Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Ramin E. Beygui

43 Sociology of Vis and Ramin

Authors: Farzane Yusef Ghanbari

Abstract:

A sociological analysis on the ancient poetry of Vis and Ramin reveals important points about the political, cultural, and social conditions of the Iranian ancient history. The reciprocal relationship between the effect and structure of society helps the understanding and interpretation of the work. Therefore, informed by the Goldman genetic structuralism and through a glance at social epistemology, this study attempts to explain the role of spell in shaping the social knowledge of ancient people. The results suggest that due to the lack of a central government, and secularism in politics and freedom of speech and opinion, such romantic stories as Vis and Ramin, with a focal female character, has emerged.

Keywords: persian literature, Vis and Ramin, sociology, developmental structuralism

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42 Data Analytics of Electronic Medical Records Shows an Age-Related Differences in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Maryam Panahiazar, Andrew M. Bishara, Yorick Chern, Roohallah Alizadehsani, Dexter Hadleye, Ramin E. Beygui

Abstract:

Early detection plays a crucial role in enhancing the outcome for a patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). We utilized a big data analytics platform on ~23,000 patients with CAD from a total of 960,129 UCSF patients in 8 years. We traced the patients from their first encounter with a physician to diagnose and treat CAD. Characteristics such as demographic information, comorbidities, vital, lab tests, medications, and procedures are included. There are statistically significant gender-based differences in patients younger than 60 years old from the time of the first physician encounter to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a p-value=0.03. There are no significant differences between the patients between 60 and 80 years old (p-value=0.8) and older than 80 (p-value=0.4) with a 95% confidence interval. This recognition would affect significant changes in the guideline for referral of the patients for diagnostic tests expeditiously to improve the outcome by avoiding the delay in treatment.

Keywords: electronic medical records, coronary artery disease, data analytics, young women

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
41 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

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40 Subtidal Crabs of Oman Sea: New Collections and Biogeographic Considerations

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Seied Mohammad Reza Fatemi, Tooraj Valinassab

Abstract:

The samplings were carried out at 8 stations (Govatr, Pasabandar, Beriss, Ramin, Chabahar, Pozm, Gordim, and Meidani) in subtidal zones of Oman Sea during the year 2009-2010. The specimens were collected by trawl net and preserved in 70% alcohol. A total of 23 species belonged to 9 families and 15 genera were caught. The results of the present study revealed that families Portunidae had the highest species enriched with 9 species. Most of the species had high distribution in the west Indian Ocean (69.56%) and 8.69% of species were endemic. Almost species were similar to those found in the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Brachyura, biogeography, subtidal, Oman Sea

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39 The Realization of a System’s State Space Based on Markov Parameters by Using Flexible Neural Networks

Authors: Ali Isapour, Ramin Nateghi

Abstract:

— Markov parameters are unique parameters of the system and remain unchanged under similarity transformations. Markov parameters from a power series that is convergent only if the system matrix’s eigenvalues are inside the unity circle. Therefore, Markov parameters of a stable discrete-time system are convergent. In this study, we aim to realize the system based on Markov parameters by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and this end, we use Flexible Neural Networks. Realization means determining the elements of matrices A, B, C, and D.

Keywords: Markov parameters, realization, activation function, flexible neural network

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38 Assessment the Quality of Telecommunication Services by Fuzzy Inferences System

Authors: Oktay Nusratov, Ramin Rzaev, Aydin Goyushov

Abstract:

Fuzzy inference method based approach to the forming of modular intellectual system of assessment the quality of communication services is proposed. Developed under this approach the basic fuzzy estimation model takes into account the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union in respect of the operation of packet switching networks based on IP-protocol. To implement the main features and functions of the fuzzy control system of quality telecommunication services it is used multilayer feedforward neural network.

Keywords: quality of communication, IP-telephony, fuzzy set, fuzzy implication, neural network

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37 Using Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs from Magnetic Resonance Images to Localize Pelvic Lymph Nodes on 2D X-Ray Simulator-Based Brachytherapy Treatment Planning

Authors: Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Reza Reiazi, Esmaeel Parsai, Mehdi Aghili, Ramin Jaberi

Abstract:

In this project a new procedure has been introduced for utilizing digitally reconstructed radiograph from MRI images in Brachytherapy treatment planning. This procedure enables us to localize the tumor volume and delineate the extent of critical structures in vicinity of tumor volume. The aim of this project was to improve the accuracy of dose delivered to targets of interest in 2D treatment planning system.

