind methods, visible and non visible techniques etc. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (k.n) shares of halftone visual cryptography (HVC) instead of (2, 2) share cryptography. (k,n) shares visual cryptography improves the security of the watermark. As halftone is a method of reprographic, it helps in improving the visual quality of watermark image. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method.

Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, halftone, visual cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
175 Implementation of Invisible Digital Watermarking

Authors: V. Monisha, D. Sindhuja, M. Sowmiya


Over the decade, the applications about multimedia have been developed rapidly. The advancement in the communication field at the faster pace, it is necessary to protect the data during transmission. Thus, security of multimedia contents becomes a vital issue, and it is a need for protecting the digital content against malfunctions. Digital watermarking becomes the solution for the copyright protection and authentication of data in the network. In multimedia applications, embedded watermarks should be robust, and imperceptible. For improving robustness, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Both encoding and extraction algorithm can be done using MATLAB R2012a. In this Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain of digital image, watermarking algorithm is used, and hardware implementation can be done on Xilinx based FPGA.

Keywords: digital watermarking, DWT, robustness, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
174 Robust Medical Image Watermarking Using Frequency Domain and Least Significant Bits Algorithms

Authors: Volkan Kaya, Ersin Elbasi


Watermarking and stenography are getting importance recently because of copyright protection and authentication. In watermarking we embed stamp, logo, noise or image to multimedia elements such as image, video, audio, animation and text. There are several works have been done in watermarking for different purposes. In this research work, we used watermarking techniques to embed patient information into the medical magnetic resonance (MR) images. There are two methods have been used; frequency domain (Digital Wavelet Transform-DWT, Digital Cosine Transform-DCT, and Digital Fourier Transform-DFT) and spatial domain (Least Significant Bits-LSB) domain. Experimental results show that embedding in frequency domains resist against one type of attacks, and embedding in spatial domain is resist against another group of attacks. Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Similarity Ratio (SR) values are two measurement values for testing. These two values give very promising result for information hiding in medical MR images.

Keywords: watermarking, medical image, frequency domain, least significant bits, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
173 A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Belal AbuHaija, Zainab N. Al-Qudsy


In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform (DWT), contourlet transform (CT), digital image watermarking, copyright protection, geometric attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
172 A Watermarking Signature Scheme with Hidden Watermarks and Constraint Functions in the Symmetric Key Setting

Authors: Yanmin Zhao, Siu Ming Yiu


To claim the ownership for an executable program is a non-trivial task. An emerging direction is to add a watermark to the program such that the watermarked program preserves the original program’s functionality and removing the watermark would heavily destroy the functionality of the watermarked program. In this paper, the first watermarking signature scheme with the watermark and the constraint function hidden in the symmetric key setting is constructed. The scheme uses well-known techniques of lattice trapdoors and a lattice evaluation. The watermarking signature scheme is unforgeable under the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption and satisfies other security requirements such as the unremovability security property.

Keywords: short integer solution (SIS) problem, symmetric-key setting, watermarking schemes, watermarked signatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
171 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari


Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: steganography, watermarking, time complexity measurements, private keys

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
170 Low-Cost Reversible Logic Serial Multipliers with Error Detection Capability

Authors: Mojtaba Valinataj


Nowadays reversible logic has received many attentions as one of the new fields for reducing the power consumption. On the other hand, the processing systems have weaknesses against different external effects. In this paper, some error detecting reversible logic serial multipliers are proposed by incorporating the parity-preserving gates. This way, the new designs are presented for signed parity-preserving serial multipliers based on the Booth's algorithm by exploiting the new arrangements of existing gates. The experimental results show that the proposed 4×4 multipliers in this paper reach up to 20%, 35%, and 41% enhancements in the number of constant inputs, quantum cost, and gate count, respectively, as the reversible logic criteria, compared to previous designs. Furthermore, all the proposed designs have been generalized for n×n multipliers with general formulations to estimate the main reversible logic criteria as the functions of the multiplier size.

