Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Hafsa Zaneb

15 Osteometry of the Long Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii): A Remarkable Example of Sexual Dimorphism

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was 1) to measure osteometric parameters of the long bones of the adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data 2) to study sexual dimorphism in the adult Chinkara through osteometry and 3) to estimate body weight from the measurements of greatest length and shaft of the long bones. For this purpose, after taking body measurements of adult Chinkara after mortality, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age were buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Various osteometric parameters of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia and metatarsal were measured through the digital calliper. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), differences in some of the osteometrical parameters between male and female adult Chinkara were observed. Sexual dimorphism exit between the long bones of male and female adult Chinkara. In both male and female Chinkara value obtained for the estimated body weight from humeral, metacarpal and metatarsal measurements were near to the actual body weight of the adult Chinkara. In conclusion, the present study estimates preliminary data on long bones osteometrics and suggests that the morphometric details of the male and female adult Chinkara have differed morphometrically from each other.

Keywords: body mass measurements, Chinkara, long bones, morphometric, sexual dimorphism

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14 Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies of the Long Bones of the Adult Chinkara and in the Adult Beetal Goat

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib –ur- Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the osteomorphological differences between the long bones of adult Chinkara and an adult Beetal goat, using visual observation, which has still not studied. The osseous remains of these small-sized ungulates often encountered, but cannot distinguish, because of the lack of literature. Specimens of the adult Chinkara of known age and sex for osteomorphological studies are collected from the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan, while the bones of adult Beetal goats are obtained after slaughtering in a slaughterhouse. The research is carried out at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. In this research, the main morphological features recorded in the long bones of thoracic limb and pelvic limb of the adult Chinkara, by comparing them to those of the Beetal goat. The most important differences between the two species are noted in the scapula, the humerus, the radius and ulna, the metacarpal, femur, tibia metatarsal and phalanges. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the morphology of the long bones of adult Chinkara has different from the Beetal goat in various points of view. Based on these recorded points, long bones of these two species can easily be differentiated. The study is helpful in zooarcheological, comparative osteometric studies, for forensic specialists and veterinary anatomists.

Keywords: Beetal goat, Chinkara, comparative morphological features, long bones, osteology

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13 Effect of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase at Different Dietary Levels of Phosphorus on Tibial Bone Characteristics and Body Weight Gain in Broilers

Authors: Saqib Saleem Abdullah, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Shela Gul Bokhari, Muti Ur Rehman, Jamil Akbar

Abstract:

A 5- weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Bacterial Phytase (Phyzyme®) in broilers, at different dietary levels of Phosphorous. 140 d-old broilers (Hubbard) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4). Birds were fed corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 different levels of non Phytate Phosphorous (NPP) (0.45 %, 0.30 % and 0.15 %). Furthermore, the diets were supplemented with bacterial Phytase. Birds were fed ad libitum and kept under thermo neutral conditions. The parameters studied were; body weight gain (BWG), tibial bone characteristics (TBC), serum Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) levels and tibia ash percentage (TAP). BWG of the broilers was calculated at weekly interval and remaining parameters were calculated after slaughtering the birds at 35thday. Results suggested that Phytase supplementation at 0.30% NPP (Non Phytate Phosphorus + Bacterial Phytase) increased (P < 0.05) the BWG, bone length, bone weight, tibiotarsal index, medullary canal diameter and diaphysis diameter however, rubosticity index was reduced to minimum (P < 0.05) at this dietary level of phosphorous when compared with other groups. Maximum (P < 0.05) rubosticity index was observed in control group with 0% Phytase. Furthermore, Phytase addition at 0.30 % NPP also improved (P < 0.05) Ca, P and AP levels in the blood. Phytase supplementation at lower phosphorus level (0.30%NPP) improved BWG and TBC including bone density and bone quality in broilers hence it can be concluded that addition of Phytase at 0.30% NPP may prove beneficial for bone and overall performance in broilers.