Keywords: brachytherapy, cervix, digitally reconstructed radiographs, lymph node

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36 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh

Abstract:

The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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35 Governing External Innovation: Lessons from Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android

Authors: Amir Mohagheghzadeh, Solaleh Salimi, Ramin Tafazzoli

Abstract:

Ecosystem and networks plays significant roles in product innovation. External innovation within developing firms can bring a wide range of advantages for a firm in a competitive market. Using external innovation can be mentioned as one of the most significant concepts regarding the firm’s transition phase into openness. Derivative concepts such as open or shared platform and app stores are the main result of this thinking within the firms. However, adopting this concept and leverage the defined advantages of external innovation should be aligned with other strategies and policies of a firm. Consequently, one of the key aspects that have been raised while using external innovation is how to govern external innovation within a developing firm. This paper describes the frameworks that two pioneer companies in mobile operating system development have used in order to control and govern external innovation through platform.

Keywords: external innovation, open innovation, governance, governance mechanisms, innovation, Apple, iOS, Google, Android

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34 Effect of Carbon Amount of Dual-Phase Steels on Deformation Behavior Using Acoustic Emission

Authors: Ramin Khamedi, Isa Ahmadi

Abstract:

In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).

Keywords: acoustic emission, dual phase steels, deformation, failure, fracture

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33 VANETs Geographic Routing Protocols: A survey

Authors: Ramin Karimi

Abstract:

One of common highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks is Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hence routing in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has attracted much attention during the last few years. VANET is characterized by its high mobility of nodes and specific topology patterns. Moreover these networks encounter a significant loss rate and a very short duration of communication. In vehicular ad hoc networks, one of challenging is routing of data due to high speed mobility and changing topology of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are a class of networks that enable communication where connectivity issues like sparse connectivity, intermittent connectivity; high latency, long delay, high error rates, asymmetric data rate, and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. In this paper, we review the existing Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks, mobility, geographic routing, delay tolerant networks

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32 Strategy and Coarctation of the Aorta Repair

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) may be a common (CHD), which is the seventh most common sort of CHD. Still, this is often likely a think little off since the determination may be deferred, indeed within the pediatric populace. The choice for surgical repair incorporates resection of the contracted section with end-to-end or end-to-side anastomosis, subclavian fold aortoplasty, resection, and join the intervention, or prosthetic fix aortoplasty. Drastically expanded end-to-end repair or switched subclavian fold aortoplasty can be utilized when the coarctation expands to the distal arch. Swell angioplasty can be a palliative choice sometime recently the conclusive redress. Its objective is to stabilize high-risk patients that cannot be submitted to quick surgical intercession, such as untimely newborns. For disconnected and discrete coarctations, it can, as a rule, be drawn nearer and repaired by means of cleared out thoracotomy, extraction of the infected aorta (coarctectomy), and remaking, ordinarily by amplified end-to-end anastomosis. In this article, we need to supply a diagram of current proposals and strategies utilized to picture coarctations of the aorta.

Keywords: coarctation of the aorta, congenital heart disease, strategies, surgical repair

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31 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin

Abstract:

One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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30 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based on Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi

Abstract:

In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, finite element analysis, Prager kinematic hardening model, torsion of shaft

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29 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar

Abstract:

Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

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28 High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging Features during Pandemic 'COVID-19'

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

By the development of new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been one of the main investigative implements. To realize timely and truthful diagnostics, defining the radiological features of the infection is of excessive value. The purpose of this impression was to consider the imaging demonstrations of early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to run an imaging base for a primary finding of supposed cases and stratified interference. The right prophetic rate of HRCT was 85%, sensitivity was 73% for all patients. Total accuracy was 68%. There was no important change in these values for symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. These consequences were besides free of the period of X-ray from the beginning of signs or interaction. Therefore, we suggest that HRCT is a brilliant attachment for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in adding to the role of predictive gauge for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients experienced non-contrast HRCT chest checkups and images were restored in a thin 1.25 mm lung window. Images were estimated for the existence of lung scratches & a CT severity notch was allocated separately for each patient based on the number of lung lobes convoluted.