Keywords: Booth’s algorithm, error detection, multiplication, parity-preserving gates, quantum computers, reversible logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
169 Robust Medical Image Watermarking based on Contourlet and Extraction Using ICA

Authors: S. Saju, G. Thirugnanam


In this paper, a medical image watermarking algorithm based on contourlet is proposed. Medical image watermarking is a special subcategory of image watermarking in the sense that images have special requirements. Watermarked medical images should not differ perceptually from their original counterparts because clinical reading of images must not be affected. Watermarking techniques based on wavelet transform are reported in many literatures but robustness and security using contourlet are better when compared to wavelet transform. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. In this paper, original image is decomposed to two level using contourlet and the watermark is embedded in the resultant sub-bands. Sub-band selection is based on the value of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) that is calculated between watermarked and original image. To extract the watermark, Kernel ICA is used and it has a novel characteristic is that it does not require the transformation process to extract the watermark. Simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust against attacks such as Salt and Pepper noise, Median filtering and rotation. The performance measures like PSNR and Similarity measure are evaluated and compared with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to prove the robustness of the scheme. Simulations are carried out using Matlab Software.

Keywords: digital watermarking, independent component analysis, wavelet transform, contourlet

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
168 Blind Watermarking Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Algorithm with Patchwork

Authors: Toni Maristela C. Estabillo, Michaela V. Matienzo, Mikaela L. Sabangan, Rosette M. Tienzo, Justine L. Bahinting


This study is about blind watermarking on images with different categories and properties using two algorithms namely, Discrete Wavelet Transform and Patchwork Algorithm. A program is created to perform watermark embedding, extraction and evaluation. The evaluation is based on three watermarking criteria namely: image quality degradation, perceptual transparency and security. Image quality is measured by comparing the original properties with the processed one. Perceptual transparency is measured by a visual inspection on a survey. Security is measured by implementing geometrical and non-geometrical attacks through a pass or fail testing. Values used to measure the following criteria are mostly based on Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The results are based on statistical methods used to interpret and collect data such as averaging, z Test and survey. The study concluded that the combined DWT and Patchwork algorithms were less efficient and less capable of watermarking than DWT algorithm only.

Keywords: blind watermarking, discrete wavelet transform algorithm, patchwork algorithm, digital watermark

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
167 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: digital watermarking, visual cryptography, histogram, butter worth filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
166 New Segmentation of Piecewise Moving-Average Model by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman


This paper addresses the problem of the signal segmentation within a Bayesian framework by using reversible jump MCMC algorithm. The signal is modelled by piecewise constant Moving-Average (MA) model where the numbers of segments, the position of change-point, the order and the coefficient of the MA model for each segment are unknown. The reversible jump MCMC algorithm is then used to generate samples distributed according to the joint posterior distribution of the unknown parameters. These samples allow calculating some interesting features of the posterior distribution. The performance of the methodology is illustrated via several simulation results.

Keywords: piecewise, moving-average model, reversible jump MCMC, signal segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
165 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Omaima N. Ahmad AL-Allaf


Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.

Keywords: image watermarking, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, discrete wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
164 Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking

Authors: Siraa Ben Ftima, Mourad Talbi, Tahar Ezzedine


In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.

Keywords: lifting wavelet transform (LWT), sub-space vectorial decomposition, secure, image watermarking, watermark

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
163 Detection of Intentional Attacks in Images Based on Watermarking

Authors: Hazem Munawer Al-Otum


In this work, an efficient watermarking technique is proposed and can be used for detecting intentional attacks in RGB color images. The proposed technique can be implemented for image authentication and exhibits high robustness against unintentional common image processing attacks. It deploys two measures to discern between intentional and unintentional attacks based on using a quantization-based technique in a modified 2D multi-pyramidal DWT transform. Simulations have shown high accuracy in detecting intentionally attacked regions while exhibiting high robustness under moderate to severe common image processing attacks.

Keywords: image authentication, copyright protection, semi-fragile watermarking, tamper detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
162 A Blind Three-Dimensional Meshes Watermarking Using the Interquartile Range

Authors: Emad E. Abdallah, Alaa E. Abdallah, Bajes Y. Alskarnah


We introduce a robust three-dimensional watermarking algorithm for copyright protection and indexing. The basic idea behind our technique is to measure the interquartile range or the spread of the 3D model vertices. The algorithm starts by converting all the vertices to spherical coordinate followed by partitioning them into small groups. The proposed algorithm is slightly altering the interquartile range distribution of the small groups based on predefined watermark. The experimental results on several 3D meshes prove perceptual invisibility and the robustness of the proposed technique against the most common attacks including compression, noise, smoothing, scaling, rotation as well as combinations of these attacks.

