Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: subtidal

7 Subtidal Crabs of Oman Sea: New Collections and Biogeographic Considerations

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Seied Mohammad Reza Fatemi, Tooraj Valinassab


The samplings were carried out at 8 stations (Govatr, Pasabandar, Beriss, Ramin, Chabahar, Pozm, Gordim, and Meidani) in subtidal zones of Oman Sea during the year 2009-2010. The specimens were collected by trawl net and preserved in 70% alcohol. A total of 23 species belonged to 9 families and 15 genera were caught. The results of the present study revealed that families Portunidae had the highest species enriched with 9 species. Most of the species had high distribution in the west Indian Ocean (69.56%) and 8.69% of species were endemic. Almost species were similar to those found in the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Brachyura, biogeography, subtidal, Oman Sea

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6 Diversification of Productivity of the Oxfordian Subtidal Carbonate Factory in the Holy Cross Mountains

Authors: Radoslaw Lukasz Staniszewski


The aim of the research was to verify lateral extent and thickness variability of individual limestone layers within early-Jurassic medium- and thick-bedded limestone interbedded with marlstones. Location: The main research area is located in the south-central part of Poland in the south-western part of Permo-Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains. It includes outcroppings located on the line between Mieczyn and Wola Morawicka. The analyses were carried out on six profiles (Mieczyn, Gniezdziska, Tokarnia, Wola Morawicka, Morawica and Wolica) representing three early-Jurassic links: Jasna Gora layers, grey limestone, Morawica limestone. Additionally, an attempt was made to correlate the thickness sequence from the Holy Cross Mountains to the profile from the quarry in Zawodzie located 3 km east of Czestochowa. The distance between the outermost profiles is 122 km in a straight line. Methodology of research: The Callovian-Oxfordian border was taken as the reference point during the correlation. At the same time, ammonite-based stratigraphic studies were carried out, which allowed to identify individual packages in the remote outcroppings. The analysis of data collected during fieldwork was mainly devoted to the correlation of thickness sequences of limestone layers in subsequent profiles. In order to check the objectivity of the subsequent outcroppings, the profiles have been presented in the form of the thickness functions of the subsequent layers. The generated functions were auto-correlated, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The next step in the research was to statistically determine the percentage increment of the individual layers thickness in the subsequent profiles, and on this basis to plot the function of relative carbonate productivity. Results: The result of the above-mentioned procedures consists in illustrating the extent of 34 rock layers across the examined area in demonstrating the repeatability of their success in subsequent outcroppings. It can also be observed that the thickness of individual layers in the Holy Cross Mountains is increasing from north-west towards south-east. Despite changes in the thickness of the layers in the profiles, their relations within the sequence remain constant. The lowest matching ratio of thickness sequence calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient formula is 0.67, while the highest is 0.84. The thickness of individual layers changes between 4% and 230% over the examined area. Interpretation: Layers in the outcroppings covered by the research show continuity throughout the examined area and it is possible to precisely correlate them, which means that the process determining the formation of the layers was regional and probably included both the fringe of the Holy Cross Mountains and the north-eastern part of the Krakow-Czestochowa Jura Upland. Local changes in the sedimentation environment affecting the productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory only cause the thickness of the layers to change without altering the thickness proportions of the profiles. Based on the percentage of changes in the thickness of individual layers in the subsequent profiles, it can be concluded that the local productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory is increasing logarithmically.

Keywords: Oxfordian, Holy Cross Mountains, carbonate factory, Limestone

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5 Middle Ordovician (Llanvirnian) Relative Sea-Level Fluctuations

Authors: Ying Jia Teoh


The Canning Basin is located between the Kimberley and Pilbara Precambrian cratonic blocks. It is a large but relatively poorly explored Paleozoic basin in remote Western Australia. During the early Ordovician period, the Australian continent was located near the equator. Middle Ordovician age Nita and Goldwyer Formations in Canning Basin are therefore warm water carbonates. The Nita Formation carbonates are a regressive sequence which conformably overlies the Goldwyer Formation. It contains numerous progradational cycles of limestone, vuggy dolomitized carbonate beds and shale deposited in subtidal to supratidal environments. The Goldwyer Formation contains transgressive shale sequences and regressive carbonates deposited in shallow subtidal conditions. The shales contain oil-prone Gloeocapsormorpha prisca-bearing source rocks. Llanvirnian relative sea-level fluctuations were reconstructed by using Fischer plots methodology for three key wells (wells McLarty 1, Looma 1 and Robert 1) in Broome Platform and compared with INPEFA data. The Goldwyer lower shale (interval Or1000P) shows increasing relative sea-level and this matches with a transgressive systems tract. Goldwyer middle carbonate (interval Or2000) shows relative sea-level drop and this matches with a regressive systems tract. Goldwyer upper shale (interval Or2000P) shows relative sea-level drop and this matches with a transgressive systems tract. Nita Formation Leo Member (interval Or3000) shows a relative sea level drop and this matches with a regressive systems tract. The Nita Formation Cudalgarra Member (intervals Or3000P and Or4000) with transgressive systems tract then this is followed by a regressive systems tract. This pattern matches with the relative sea-level curves in wells McLarty 1 and Robert 1. The correlation is weak for parts of well Looma 1. This is probably influenced by the fact that the thickness of this section is quite small. As a conclusion, Fischer plots for the Llanvirnian Goldwyer and Nita Formations show good agreement with the third order global sea level cycles of Haq and others. Fischer plots are generally correlated well with trend and cyclicity determined by INPEFA curves and as a method of cross-checking INPEFA data and sea-level change.

