Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 761

Search results for: deformation

761 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili


The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

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760 Ground Deformation Module for the New Laboratory Methods

Authors: O. Giorgishvili


For calculation of foundations one of the important characteristics is the module of deformation (E0). As we all know, the main goal of calculation of the foundations of buildings on deformation is to arrange the base settling and difference in settlings in such limits that do not cause origination of cracks and changes in design levels that will be dangerous to standard operation in the buildings and their individual structures. As is known from the literature and the practical application, the modulus of deformation is determined by two basic methods: laboratory method, soil test on compression (without the side widening) and soil test in field conditions. As we know, the deformation modulus of soil determined by field method is closer to the actual modulus deformation of soil, but the complexity of the tests to be carried out and the financial concerns did not allow determination of ground deformation modulus by field method. Therefore, we determine the ground modulus of deformation by compression method without side widening. Concerning this, we introduce a new way for determination of ground modulus of deformation by laboratory order that occurs by side widening and more accurately reflects the ground modulus of deformation and more accurately reflects the actual modulus of deformation and closer to the modulus of deformation determined by the field method. In this regard, we bring a new approach on the ground deformation detection laboratory module, which is done by widening sides. The tests and the results showed that the proposed method of ground deformation modulus is closer to the results that are obtained in the field, which reflects the foundation's work in real terms more accurately than the compression of the ground deformation module.

Keywords: build, deformation modulus, foundations, ground, laboratory research

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
759 Aggregate Angularity on the Permanent Deformation Zones of Hot Mix Asphalt

Authors: Lee P. Leon, Raymond Charles


This paper presents a method of evaluating the effect of aggregate angularity on hot mix asphalt (HMA) properties and its relationship to the Permanent Deformation resistance. The research concluded that aggregate particle angularity had a significant effect on the Permanent Deformation performance, and also that with an increase in coarse aggregate angularity there was an increase in the resistance of mixes to Permanent Deformation. A comparison between the measured data and predictive data of permanent deformation predictive models showed the limits of existing prediction models. The numerical analysis described the permanent deformation zones and concluded that angularity has an effect of the onset of these zones. Prediction of permanent deformation help road agencies and by extension economists and engineers determine the best approach for maintenance, rehabilitation, and new construction works of the road infrastructure.

Keywords: aggregate angularity, asphalt concrete, permanent deformation, rutting prediction

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758 Continuous Manufacturing of Ultra Fine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Methods

Authors: Aslı Günay Bulutsuz, Mehmet Emin Yurci


Severe plastic deformation techniques are top-down deformation methods which enable superior mechanical properties by decreasing grain size. Different kind severe plastic deformation methods have been widely being used at various process temperature and geometries. Besides manufacturing advantages of severe plastic deformation technique, most of the types are being used only at the laboratory level. They cannot be adapted to industrial usage due to their continuous manufacturability and manufacturing costs. In order to enhance these manufacturing difficulties and enable widespread usage, different kinds of methods have been developed. In this review, a comprehensive literature research was fulfilled in order to highlight continuous severe plastic deformation methods.

Keywords: continuous manufacturing, severe plastic deformation, ultrafine grains, grain size refinement

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757 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin


The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
756 An Improved Mesh Deformation Method Based on Radial Basis Function

Authors: Xuan Zhou, Litian Zhang, Shuixiang Li


Mesh deformation using radial basis function interpolation method has been demonstrated to produce quality meshes with relatively little computational cost using a concise algorithm. However, it still suffers from the limited deformation ability, especially in large deformation. In this paper, a pre-displacement improvement is proposed to improve the problem that illegal meshes always appear near the moving inner boundaries owing to the large relative displacement of the nodes near inner boundaries. In this improvement, nodes near the inner boundaries are first associated to the near boundary nodes, and a pre-displacement based on the displacements of associated boundary nodes is added to the nodes near boundaries in order to make the displacement closer to the boundary deformation and improve the deformation capability. Several 2D and 3D numerical simulation cases have shown that the pre-displacement improvement for radial basis function (RBF) method significantly improves the mesh quality near inner boundaries and deformation capability, with little computational burden increasement.