Keywords: watermarking, three-dimensional models, perceptual invisibility, interquartile range, 3D attacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
161 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

Authors: Peter U. Eze, P. Udaya, Robin J. Evans


Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

Keywords: Constant Correlation, Medical Image, Spread Spectrum, Tamper Detection, Watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
160 A Hybrid Watermarking Scheme Using Discrete and Discrete Stationary Wavelet Transformation For Color Images

Authors: Bülent Kantar, Numan Ünaldı


This paper presents a new method which includes robust and invisible digital watermarking on images that is colored. Colored images are used as watermark. Frequency region is used for digital watermarking. Discrete wavelet transform and discrete stationary wavelet transform are used for frequency region transformation. Low, medium and high frequency coefficients are obtained by applying the two-level discrete wavelet transform to the original image. Low frequency coefficients are obtained by applying one level discrete stationary wavelet transform separately to all frequency coefficient of the two-level discrete wavelet transformation of the original image. For every low frequency coefficient obtained from one level discrete stationary wavelet transformation, watermarks are added. Watermarks are added to all frequency coefficients of two-level discrete wavelet transform. Totally, four watermarks are added to original image. In order to get back the watermark, the original and watermarked images are applied with two-level discrete wavelet transform and one level discrete stationary wavelet transform. The watermark is obtained from difference of the discrete stationary wavelet transform of the low frequency coefficients. A total of four watermarks are obtained from all frequency of two-level discrete wavelet transform. Obtained watermark results are compared with real watermark results, and a similarity result is obtained. A watermark is obtained from the highest similarity values. Proposed methods of watermarking are tested against attacks of the geometric and image processing. The results show that proposed watermarking method is robust and invisible. All features of frequencies of two level discrete wavelet transform watermarking are combined to get back the watermark from the watermarked image. Watermarks have been added to the image by converting the binary image. These operations provide us with better results in getting back the watermark from watermarked image by attacking of the geometric and image processing.

Keywords: watermarking, DWT, DSWT, copy right protection, RGB

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
159 Fault Tolerant and Testable Designs of Reversible Sequential Building Blocks

Authors: Vishal Pareek, Shubham Gupta, Sushil Chandra Jain


With increasing high-speed computation demand the power consumption, heat dissipation and chip size issues are posing challenges for logic design with conventional technologies. Recovery of bit loss and bit errors is other issues that require reversibility and fault tolerance in the computation. The reversible computing is emerging as an alternative to conventional technologies to overcome the above problems and helpful in a diverse area such as low-power design, nanotechnology, quantum computing. Bit loss issue can be solved through unique input-output mapping which require reversibility and bit error issue require the capability of fault tolerance in design. In order to incorporate reversibility a number of combinational reversible logic based circuits have been developed. However, very few sequential reversible circuits have been reported in the literature. To make the circuit fault tolerant, a number of fault model and test approaches have been proposed for reversible logic. In this paper, we have attempted to incorporate fault tolerance in sequential reversible building blocks such as D flip-flop, T flip-flop, JK flip-flop, R-S flip-flop, Master-Slave D flip-flop, and double edge triggered D flip-flop by making them parity preserving. The importance of this proposed work lies in the fact that it provides the design of reversible sequential circuits completely testable for any stuck-at fault and single bit fault. In our opinion our design of reversible building blocks is superior to existing designs in term of quantum cost, hardware complexity, constant input, garbage output, number of gates and design of online testable D flip-flop have been proposed for the first time. We hope our work can be extended for building complex reversible sequential circuits.

Keywords: parity preserving gate, quantum computing, fault tolerance, flip-flop, sequential reversible logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
158 Design and Implementation of Testable Reversible Sequential Circuits Optimized Power

Authors: B. Manikandan, A. Vijayaprabhu


The conservative reversible gates are used to designed reversible sequential circuits. The sequential circuits are flip-flops and latches. The conservative logic gates are Feynman, Toffoli, and Fredkin. The design of two vectors testable sequential circuits based on conservative logic gates. All sequential circuit based on conservative logic gates can be tested for classical unidirectional stuck-at faults using only two test vectors. The two test vectors are all 1s, and all 0s. The designs of two vectors testable latches, master-slave flip-flops and double edge triggered (DET) flip-flops are presented. We also showed the application of the proposed approach toward 100% fault coverage for single missing/additional cell defect in the quantum- dot cellular automata (QCA) layout of the Fredkin gate. The conservative logic gates are in terms of complexity, speed, and area.