Keywords: diaphysis diameter, phytase, rubosticity index, tibia

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12 Morphometric and Radiographic Studies on the Tarsal Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii)

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib-Ur Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The present study was carried out on the gross anatomy, biometery and radiographic analysis of tarsal bones in twenty specimens of adult chinkara (Gazella bennettii). The desired bones were collected from the graveyards present in the locality of the different safari parks and zoos in Pakistan. To observe the edges and articulations between the bones, the radiographic images were acquired in craniocaudals and mediolateral views of the intact limbs. The gross and radiographic studies of the tarsus of adult Chinkara were carried out in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The tarsus of chinkara comprised of five bones both grossly and radiographically, settled in three transverse rows: tibial and fibular tarsal in the proximal, central and fourth fused tarsal in the middle row, the first, second and third fused tarsal in the distal row. The fibular tarsal was the largest and longest bone of the hock, situated on the lateral side and had a bulbous tuber calcis 'point of the hock' at the proximal extremity which projects upward and backward. The average maximum height and breadth for fibular tarsal was 5.61 ± 0.23 cm and 2.06 ± 0.13 cm, respectively. The tibial tarsal bones were the 2nd largest bone of the proximal row and lie on the medial side of the tarsus bears trochlea at either end. The average maximum height and breadth for tibial tarsal was 2.79 ± 0.05 cm and 1.74 ± 0.01 cm, respectively. The central and the fourth tarsals were fused to form a large bone which extends across the entire width of the tarsus and articulates with all bones of the tarsus. A nutrient foramen was present in the center of the non auricular area, more prominent on the ventral surface. The average maximum height and breadth for central and fourth fused tarsal was 1.51 ± 0.13 cm and 2.08 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. The first tarsal was a quadrilateral piece of bone placed on the poteriomedial surface of the hock. The greatest length and maximum breadth of the first tarsal was 0.94 ± 0.01 cm and 1.01 ± 0.01 cm, respectively. The second and third fused tarsal bone resembles the central but was smaller and triangular in outline. It was situated between the central above and the large metatarsal bone below. The greatest length and maximum breadth of second and third fused tarsal was 0.98 ± 0.01 cm and 1.49 ± 0.01 cm.

Keywords: chinkara, morphometry, radiography, tarsal bone

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11 Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Micro-Architecture of Respiratory Organs with and without Dietary Probiotics

Authors: Komal Khan, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood, Muhammad Younus, Sanan Raza

Abstract:

Cigarette smoke induces many physiological and pathological changes in respiratory tract like goblet cell hyperplasia and regional distention of airspaces. It is also associated with elevation of inflammatory profiles in different airway compartments. As probiotics are generally known to promote mucosal tolerance, it was postulated that prophylactic use of probiotics can be helpful in reduction of respiratory damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Twenty-four adult mice were randomly divided into three groups (cigarette-smoke (CS) group, cigarette-smoke+ Lactobacillus (CS+ P) group, control (Cn) group), each having 8 mice. They were exposed to cigarette smoke for 28 days (6 cigarettes/ day for 6 days/week). Wright-Giemsa staining of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed in three mice per group. Tissue samples of trachea and lungs of 7 mice from each group were processed by paraffin embedding technique for haematoxylin & eosin (H & E) and alcian blue- periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Then trachea (goblet cell number, ratio and loss of cilia) and lungs (airspace distention) were studied. The results showed that the number of goblet cells was increased in CS group as a result of defensive mechanism of the respiratory system against irritating substances. This study also revealed that the cells of CS group having acidic glycoprotein were found to be higher in quantity as compared to those containing neutral glycoprotein. However, CS + P group showed a decrease in goblet cell index due to enhanced immunity by prophylactically used probiotics. Moreover, H & E stained tracheas showed significant loss of cilia in CS group due to propelling of mucous but little loss in CS + P group because of having good protective tracheal epithelium. In lungs, protection of airspaces was also much more evident in CS+ P group as compared to CS group having distended airspaces, especially at 150um distance from terminal bronchiole. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of inflammatory cells population of BALF showed neutrophilia and eosinophilia was significantly reduced in CS+ P group. This study proved that probiotics are found to be useful for reduction of changes in micro-architecture of the respiratory system. Thus, dietary supplementation of probiotic as prophylactic measure can be useful in achieving immunomodulatory effects.