Keywords: mesh deformation, mesh quality, background mesh, radial basis function

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755 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi


The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

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754 Application of Optical Method for Calcul of Deformed Object Samples

Authors: R. Daira


The electronic speckle interferometry technique used to measure the deformations of scatterers process is based on the subtraction of interference patterns. A speckle image is first recorded before deformation of the object in the RAM of a computer, after a second deflection. The square of the difference between two images showing correlation fringes observable in real time directly on monitor. The interpretation these fringes to determine the deformation. In this paper, we present experimental results of deformation out of the plane of two samples in aluminum, electronic boards and stainless steel.

Keywords: optical method, holography, interferometry, deformation

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753 Experimental Study of Upsetting and Die Forging with Controlled Impact

Authors: T. Penchev, D. Karastoyanov


The results from experimental research of deformation by upsetting and die forging of lead specimens wit controlled impact are presented. Laboratory setup for conducting the investigations, which uses cold rocket engine operated with compressed air, is described. The results show that when using controlled impact is achieving greater plastic deformation and consumes less impact energy than at ordinary impact deformation process.

Keywords: rocket engine, forging hammer, sticking impact, plastic deformation

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752 Deformation of Metallic Foams with Closed Cell at High Temperatures

Authors: Emrah Ersoy, Yusuf Ozcatalbas


The aim of this study is to investigate formability of Al based closed cell metallic foams at high temperature. The foam specimens with rectangular section were produced from AlMg1Si0.6TiH20.8 alloy preform material. Bending and free bending tests based on gravity effect were applied to foam specimens at high temperatures. During the tests, the time-angular deformation relationships with various temperatures were determined. Deformation types formed in cell walls were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. Bending deformation about 90° was achieved without any defect at high temperatures. The importance of a critical temperature and deformation rate was emphasized in maintaining the deformation. Significant slip lines on surface of cell walls at tensile zones of bending specimen were observed. At high strain rates, the microcrack formation in boundaries of elongated grains was determined.

Keywords: Al alloy, Closed cell, Hot deformation, Metallic foam

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751 Modeling and Prediction of Hot Deformation Behavior of IN718

Authors: M. Azarbarmas, J. M. Cabrera, J. Calvo, M. Aghaie-Khafri


The modeling of hot deformation behavior for unseen conditions is important in metal-forming. In this study, the hot deformation of IN718 has been characterized in the temperature range 950-1100 and strain rate range 0.001-0.1 s-1 using hot compression tests. All stress-strain curves showed the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. These curves were implemented quantitatively in mathematics, and then constitutive equation indicating the relationship between the flow stress and hot deformation parameters was obtained successfully.

Keywords: compression test, constitutive equation, dynamic recrystallization, hot working

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
750 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee


In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
749 Effects of Strain-Induced Melt Activation Process on the Structure and Morphology Mg₂Si in Al-15%Mg₂Si Composite

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Mohammad Alipour


The effect of deformation on the semisolid microstructure and degree of globularity of Al–15%Mg₂Si composite produced by the strain induced melt activation (SIMA) process was studied. Deformation of 25% was used. After deformation, the samples were heated to a temperature above the solidus and below the liquidus point and maintained in the isothermal conditions at three different temperatures (560, 580 and 595 °C) for varying time (5, 10, 20 and 40 min). The microstructural study was carried out on the alloy by the use of optical microscopy. It was observed that strain induced deformation and subsequently melt activation has caused the globular morphology of Mg₂Si particles. The results showed that for the desired microstructures of the alloy during SIMA process, the optimum temperature and time are 595 °C and 40 min respectively.