Keywords: canning basin, Fischer plots, Llanvirnian, middle Ordovician, sea-level fluctuations, stratigraphy

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4 Comparison of Tidalites in Siliciclastics and Mixed Siliciclastic Carbonate Systems: An Outstanding Example from Proterozoic Simla Basin, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Tithi Banerjee, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


The comparison of ancient tidalites recorded in both siliciclastics and carbonates has not been well documented due to a lack of suitable outcropping examples. The Proterozoic Simla Basin, Lesser Himalaya serves a unique example in this regard. An attempt has been made in the present work to differentiate sedimentary facies and architectural elements of tidalites in both siliciclastics and carbonates recorded in the Simla Basin. Lithofacies and microfacies analysis led to identification of 11 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements from the siliciclastics, 6 lithofacies and 3 architectural elements from the carbonates. The most diagnostic features for comparison of the two tidalite systems are sedimentary structures, textures, and architectural elements. The physical features such as flaser-lnticular bedding, mud/silt couplets, tidal rhythmites, tidal bundles, cross stratified successions, tidal bars, tidal channels, microbial structures are common to both the environments. The architecture of these tidalites attests to sedimentation in shallow subtidal to intertidal flat facies, affected by intermittent reworking by open marine waves/storms. The seventeen facies attributes were categorized into two major facies belts (FA1 and FA2). FA1 delineated from the lower part of the Chhaosa Formation (middle part of the Simla Basin) represents a prograding muddy pro-delta deposit whereas FA2 delineated from the upper part of the Basantpur Formation (lower part of the Simla Basin) bears the signature of an inner-mid carbonate ramp deposit. Facies distribution indicates development of highstand systems tract (HST) during sea level still stand related to normal regression. The aggradational to progradational bedsets record the history of slow rise in sea level.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Basin, tidalites, inner-mid carbonate ramp, prodelta, TST, HST

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3 Marine Ecosystem Mapping of Taman Laut Labuan: The First Habitat Mapping Effort to Support Marine Parks Management in Malaysia

Authors: K. Ismail, A. Ali, R. C. Hasan, I. Khalil, Z. Bachok, N. M. Said, A. M. Muslim, M. S. Che Din, W. S. Chong


The marine ecosystem in Malaysia holds invaluable potential in terms of economics, food security, pharmaceuticals components and protection from natural hazards. Although exploration of oil and gas industry and fisheries are active within Malaysian waters, knowledge of the seascape and ecological functioning of benthic habitats is still extremely poor in the marine parks around Malaysia due to the lack of detailed seafloor information. Consequently, it is difficult to manage marine resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas and set legislation to safeguard the marine parks. The limited baseline data hinders scientific linkage to support effective marine spatial management in Malaysia. This became the main driver behind the first seabed mapping effort at the national level. Taman Laut Labuan (TLL) is located to the west coast of Sabah and to the east of South China Sea. The total area of TLL is approximately 158.15 km2, comprises of three islands namely Pulau Kuraman, Rusukan Besar and Rusukan Kecil and is characterised by shallow fringing reef with few submerged shallow reef. The unfamiliar rocky shorelines limit the survey of multibeam echosounder to area with depth more than 10 m. Whereas, singlebeam and side scan sonar systems were used to acquire the data for area with depth less than 10 m. By integrating data from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter with singlebeam bathymetry and side sonar images, we produce a substrate map and coral coverage map for the TLL using i) marine landscape mapping technique and ii) RSOBIA ArcGIS toolbar (developed by T. Le Bas). We take the initiative to explore the ability of aerial drone and satellite image (WorldView-3) to derive the depths and substrate type within the intertidal and subtidal zone where it is not accessible via acoustic mapping. Although the coverage was limited, the outcome showed a promising technique to be incorporated towards establishing a guideline to facilitate a standard practice for efficient marine spatial management in Malaysia.

Keywords: habitat mapping, marine spatial management, South China Sea, National seabed mapping

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2 Detailed Ichnofacies and Sedimentological Analysis of the Cambrian Succession (Tal Group) of the Nigalidhar Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India and the Interpretation of Its Palaeoenvironment