Keywords: cigarette smoke, probiotics, goblet cells, airspace enlargement, BALF

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10 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Chinkara, skull, morphology, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

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9 Malnutrition of the Cancer Patients under Chemotherapy and Influence of Learned Food Aversions

Authors: Hafsa Chergui

Abstract:

Malnutrition is a very common problem for hospitalized patients in general but it happens most to those who have a chronic disease such as cancer. Learned food aversions are defined as aversions which form toward foods after their ingestion has been temporally paired with illness (nausea or emesis). Learned food aversion may exert a negative impact on nutritional status and quality of life. The present review evaluates the literature derived both from laboratory animals and humans. Also, a questionnaire has been filled by patients under chemotherapy to assess the level of food aversions. This study evaluated the current research for avoiding the formation of aversions to dietary items in 200 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. A scapegoat food or beverage can be used just before treatment to reduce the incidence of treatment-related aversions to foods in the individual s usual diet. The goal of this work is to inform the nurses and dieticians because they play a vital role in the daily assessment of the patients' nutritional status. Being aware of all the causes of malnutrition may help to suggest solutions to improve the health condition of the patient and avoid severe malnutrition.

Keywords: chemotherapy, oncology, food aversion, taste aversion

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8 Coping Strategies for Stress Used by Adolescent Girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hafsa Raheel

Abstract:

Objectives: Secondary school girls, ages 15–19 years old were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives, especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. Methods: A cross-sectional school-based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Conclusion: The majority of the adolescent girls in our survey rely on emotion-related coping mechanisms rather than problem-solving mechanisms. This can cause long-term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.

Keywords: adolescents, stress, Saudi Arabia, mental health

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7 Production of Buttermilk as a Bio-Active Functional Food by Utilizing Dairy Waste

Authors: Hafsa Tahir, Sanaullah Iqbal

Abstract:

Glactooligosaccharide (GOS) is a type of prebiotic which is mainly found in human milk. GOS belongs to those bacteria which stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria in human intestines. The aim of the present study was to develop a value-added product by producing prebiotic (GOS) in buttermilk through trans galactosylation. Buttermilk is considered as an industrial waste which is discarded after the production of butter and cream. It contains protein, minerals, vitamins and a smaller amount of fat. Raw milk was pasteurized at 100º C for butter production and then trans galactosylation process was induced in the butter milk thus obtained to produce prebiotic GOS. Results showed that the enzyme (which was obtained from bacterial strain of Esecrshia coli and has a gene of Lactobacillus reuteri L103) concentration between 400-600µl/5ml can produce GOS in 30 minutes. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of plain and GOS containing buttermilk showed no remarkable difference in their composition. Furthermore, the shelf-life study showed that there was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in glass and pouch packaging of buttermilk. Buttermilk in pouch packaging maintained its stability for 6 days without the addition of preservatives. Therefore it is recommended that GOS enriched buttermilk which is generally considered as a processing waste in dairy manufacturing can be turned into a cost-effective nutritional functional food product. This will not only enhance the production efficiency of butter processing but also will create a new market opportunity for dairy manufacturers all over the world.

Keywords: buttermilk, galactooligosaccharide, shelf Life, transgalactosylation

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6 Assessment of Patient Cooperation and Compliance in Three Stages of Orthodontic Treatment in Adult Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Hafsa Qabool, Rashna Sukhia, Mubassar Fida

Abstract:

Introduction: Success of orthodontic mechanotherapy is highly dependent upon patient cooperation and compliance throughout the duration of treatment. This study was conducted to assess the cooperation and compliance of adult orthodontic patients during the leveling and alignment, space closure/molar correction, and finishing stages of tooth movement. Materials and Methods: Patient cooperation and compliance among three stages of orthodontic treatment were assessed using the Orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale (OPCS) and Clinical Compliance Evaluation (CCE) form. A sample size of 38 was calculated for each stage of treatment; therefore, 114 subjects were included in the study. Shapiro-Wilk test identified that the data were normally distributed. One way ANOVA was used to evaluate the percentage cooperation and compliance among the three stages. Pair-wise comparisons between the three stages were performed using Post-hoc Tukey. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen for scores of patient compliance using CCE (p = 0.01); however, the results of the OPCS showed a non-significant difference for patient cooperation (p = 0.16) among the three stages of treatment. Post-hoc analysis showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in patient cooperation and compliance between space closure and the finishing stage. Highly significant (p < 0.001) decline in oral hygiene was found with the progression of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: Improvement in the cooperation and compliance levels for adult orthodontic patients was observed during space closure & molar correction stage, which then showed a decline as treatment progressed. Oral hygiene was progressively compromised as orthodontic treatment progressed.