Keywords: deformation, semisolid, SIMA, Mg₂Si phase, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
748 A Study on Implementation of Optimal Soldering Temperature Profile through Deformation Analysisin Infrared Lamp Soldering of Photovoltaic Cells

Authors: Taejung Lho, Jonghwan Lee


Most of the photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers have recently interested in reducing the manufacturing cost. One of available solution is the use of the thin photovoltaic cell because of reducing of raw material cost. Thin PV cells, however, are damaged large deformation which causes possible microcracks inside PV cell, leading to failure problem. In this paper, deformation characteristics by heat conduction in soldering process of PV cells are analyzed through ANSYS software tool. They have been tested for different PV cell thickness and soldering temperature profile. Accordingly optimal soldering process to minimize the deformation of PV cell has been suggested.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) cell, infrared(IR) lamp soldering, optimal soldering temperature profile, deformation, temperature distribution, 3D scanner, ANSYS

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747 Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modelling of a Medium-Carbon Steel

Authors: Khalil Boroumanda, Morteza Hadib, Reza Vafaeia


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behavior of a medium-carbon structural steel. This steel is known as 30XΓCA steel in GOST standard and contains 3 wt% carbon. To investigate the hot deformation behavior of this steel, hot compression tests were performed on cylindrical samples in temperature ranges from 800 to 1000 °C and strain ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 S-1. Microstructure of samples was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The true stress-strain curves of 30XΓCA steel obtained at various deformation conditions showed that the softening phenomenon based on recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred during hot deformation tests. The results indicated that the peak stress decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. With increasing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C, the peak stress decreased by 52%, 60% and 38% at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 S-1, respectively. According to the results, it can be claimed that the DRX was a dominate mechanism of softening in all deformation conditions. The changes of work hardening rate for 30XΓCA steel during hot deformation were analyzed to confirm the results. Accordingly, it was observed that critical stress for the initiation of DRX decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Furthermore, constitutive equations and activation energy of deformation for 30XΓCA steel were successfully determined. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy of hot deformation of 30XΓCA steel was 256.11 kJ/mole.

Keywords: 30XΓCA steel, hot compression, dynamic recrystallization, constitutive equations

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746 The Role of Deformation Strain and Annealing Temperature on Grain Boundary Engineering and Texture Evolution of Haynes 230

Authors: Mohsen Sanayei, Jerzy Szpunar


The present study investigates the effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the formation of twin boundaries, deformation and recrystallization texture evolution and grain boundary networks and connectivity. The resulting microstructures were characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) both immediately following small amount of deformation and after short time annealing at high temperature to correlate the micro and macro texture evolution of these alloys. Furthermore, this study showed that the process of grain boundary engineering, consisting cycles of deformation and annealing, is found to substantially reduce the mass and size of random boundaries and increase the proportion of low Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries.

Keywords: coincidence site lattice, grain boundary engineering, electron backscatter diffraction, texture, x-ray diffraction

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745 Study the Effect of Friction on Barreling Behavior during Upsetting Process Using Anand Model

Authors: H. Mohammadi Majd, M. Jalali Azizpour, V. Tavaf, A. Jaderi


In upsetting processes contact friction significantly influence metal flow, stress-strain state and process parameters. Furthermore, tribological conditions influence workpiece deformation and its dimensional precision. A viscoplastic constitutive law, the Anand model, was applied to represent the inelastic deformation behavior in upsetting process. This paper presents research results of the influence of contact friction coefficient on a workpiece deformation in upsetting process.finite element parameters. This technique was tested for three different specimens simulations of the upsetting and the corresponding material and can be successfully employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process.

Keywords: friction, upsetting, barreling, Anand model

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744 Identification of Transformer Core Vibrations and the Effect of Third Harmonic in the Electricity Grid

Authors: Setareh Gorji Ghalamestani, Lieven Vandevelde, Jan Melkebeek


In this work, an experimental technique is applied for the measurements of the vibrations and deformation of a test transformer core. Since the grid voltage contains some higher harmonics, in addition to a purely sinusoidal magnetisation of the core the presence of third harmonic is also studied. The vibrations of the transformer core for points as well as the surface scan of the leg show more deformation in the corners of the leg than the middle of the leg. The influence of the higher harmonic of the magnetisation on the core deformation is also more significant in the corners of the leg. The core deformation shape under a sinusoidal magnetisation with a higher harmonic is more wavy and fluctuating than that under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation.