Keywords: COVID-19, radiology, respiratory diseases, HRCT

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27 High-Throughput Mechanized Microfluidic Test Groundwork for Precise Microbial Genomics

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Gasemi Shayan, Parsa Sheykhzade

Abstract:

Ease shotgun DNA sequencing is changing the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are compelling to the point that example planning is currently the key constraining element. Here, we present a microfluidic test readiness stage that incorporates the key strides in cells to grouping library test groundwork for up to 96 examples and decreases DNA input prerequisites 100-overlay while keeping up or improving information quality. The universally useful microarchitecture we show bolsters work processes with subjective quantities of response and tidy up or catch steps. By decreasing the example amount necessities, we empowered low-input (∼10,000 cells) entire genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil miniaturized scale settlements with prevalent outcomes. We additionally utilized the upgraded throughput to succession ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and exhibit magnificent single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery execution that clarified phenotypically watched anti-toxin opposition. Completely coordinated lab-on-chip test arrangement beats specialized boundaries to empower more extensive organization of genomics across numerous fundamental research and translational applications.

Keywords: clinical microbiology, DNA, microbiology, microbial genomics

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26 Public Transport Analysis and Introducing of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System in Kabul City

Authors: Ramin Mirzada

Abstract:

This research investigates the valuation of public transport importance in decreasing congestion and in introduction of bus rapid transit in Kabul city. The main concern and main problem of the Kabul city public transport is traffic congestion. When buses and trams are stuck in traffic jams, it is clear that they fall behind from the schedule and this cause lots of problem for Kabul residence. In this research, the main attention has been given to improve current public transport in Kabul city which Public transport has large share almost 50% share among all mode. The main purpose of this research is to improve public transport system, to examine the demand and the supply of public transport in Kabul city, and to improve public transport system by introducing Bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Kabul city. The data which is used in this research is gathered by Transport Ministry, Kabul Municipality and Japan Cooperation Agency in Afghanistan (JICA). Urban transportation modeling system (UTMS) which is also known as traditional four-step modeling is used as the methodology of this research. The outcome of this research shows that by improving public transport which is local bus system mostly congestion problem of Kabul city become solve, and for those lanes which has the high demand and has more congestion, it is needed to introduce bus rapid transit system.

Keywords: transportation, planning, public transport, bus rapid transit, Kabul, Afghanistan

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25 Forecasting 24-Hour Ahead Electricity Load Using Time Series Models

Authors: Ramin Vafadary, Maryam Khanbaghi

Abstract:

Forecasting electricity load is important for various purposes like planning, operation, and control. Forecasts can save operating and maintenance costs, increase the reliability of power supply and delivery systems, and correct decisions for future development. This paper compares various time series methods to forecast 24 hours ahead of electricity load. The methods considered are the Holt-Winters smoothing, SARIMA Modeling, LSTM Network, Fbprophet, and Tensorflow probability. The performance of each method is evaluated by using the forecasting accuracy criteria, namely, the mean absolute error and root mean square error. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) residential energy consumption data is used to train the models. The results of this study show that the SARIMA model is superior to the others for 24 hours ahead forecasts. Furthermore, a Bagging technique is used to make the predictions more robust. The obtained results show that by Bagging multiple time-series forecasts, we can improve the robustness of the models for 24 hours ahead of electricity load forecasting.

Keywords: bagging, Fbprophet, Holt-Winters, LSTM, load forecast, SARIMA, TensorFlow probability, time series

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24 Strategy and Maze Surgery (Atrial fibrillation Surgery)

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Atrial fibrillation is the foremost common arrhythmia around the world, with expanding recurrence famous with age. Thromboembolic occasions and strokes are the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. For patients who don't react to restorative treatment for rate and beat control, the maze method offers an elective treatment mediation. pharmaco-medical treatment for atrial fibrillation is pointed at the control of rate or cadence, intrusive treatment for atrial fibrillation is pointed at cadence control. An obtrusive approach may comprise of percutaneous catheter treatment, surgery, or a crossover approach. Since the maze method is recognized as the foremost successful way to dispense with AF, combining the maze strategy amid major cardiac surgeries has been received in clinical hone. the maze strategy, moreover known as Cox¬maze iii or the ‘cut¬and¬sew’ method, involves making different incisions within the atria to make an arrangement of scars that dispose of each potential zone of re¬entry. The electrical drive is constrained through a maze of scars that coordinates the electrical drive from the sinus node to the av node. By settling the headstrong period between ranges of scar, re¬entry is disposed of. in this article, we evaluate the Maze surgery method that's the surgical method of choice for the treatment of restorative atrial fibrillation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, congenital heart disease, procedure, maze surgery, treatment

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23 Epigenetics Regulation Play Role in the Pathogenesis of Adipose Tissue Disorder, Lipedema

Authors: Musarat Ishaq, Tara Karnezis, Ramin Shayan

Abstract:

Lipedema, a poorly understood chronic disease of adipose hyper-deposition, is often mistaken for obesity and causes significant impairment to mobility and quality-of-life. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning lipedema, we employed comprehensive omics-based comparative analyses of whole tissue, adipocyte precursors (adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)), and adipocytes from patients with or without lipedema. Transcriptional profiling revealed significant differences in lipedema tissue, adipocytes, and ADSCs, with altered levels of mRNAs involved inproliferation and cell adhesion. One highly up-regulated gene in lipedema adipose tissue, adipocytes and ADSCs, ZIC4, encodes Zinc Finger Protein ZIC 4, a class of transcription factor which may be involved in regulating metabolism and adipogenesis. ZIC4 inhibition impaired the adipogenesis of ADSCs into mature adipocytes. Epigenetic regulation study revealed overexpression of ZIC4 is involved in decreased promoter DNA methylation and subsequent decrease in adipogenesis. These epigenetic modifications can alter adipocytes microenvironment and adipocytes differentiation. Our study show that epigenetic events regulate the ability of ADSCs to commit and differentiate into mature adipocytes by modulating ZIC4.

Keywords: lipedema, adipose-derived stem cells, adipose tisue, adipocytes, zinc finger protein, epigenetic

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22 1-g Shake Table Tests to Study the Impact of PGA on Foundation Settlement in Liquefiable Soil

Authors: Md. Kausar Alam, Mohammad Yazdi, Peiman Zogh, Ramin Motamed

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The liquefaction-induced ground settlement has caused severe damage to structures in the past decades. However, the amount of building settlement caused by liquefaction is directly proportional to the intensity of the ground shaking. To reduce this soil liquefaction effect, it is essential to examine the influence of peak ground acceleration (PGA). Unfortunately, limited studies have been carried out on this issue. In this study, a series of moderate scale 1g shake table experiments were conducted at the University of Nevada Reno to evaluate the influence of PGA with the same duration in liquefiable soil layers. The model is prepared based on a large-scale shake table with a scaling factor of N = 5, which has been conducted at the University of California, San Diego. The model ground has three soil layers with relative densities of 50% for crust, 30% for liquefiable, and 90% for dense layer, respectively. In addition, a shallow foundation is seated over an unsaturated crust layer. After preparing the model, the input motions having various peak ground accelerations (i.e., 0.16g, 0.25g, and 0.37g) for the same duration (10 sec) were applied. Based on the experimental results, when the PGA increased from 0.16g to 0.37g, the foundation increased from 20 mm to 100 mm. In addition, the expected foundation settlement based on the scaling factor was 25 mm, while the actual settlement for PGA 0.25g for 10 seconds was 50 mm.

Keywords: foundation settlement, liquefaction, peak ground acceleration, shake table test

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21 Identity Crisis and Class Difference in Charles Dickens' 'Great Expectations'

Authors: Ramin Barati, Atefeh Salemi

Abstract:

In Victorian era, the society had been surrounded by extreme class ranking in order to identify the people of the classes and to intensify power relationships due to the growth of industry in Charles Dickens's (1812-1870) Great Expectations (2003) in which he illustrates the clash and dichotomy in the 19th century London. The classes in Victorian period have socially divided the population into two parts, the lower and the upper class of the community. In such a panopticon society, the major character Pip was the best example of the working class who was under the domination of violence, malice, and abuse of Miss Havisham as a member of the ruling class in order to take revenge on her failures. The conflict and disunity represented in vindictiveness and the sense of revenge applied by Miss Havisham against his victim Pip, made him experience alienation and eventually suffer from identity crisis. This paper considers New Historicism based on the theories of the French critic Michel Foucault (1926-1984). The social concept, panopticism, was called after the panopticon society, basically elaborated by Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish (1975) and he considers the panopticon as a sign of punitive community of surveillance. This paper evaluates the problems of a dual society to show that the people of the lower class are under the domination of capitalist society.