Keywords: patient compliance, adult orthodontics, orthodontic motivation, orthodontic patient adherence

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5 Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross‑Sectional Study

Authors: Hafsa Raheel

Abstract:

Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross‑sectional, school‑based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory‑II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was inferior to 12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), had been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better‑coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, depression, Saudi Arabia, mental health

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4 Probiotic Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Chicken Caecal and Fecal Samples

Authors: Salma H. Abu Hafsa, A. Mendonca, B. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate and characterize strains of Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from thirty one chicken cecal and fecal samples collected from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis), susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid), survival in acidic conditions, resistance to bile salts, and their survival during simulated gastric juice conditions at pH 2.5. Isolates were identified using biochemical and molecular assays (API 50 CHL, and API ZYM kits followed by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis). Two strains were identified, of which, Enteroccocus faecium was capable of inhibiting the growth of S. enteritidis and was susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition, the isolated strain exhibited significant resistance under highly acidic conditions (pH=2.5) for 8 hours and survived well in bile salt at 0.2% for 24 hours and showing ability to survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. Based on these results, the E. faecium isolate fulfills some of the criteria to be considered as a probiotic strain and therefore, could be used as a feed additive with good potential for controlling S. enteritidis in chickens. However, in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety of the strain.

Keywords: acid tolerance, antimicrobial activity, Enterococcus faecium, probiotic

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3 Safer Staff: A Survey of Staff Experiences of Violence and Aggression at Work in Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership National Health Service Trust

Authors: Rupinder Kaler, Faith Ndebele, Nadia Saleem, Hafsa Sheikh

Abstract:

Background: Workplace related violence and aggression seems to be considered an acceptable occupational hazard for staff in mental health services. There is literature evidence that healthcare workers in mental health settings are at higher risk from aggression from patients. Aggressive behaviours pose a physical and psychological threat to the psychiatric staff and can result in stress, burnout, sickness, and exhaustion. Further evidence informs that health professionals are the most exposed to psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Fear that results from working in a dangerous environment and exhaustion can have a damaging impact on patient care and healthcare relationship. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and impact of aggressive behaviour on staff working at Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership Trust. Methodology: The study methodology included carrying out a manual, anonymised, multi-disciplinary cross-sectional survey questionnaire across all clinical and non-clinical staff at CWPT from both inpatient and community settings. Findings: The unsurprising finding was that of higher prevalence of aggressive behaviours in in-patients in comparison to community staff. Conclusion: There is a high rate of verbal and physical aggression at work and this has a negative impact on the staff emotional and physical well- being. There is also a higher reliance on colleagues for support on an informal basis than formal organisational support systems. Recommendations: A workforce that is well and functioning is the biggest resource for an organisation. Staff safety during working hours is everyone's responsibility and sits with both individual staff members and the organisation. Post-incident organisational support needs to be consolidated, and hands-on, timely support offered to help maintain emotionally well staff on CWPT. The authors recommend development of preventative and practical protocols for aggression with patient and carer involvement. Post-incident organisational support needs to be consolidated, and hands-on, timely support offered to help maintain emotionally well staff on CWPT.

Keywords: safer staff, survey of staff experiences, violence and aggression, mental health

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2 Effect of Internet Addiction on Dietary Behavior and Lifestyle Characteristics among University Students

Authors: Hafsa Kamran, Asma Afreen, Zaheer Ahmed

Abstract:

Internet addiction, an emerging mental health disorder from last two decades, is manifested by the inability in the controlled use of internet leading to academics, social, physiological and/or psychological difficulties. The present study aimed to assess the levels of internet addiction among university students in Lahore and to explore the effects of internet addiction on their dietary behavior and lifestyle. It was an analytical cross-sectional study. Data was collected from October to December 2016 from students of four universities selected through two-stage sampling method. The numbers of participants were 500 and 13 questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete information. Levels of Internet Addiction (IA) were calculated using Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). Data was also collected on students’ demographics, lifestyle factors and dietary behavior using self-reported questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Chi-square test was applied to evaluate the relationship between variables. Results of the study revealed that 10% of the population had severe internet addiction while moderate Internet Addiction was present in 42%. High prevalence was found among males (11% vs. 8%), private sector university students (p = 0.008) and engineering students (p = 0.000). The lifestyle habits of internet addicts were significantly of poorer quality than normal users (p = 0.05). Internet addiction was found associated with lesser physically activity (p = 0.025), had shorter duration of physical activity (p = 0.016), had more disorganized sleep pattern (p = 0.023), had less duration of sleep (p = 0.019), reported being more tired and sleepy in class (p = 0.033) and spending more time on internet as compared to normal users. Severe and moderate internet addicts also found to be more overweight and obese than normal users (p = 0.000). The dietary behavior of internet addicts was significantly poorer than normal users. Internet addicts were found to skip breakfast more than a normal user (p = 0.039). Common reasons for meal skipping were lack of time and snacking between meals (p = 0.000). They also had increased meal size (p = 0.05) and habit of snacking while using the internet (p = 0.027). Fast food (p = 0.016) and fried items (p = 0.05) were most consumed snacks, while carbonated beverages (p = 0.019) were most consumed beverages among internet addicts. Internet Addicts were found to consume less than recommended daily servings of dairy (p = 0.008) and fruits (p = 0.000) and more servings of meat group (p = 0.025) than their no internet addict counterparts. In conclusion, in this study, it was demonstrated that internet addicts have unhealthy dietary behavior and inappropriate lifestyle habits. University students should be educated regarding the importance of balanced diet and healthy lifestyle, which are critical for effectual primary prevention of numerous chronic degenerative diseases. Furthermore, it is necessary to raise awareness concerning adverse effects of internet addiction among youth and their parents.

Keywords: dietary behavior, internet addiction, lifestyle, university students

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1 Mechanical Transmission of Parasites by Cockroaches’ Collected from Urban Environment of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Hafsa Memona, Farkhanda Manzoor

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Cockroaches are termed as medically important pests because of their wide distribution in human habitation including houses, hospitals, food industries and kitchens. They may harbor multiple drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and protozoan parasites on their external surfaces, disseminate on human food and cause serious diseases and allergies to human. Hence, they are regarded as mechanical vector in human habitation due to their nocturnal activity and nutritional behavior. Viable eggs and dormant cysts of parasites can hitch a ride on cockroaches. Ova and cysts of parasitic organism may settle into the crevices and cracks between thorax and head. There are so many fissures and clefts and crannies on a cockroach which provide site for these organisms. This study aimed with identifying role of cockroaches in mechanically transmitting and disseminating gastrointestinal parasites in two environmental settings; hospitals and houses in urban area of Lahore. Totally, 250 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by sticky traps and food baited traps and screened for parasitic load. All cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in natural habitat. Direct wet smear, 1% lugols iodine and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the body surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitation two common species of cockroaches were collected i.e. P. americana and B. germanica. The results showed that 112 (46.8%) cockroaches harbored at least one human intestinal parasite on their body surfaces. The cockroaches from hospital environment harboured more parasites than houses. 47 (33.57%) cockroaches from houses and 65 (59.09%) from hospitals were infected with parasitic organisms. Of these, 76 (67.85%) were parasitic protozoans and 36(32.15%) were pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasites. P. americana harboured more parasites as compared to B. germanica in both environment. Most common human intestinal parasites found on cockroaches include ova of Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm), Trichuris trichura (whipworm), Anchylostoma deodunalae (hookworm), Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm). The cysts of protozoans’ parasites including Balantidium coli, Entomoeba hystolitica, C. parvum, Isospora belli, Giardia duodenalis and C. cayetenensis were isolated and identified from cockroaches. Both experimental sites were significantly different in carriage of parasitic load on cockroaches. Difference in the hygienic condition of the environments, including human excrement disposal, variable habitat interacted, indoor and outdoor species, may account for the observed variation in the parasitic carriage rate of cockroaches among different experimental site. Thus a finding of this study is that Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in human habitation and act as a mechanical vector of pathogenic parasites that cause common illness such as diarrhea and bowel disorders. This fact contributes to epidemiological chain therefore control of cockroaches will significantly lessen the prevalence of illness in human. Effective control strategies will reduce the public health burden of the gastro-intestinal parasites in the developing countries.

Keywords: cockroaches, health risks, hospitals, houses, parasites, protozoans, transmission

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