Keywords: vibrations and noise, transformer, vibration measurements, laser vibrometer, higher harmonic

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743 Deformation Analysis of Pneumatized Sphenoid Bone Caused Due to Elevated Intracranial Pressure Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Dilesh Mogre, Jitendra Toravi, Saurabh Joshi, Prutha Deshpande, Aishwarya Kura


In earlier days of technology, it was not possible to understand the nature of complex biomedical problems and were only left to clinical postulations. With advancement in science today, we have tools like Finite Element Modelling and simulation to solve complex biomedical problems. This paper presents how ANSYS WORKBENCH can be used to study deformation of pneumatized sphenoid bone caused by increased intracranial pressure. Intracranial pressure refers to the pressure inside the skull. The increase in the pressure above the normal range of 15mmhg can lead to serious conditions due to developed stresses and deformation. One of the areas where the deformation is suspected to occur is Sphenoid Bone. Moreover, the varying degree of pneumatization increases the complexity of the conditions. It is necessary to study deformation patterns on pneumatized sphenoid bone model at elevated intracranial pressure. Finite Element Analysis plays a major role in developing and analyzing model and give quantitative results.

Keywords: intracranial pressure, pneumatized sphenoid bone, deformation, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
742 Effect of Cellular Water Transport on Deformation of Food Material during Drying

Authors: M. Imran Hossen Khan, M. Mahiuddin, M. A. Karim


Drying is a food processing technique where simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place from surface to the center of the sample. Deformation of food materials during drying is a common physical phenomenon which affects the textural quality and taste of the dried product. Most of the plant-based food materials are porous and hygroscopic in nature that contains about 80-90% water in different cellular environments: intercellular environment and intracellular environment. Transport of this cellular water has a significant effect on material deformation during drying. However, understanding of the scale of deformation is very complex due to diverse nature and structural heterogeneity of food material. Knowledge about the effect of transport of cellular water on deformation of material during drying is crucial for increasing the energy efficiency and obtaining better quality dried foods. Therefore, the primary aim of this work is to investigate the effect of intracellular water transport on material deformation during drying. In this study, apple tissue was taken for the investigation. The experiment was carried out using 1H-NMR T2 relaxometry with a conventional dryer. The experimental results are consistent with the understanding that transport of intracellular water causes cellular shrinkage associated with the anisotropic deformation of whole apple tissue. Interestingly, it is found that the deformation of apple tissue takes place at different stages of drying rather than deforming at one time. Moreover, it is found that the penetration rate of heat energy together with the pressure gradient between intracellular and intercellular environments is the responsible force to rupture the cell membrane.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, food material, intracellular water, cell rupture, deformation

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741 The Microstructural Evolution of X45CrNiW189 Valve Steel during Hot Deformation

Authors: A. H. Meysami


In this paper, the hot compression tests were carried on X45CrNiW189 valve steel (X45) in the temperature range of 1000–1200°C and the strain rate range of 0.004–0.5 s^(-1) in order to study the high temperature softening behavior of the steel. For the exact prediction of flow stress, the effective stress - effective strain curves were obtained from experiments under various conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the dynamic recrystallization fraction (DRX), AGS, hot deformation and activation energy behavior were investigated. It was found that the calculated results were in a good agreement with the experimental flow stress and microstructure of the steel for different conditions of hot deformation.

Keywords: X45CrNiW189, valve steel, hot compression test, dynamic recrystallization, hot deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
740 Deformation and Energy Absorption of Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Rahim, Shagil Akhtar, Prem K. Bharti, Syed Muneeb Iqbal


Deformation and energy absorption studies with corrugated tubes where corrugation is perpendicular to the line of action which coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the tubes. In the present study, several specimens with various geometric parameters are prepared and compressed quasi-statistically in ANSYS Workbench. It is observed that tubes with perpendicular corrugation alters the deformation condition considerably and culminates in a substantial escalation in energy absorption scope in juxtaposed with the tubes having a circular cross-section. This study will help automotive, aerospace and various other industries to design superior components with perpendicular corrugated tubes and will reduce the experimental trials by conducting the numerical simulations.