Keywords: class, identity crisis, violence, panoptic society, domination

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20 Monte Carlo Simulation of X-Ray Spectra in Diagnostic Radiology and Mammography Using MCNP4C

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

The overall goal Monte Carlo N-atom radioactivity transference PC program (MCNP4C) was done for the regeneration of x-ray groups in diagnostic radiology and mammography. The electrons were transported till they slow down and stopover in the target. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray creation were measured in this study. In this issue, the x-ray spectra forecast by several computational models recycled in the diagnostic radiology and mammography energy kind have been calculated by appraisal with dignified spectra and their outcome on the scheming of absorbed dose and effective dose (ED) told to the adult ORNL hermaphroditic phantom quantified. This comprises practical models (TASMIP and MASMIP), semi-practical models (X-rayb&m, X-raytbc, XCOMP, IPEM, Tucker et al., and Blough et al.), and Monte Carlo modeling (EGS4, ITS3.0, and MCNP4C). Images got consuming synchrotron radiation (SR) and both screen-film and the CR system were related with images of the similar trials attained with digital mammography equipment. In sight of the worthy feature of the effects gained, the CR system was used in two mammographic inspections with SR. For separately mammography unit, the capability acquiesced bilateral mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal(CC) mammograms attained in a woman with fatty breasts and a woman with dense breasts. Referees planned the common groups and definite absences that managed to a choice to miscarry the part that formed the scientific imaginings.

Keywords: mammography, monte carlo, effective dose, radiology

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19 A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing

Authors: Mazyar Ahrari, Ramin Khajavi, Mehdi Kamali Dolatabadi, Tayebeh Toliyat, Abosaeed Rashidi

Abstract:

Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.

Keywords: thermoregulation, microencapsulation, phase change materials, thermal energy storage, nanoencapsulation

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18 Evaluation of Patients’ Quality of Life After Lumbar Disc Surgery and Movement Limitations

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi

Abstract:

Lumbar microdiscectomy is the most commonly performed spinal surgery strategy; it is regularly performed to lighten the indications and signs of sciatica within the lower back and leg caused by a lumbar disc herniation. This surgery aims to progress leg pain, reestablish function, and enable a return to ordinary day-by-day exercises. Rates of lumbar disc surgery show critical geographic varieties recommending changing treatment criteria among working specialists. Few population-based considers have investigated the hazard of reoperation after disc surgery, and regional or inter specialty varieties within the reoperations are obscure. The conventional approach to recouping from lumbar microdiscectomy has been to restrain bending, lifting, or turning for a least 6 weeks in arrange to anticipate the disc from herniating once more. Traditionally, patients were exhorted to limit post-operative action, which was accepted to decrease the hazard of disc herniation and progressive insecurity. In modern hone, numerous specialists don't limit understanding of postoperative action due to the discernment this practice is pointless. There's a need of thinks about highlighting the result by distinctive scores or parameters after surgery for repetitive circle herniations of the lumbar spine at the starting herniation location. This study will evaluate the quality of life after surgical treatment of recurrent herniations with distinctive standardized approved result instruments.

Keywords: post-operative activity, disc, quality of life, treatment, movements

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17 Birth Path and the Vitality of Caring Models in the Continuity of Midwifery

Authors: Elnaz Lalezari, Ramin Ghasemi Shaya

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The birth way is influenced by a fracture within the quiet care handle, making a brokenness of this final one. The pregnant lady has got to interface with numerous experts, both amid the pregnancy, the childbirth, and the puerperium. Be that as it may, amid the final ten a long time, there has been an expanding of the pregnancy care worked by the midwife, who is considered to be the administrator with the correct competences, who can beware of each pregnancy and may profit herself of other professionals' commitments in arrange to make strides the results of maternal and neonatal health. To confirm whether there are proofs of viability that bolster the caseload birthing assistance care show, and in case it is conceivable to apply this show within the birth way in Italy. A amendment of writing has been done utilizing a few look motor (Google, Bing) and particular databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Domestic - ClinicalTrials.gov). There has, too, been a discussion of the Italian directions, the national rules, and the proposals of WHO. Results: The look string, legitimately adjusted to the three databases, has given the taking after comes about: MEDLINE 64 articles, CINAHL 94 articles, Embase 88 articles. From this choice, 14 articles have been extricated: 1 orderly survey, 3 controlled arbitrary trial, 7 observational ponders, 3 subjective studies. The caseload maternity care appears to be an successful and dependable organisational/caring strategy. It reacts to the criterions of quality and security, to the requirements of ladies not as it were amid the pregnancy but moreover amid the post-partum stage. For these reasons, it appears exceptionally valuable also for the birth way within the Italian reality.