Authors: C. A. Sharma, Birendra P. Singh


Ichnofacies analysis is considered the best paleontological tool for interpreting ancient depositional environments. Nineteen (19) ichnogenera (namely: Bergaueria, Catenichnus, Cochlichnus, Cruziana, Diplichnites, Dimorphichnus, Diplocraterion, Gordia, Guanshanichnus, Lockeia, Merostomichnites, Monomorphichnus, Palaeophycus, Phycodes, Planolites, Psammichnites, Rusophycus, Skolithos and Treptichnus) are recocered from the Tal Group (Cambrian) of the Nigalidhar Syncline. The stratigraphic occurrences of these ichnogenera represent alternating proximal Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies along the contact of Sankholi and Koti-Dhaman formations of the Tal Group. Five ichnogenera namely Catenichnus, Guanshanichnus, Lockeia, Merostomichnites and Psammichnites are recorded for the first time from the Nigalidhar Syncline. Cruziana ichnofacies is found in the upper part of the Sankholi Formation to the lower part of the Koti Dhaman Formation in the NigaliDhar Syncline. The preservational characters here indicate a subtidal environmental condition with poorly sorted, unconsolidated substrate. Depositional condition ranging from moderate to high energy levels below the fair weather base but above the storm wave base under nearshore to foreshore setting in a wave dominated shallow water environment is also indicated. The proximal Cruziana-ichnofacies is interrupted by the Skolithos ichnofacies in the Tal Group of the Nigalidhar Syncline which indicate fluctuating high energy condition which was unfavorable for the opportunistic organism which were dominant during the proximal Cruziana ichnofacies. The excursion of Skolithos ichnofacies (as a pipe rock in the upper part of Sankholi Formation) into the proximal Cruziana ichnofacies in the Tal Group indicate that increased energy and allied parameters attributed to the high rate of sedimentation near the proximal part of the basin. The level bearing the Skolithos ichnofacies in the Nigalidhar Syncline at the juncture of Sankholi and Koti-Dhaman formations can be correlated to the level marked as unconformity in between the Deo-Ka-Tibba and the Dhaulagiri formations by the conglomeratic horizon in the Mussoorie Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India. Thus, the Tal Group of the Nigalidhar syncline at this stratigraphic level represent slightly deeper water condition than the Mussoorie Syncline, where in the later the aerial exposure dominated which leads to the deposition of conglomeratic horizon and subsequent formation of unconformity. The overall ichnological and sedimentological dataset allow us to infer that the Cambrian successions of Nigalidhar Syncline were deposited in a wave-dominated proximal part of the basin under the foreshore to close to upper shoreface regimes of the shallow marine setting.

Keywords: Cambrian, Ichnofacies, Lesser Himalaya, Nigalidhar, Tal Group

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1 Qualitative and Quantitative Screening of Biochemical Compositions for Six Selected Marine Macroalgae from Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

Authors: Madelyn N. Moawad, Hermine R. Z. Tadros, Mary G. Ghobrial, Ahmad R. Bassiouny, Kamal M. Kandeel, Athar Ata


Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in marine environment. They provide an excellent source of bioactive substances such as dietary fibers and various functional polysaccharides that could potentially be used as ingredients for both human and animal health applications. The observations suggested that these bioactive compounds have strong antioxidant properties, which have beneficial effects on human health. The present research aimed at finding new chemical products from local marine macroalgae for natural medicinal uses and consumption for their nutritional values. Macroalgae samples were collected manually mainly from the Mediterranean Sea at shallow subtidal zone of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The chemical compositions of lyophilized materials of six selected macroalgal species; Colpomenia sinuosa, Sargassum linifolium, Padina pavonia, Pterocladiella capillacea, Laurencia pinnatifidia, and Caulerpa racemosa, were investigated for proteins using bovine serum albumin, and carbohydrates were assayed by phenol-sulfuric acid reaction. The macroalgae lipid was extracted with chloroform, methanol and phosphate buffer. Vitamins were extracted using trichloroacetic acid. Chlorophylls and total carotenoids were determined spectrophotometrically and total phenols were extracted with methanol. In addition, lipid-soluble, and water-soluble antioxidant, and anti α-glucosidase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity of hexane extracts was investigated using phosphomolybdenum reagent. The anti-α-glucosidase effect measurement was initiated by mixing α-glucosidase solution with p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside. The results showed that the ash contents varied from 11.2 to 35.4 % on dry weight basis for P. capillacea and Laurencia pinnatifidia, respectively. The protein contents ranged from 5.63 % in brown macroalgae C. sinuosa to 8.73 % in P. pavonia. A relative wide range in carbohydrate contents was observed (20.06–46.75 %) for the test algal species. The highest lipid percentage was found in green alga C. racemosa (5.91%) followed by brown algae P. pavonia (3.57%) and C. sinuosa (2.64%). The phenolic contents varied from 1.32 mg GAE/g for C. sinuosa to 4.00 mg GAE/g in P. pavonia. The lipid-soluble compounds exhibited higher antioxidant capacity (73.18-145.95 µM/g) than that of the water-soluble ones ranging from 24.83 µM/g in C. racemosa to 74.07 µM/g in S. linifolium. The most potent anti-α-glucosidase activity was observed for P. pavonia with IC50 of 17.12 μg/ml followed by S. linifolium (IC50 = 71.75 μg/ml), C. racemosa (IC50 = 84.73 μg/ml), P. capillacea (IC50 = 92.16 μg/ml), C. sinuosa (IC50 = 112.44 μg/ml), and L. pinnatifida (IC50 = 115.11 μg/ml).

Keywords: α-glucosidase, lyophilized, macroalgae, spectrophotometrically

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