Keywords: ANSYS Workbench, deformation and energy absorption, corrugated tubes, quasi-static compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
739 Study of the Responding Time for Low Permeability Reservoirs

Authors: G. Lei, P. C. Dong, X. Q. Cen, S. Y. Mo


One of the most significant parameters, describing the effect of water flooding in porous media, is flood-response time, and it is an important index in oilfield development. The responding time in low permeability reservoir is usually calculated by the method of stable state successive substitution neglecting the effect of medium deformation. Numerous studies show that the media deformation has an important impact on the development for low permeability reservoirs and can not be neglected. On the base of streamline tube model, we developed a method to interpret responding time with medium deformation factor. The results show that: the media deformation factor, threshold pressure gradient and well spacing have a significant effect on the flood response time. The greater the media deformation factor, threshold pressure gradient or well spacing is, the lower the flood response time is. The responding time of different streamlines varies. As the angle with the main streamline increases, the water flooding response time delays as a "parabola" shape.

Keywords: low permeability, flood-response time, threshold pressure gradient, medium deformation

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738 Deformation Severity Prediction in Sewer Pipelines

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Ahmed Assad, Tarek Zayed


Sewer pipelines are prone to deterioration over-time. In fact, their deterioration does not follow a fixed downward pattern. This is in fact due to the defects that propagate through their service life. Sewer pipeline defects are categorized into distinct groups. However, the main two groups are the structural and operational defects. By definition, the structural defects influence the structural integrity of the sewer pipelines such as deformation, cracks, fractures, holes, etc. However, the operational defects are the ones that affect the flow of the sewer medium in the pipelines such as: roots, debris, attached deposits, infiltration, etc. Yet, the process for each defect to emerge follows a cause and effect relationship. Deformation, which is the change of the sewer pipeline geometry, is one type of an influencing defect that could be found in many sewer pipelines due to many surrounding factors. This defect could lead to collapse if the percentage exceeds 15%. Therefore, it is essential to predict the deformation percentage before confronting such a situation. Accordingly, this study will predict the percentage of the deformation defect in sewer pipelines adopting the multiple regression analysis. Several factors will be considered in establishing the model, which are expected to influence the defamation defect severity. Besides, this study will construct a time-based curve to understand how the defect would evolve overtime. Thus, this study is expected to be an asset for decision-makers as it will provide informative conclusions about the deformation defect severity. As a result, inspections will be minimized and so the budgets.

Keywords: deformation, prediction, regression analysis, sewer pipelines

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737 A Review of Deformation and Settlement Monitoring on the Field: Types and Applications

Authors: Hassan Ali, Abdulrahman Hamid


This paper discusses using of instruments to monitor deformation and settlement. Specifically, it concentrates on field instruments such as inclinometer and plate load test and their applications in the field. Inclinometer has been used effectively to monitor lateral earth movements and settlement in landslide areas, embankments and foundations. They are also used to monitor the deflection of retaining walls and piles under load. This paper is reviewing types of inclinometer systems, comparison between systems, applications, field accuracy and correction. The paper also will present a case study of using inclinometer to monitor the creep movements within the ancient landslide on The Washington Park Station. Furthermore, the application of deformation and settlement instruments in Saudi Arabia will be discussed in this manuscript.