Keywords: DET, QCA, reversible logic gates, POS, SOP, latches, flip flops

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
157 3D-Mesh Robust Watermarking Technique for Ownership Protection and Authentication

Authors: Farhan A. Alenizi


Digital watermarking has evolved in the past years as an important means for data authentication and ownership protection. The images and video watermarking was well known in the field of multimedia processing; however, 3D objects' watermarking techniques have emerged as an important means for the same purposes, as 3D mesh models are in increasing use in different areas of scientific, industrial, and medical applications. Like the image watermarking techniques, 3D watermarking can take place in either space or transform domains. Unlike images and video watermarking, where the frames have regular structures in both space and temporal domains, 3D objects are represented in different ways as meshes that are basically irregular samplings of surfaces; moreover, meshes can undergo a large variety of alterations which may be hard to tackle. This makes the watermarking process more challenging. While the transform domain watermarking is preferable in images and videos, they are still difficult to implement in 3d meshes due to the huge number of vertices involved and the complicated topology and geometry, and hence the difficulty to perform the spectral decomposition, even though significant work was done in the field. Spatial domain watermarking has attracted significant attention in the past years; they can either act on the topology or on the geometry of the model. Exploiting the statistical characteristics in the 3D mesh models from both geometrical and topological aspects was useful in hiding data. However, doing that with minimal surface distortions to the mesh attracted significant research in the field. A 3D mesh blind watermarking technique is proposed in this research. The watermarking method depends on modifying the vertices' positions with respect to the center of the object. An optimal method will be developed to reduce the errors, minimizing the distortions that the 3d object may experience due to the watermarking process, and reducing the computational complexity due to the iterations and other factors. The technique relies on the displacement process of the vertices' locations depending on the modification of the variances of the vertices’ norms. Statistical analyses were performed to establish the proper distributions that best fit each mesh, and hence establishing the bins sizes. Several optimizing approaches were introduced in the realms of mesh local roughness, the statistical distributions of the norms, and the displacements in the mesh centers. To evaluate the algorithm's robustness against other common geometry and connectivity attacks, the watermarked objects were subjected to uniform noise, Laplacian smoothing, vertices quantization, simplification, and cropping. Experimental results showed that the approach is robust in terms of both perceptual and quantitative qualities. It was also robust against both geometry and connectivity attacks. Moreover, the probability of true positive detection versus the probability of false-positive detection was evaluated. To validate the accuracy of the test cases, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn, and they’ve shown robustness from this aspect. 3D watermarking is still a new field but still a promising one.

Keywords: watermarking, mesh objects, local roughness, Laplacian Smoothing

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
156 Design of Parity-Preserving Reversible Logic Signed Array Multipliers

Authors: Mojtaba Valinataj


Reversible logic as a new favorable design domain can be used for various fields especially creating quantum computers because of its speed and intangible power consumption. However, its susceptibility to a variety of environmental effects may lead to yield the incorrect results. In this paper, because of the importance of multiplication operation in various computing systems, some novel reversible logic array multipliers are proposed with error detection capability by incorporating the parity-preserving gates. The new designs are presented for two main parts of array multipliers, partial product generation and multi-operand addition, by exploiting the new arrangements of existing gates, which results in two signed parity-preserving array multipliers. The experimental results reveal that the best proposed 4×4 multiplier in this paper reaches 12%, 24%, and 26% enhancements in the number of constant inputs, number of required gates, and quantum cost, respectively, compared to previous design. Moreover, the best proposed design is generalized for n×n multipliers with general formulations to estimate the main reversible logic criteria as the functions of the multiplier size.

Keywords: array multipliers, Baugh-Wooley method, error detection, parity-preserving gates, quantum computers, reversible logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
155 Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking

Authors: Ali Akbar Attari, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi


In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.

Keywords: audio watermarking, spread spectrum, discrete wavelet transform, psychoacoustic, Savitsky-Golay filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
154 New Segmentation of Piecewise Linear Regression Models Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm

Authors: Suparman


Piecewise linear regression models are very flexible models for modeling the data. If the piecewise linear regression models are matched against the data, then the parameters are generally not known. This paper studies the problem of parameter estimation of piecewise linear regression models. The method used to estimate the parameters of picewise linear regression models is Bayesian method. But the Bayes estimator can not be found analytically. To overcome these problems, the reversible jump MCMC algorithm is proposed. Reversible jump MCMC algorithm generates the Markov chain converges to the limit distribution of the posterior distribution of the parameters of picewise linear regression models. The resulting Markov chain is used to calculate the Bayes estimator for the parameters of picewise linear regression models.

Keywords: regression, piecewise, Bayesian, reversible Jump MCMC

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