Keywords: midwifery, care, caseload, maternity

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16 Conflicts and Similarities among Energy Law, Environmental Law and Economic Aspects

Authors: Bahareh Arghand, Seyed Abbas Poorhashemi, Ramin Roshandel

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Nowadays, Economic growth and the increasing use of fossil fuel have caused major damages to environment. Therefore, international law has tried to codify the rules and regulations and identify legal principles to decrease conflict of interests between energy law and environmental law. The open relationship between energy consumption and the law of nature has been ignored for years, because the focus of energy law has been on an affordable price of a reliable supply of energy; while the focus of environmental law was on protection of the nature. In fact, the legal and overall policies of energy are based on Sic Omnes and inter part for governments whereas environmental law is based on common interests and Erga Omnes. The relationship between energy law, environmental law and economic aspects is multilateral, complex and important. Moreover, they influence each other. There are similarities in the triangle of energy, environment and economic aspects and in some cases there are conflict of interest but their conflicts are in goals not in practice and their legal jurisdiction is in international law. The development of national and international rules and regulations relevant to energy-environment has been done by separate sectors, whereas sustainable development principle, especially in the economic sector, requires environmental considerations. It is an important turning point to integrate and decrease conflict of interest among energy law, environmental law and economic aspects. The present study examines existing legal principles on energy and the environment and identifies the similarities and conflicts based on the descriptive-analytic study. The purpose of investigating these legal principles is to integrate and decrease conflict of interest between energy law and environmental law.

Keywords: energy law, environmental law, erga omnes, sustainable development

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15 Effectiveness of Lowering the Water Table as a Mitigation Measure for Foundation Settlement in Liquefiable Soils Using 1-g Scale Shake Table Test

Authors: Kausar Alam, Mohammad Yazdi, Peiman Zogh, Ramin Motamed

Abstract:

An earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster. It induces liquefaction, which causes considerable damage to the structure, life support, and piping systems because of ground settlement. As a result, people are incredibly concerned about how to resolve the situation. Previous researchers adopted different ground improvement techniques to reduce the settlement of the structure during earthquakes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of lowering the water table as a technique to mitigate foundation settlement in liquefiable soil. The performance will be evaluated based on foundation settlement and the reduction of excessive pore water pressure. In this study, a scaled model was prepared based on a full-scale shale table experiment conducted at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The model ground consists of three soil layers having a relative density of 55%, 45%, and 90%, respectively. A shallow foundation is seated over an unsaturated crust layer. After preparation of the model ground, the water table was measured to be at 45, 40, and 35 cm (from the bottom). Then, the input motions were applied for 10 seconds, with a peak acceleration of 0.25g and a constant frequency of 2.73 Hz. Based on the experimental results, the effectiveness of the lowering water table in reducing the foundation settlement and excess pore water pressure was evident. The foundation settlement was reduced from 50 mm to 5 mm. In addition, lowering the water table as a mitigation measure is a cost-effective way to decrease liquefaction-induced building settlement.

Keywords: foundation settlement, ground water table, liquefaction, hake table test

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14 An Overview of Paclitaxel as an Anti-Cancer Agent in Avoiding Malignant Metastatic Cancer Therapy

Authors: Nasrin Hosseinzad, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Chemotherapy is the most common procedure in the treatment of advanced cancers but is justsoberlyoperativeand toxic. Nevertheless, the efficiency of chemotherapy is restrictedowing to multiple drug resistance(MDR). Lately, plentiful preclinical experiments have revealedthatPaclitaxel-Curcumin could be an ultimateapproach to converse MDR and synergistically increase their efficiency. The connotationsamongst B-cell-lymphoma2(BCL-2) and multi-drug-resistance-associated-P-glycoprotein(MDR1) consequence of patients forecast the efficiency of paclitaxel-built chemoradiotherapy. There are evidences of the efficacy of paclitaxel in the treatment of surface-transmission of bladder-cell-carcinoma by manipulating bio-adhesive microspheres accomplishedthroughout measured release of drug at urine epithelium. In Genetically-Modified method, muco-adhesive oily constructionoftricaprylin, Tween 80, and paclitaxel group showed slighter toxicity than control in therapeutic dose. Postoperative chemotherapy-Paclitaxel might be more advantageous for survival than adjuvant chemo-radio-therapy, and coulddiminish postoperative complications in cervical cancer patients underwent a radical hysterectomy.HA-Se-PTX(Hyaluronic acid, Selenium, Paclitaxel) nanoparticles could observablyconstrain the proliferation, transmission, and invasion of metastatic cells and apoptosis. Furthermore, they exhibitedvast in vivo anti-tumor effect. Additionally, HA-Se-PTX displayedminor toxicity on mice-chef-organs. Briefly, HA-Se-PTX mightprogress into a respectednano-scale agentinrespiratory cancers. To sum up, Paclitaxel is considered a profitable anti-cancer drug in the treatment and anti-progress symptoms in malignant cancers.

Keywords: cancer, paclitaxel, chemotherapy, tumor

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