Keywords: inclinometer, plate load test, backfills, sand, deformation and settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
736 Characterizing Surface Machining-Induced Local Deformation Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

Authors: Wenqian Zhang, Xuelin Wang, Yujin Hu, Siyang Wang


The subsurface layer of a component plays a significant role in its service performance. Any surface mechanical process during fabrication can introduce a deformed layer near the surface, which can be related to the microstructure alteration and strain hardening, and affects the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the material. However, there exists a great difficulty in determining the subsurface deformation induced by surface machining. In this study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to study the deformed layer of surface milled 316 stainless steel. The microstructure change was displayed by the EBSD maps and characterized by misorientation variation. The results revealed that the surface milling resulted in heavily nonuniform deformations in the subsurface layer and even in individual grains. The direction of the predominant grain deformation was about 30-60 deg to the machined surface. Moreover, a local deformation rate (LDR) was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the local deformation degree. Both of the average and maximum LDRs were utilized to characterize the deformation trend along the depth direction. It was revealed that the LDR had a strong correlation with the development of grain and sub-grain boundaries. In this work, a scan step size of 1.2 μm was chosen for the EBSD measurement. A LDR higher than 18 deg/μm indicated a newly developed grain boundary, while a LDR ranged from 2.4 to 18 deg/μm implied the generation of a sub-grain boundary. And a lower LDR than 2.4 deg/μm could only introduce a slighter deformation and no sub-grain boundary was produced. According to the LDR analysis with the evolution of grain or sub grain boundaries, the deformed layer could be classified into four zones: grain broken layer, seriously deformed layer, slightly deformed layer and non-deformed layer.

Keywords: surface machining, EBSD, subsurface layer, local deformation

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735 Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks

Authors: D. K. Soni


A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.

Keywords: sedimentary rocks, split tensile test, deformation rate, saturation rate, sand stone, lime stone

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734 Design of Tube Expanders with Groove Shapes to Reduce Deformation of Tube Inner Grooves in Copper Tube Expansion

Authors: I. Sin, H. Kim, S. Park


Fin-tube heat exchangers have grooves inside tubes to improve heat exchange performance. However, during the tube expansion process, heat exchange efficiency is decreased due to large deformation of tube inner grooves. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a tube expander with groove shapes on its outer surface to minimize deformation of the inner grooves in copper tube expansion for fin-tube heat exchangers. In order to achieve this goal, first, we have tried to calculate tube inner groove deformation by the currently used tube expander without groove shapes on its surface. The tube inner groove deformation was acquired by elastoplastic finite element analysis from the boundary conditions with one tube end fixed and friction between the tube and tube expander (friction coefficient: 0.15). The tube expansion process was simulated by inserting the tube expander into the tube with a speed of 90 mm/s. The analysis results showed that tube inner groove heights were decreased by approximately 8 % from 0.15 mm to 0.138 mm with stress concentrations observed at the groove end, consistent with experimental results. Based on the current results, we are trying to design a novel shape of the tube expander with grooves to further reduce deformation tube inner grooves in copper tube expansion. For this, we will select major design variables of tube expander groove shapes by conducting sensitivity analysis and then optimize the design variables using the Taguchi method.

Keywords: tube expansion, tube expander, heat exchanger, finite element

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733 Deformation Mechanisms of Mg-Based Composite Studied by Neutron Diffraction and Acoustic Emission

Authors: G. Farkas, K. Mathis, J. Pilch, P. Minarik


Deformation mechanisms in an Mg-Al-Ca alloy reinforced with short alumina fibres were studied by acoustic emission and in-situ neutron diffraction method. The fibres plane orientation with respect to the loading axis was found to be a key parameter, which influences the acting deformation processes, such as twinning or dislocation slip. In-situ neutron diffraction tests were measured at different temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200°C. The measurement shows the lattice strain changes in the matrix and also in the reinforcement phase depending on macroscopic compressive deformation and stress. In case of parallel fibre plane orientation, the increment of compressive lattice strain is lower in the matrix and higher in the fibres in comparison to perpendicular fibre orientation. Furthermore, acoustic emission results indicate a larger twinning activity and more frequent fibre cracking in sample with perpendicular fibre plane orientation. Both types of mechanisms are more dominant at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: neutron diffraction, acoustic emission, magnesium based composite, deformation mechanisms

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732 Hot Deformation Behavior and Recrystallization of Inconel 718 Superalloy under Double Cone Compression

Authors: Wang Jianguo, Ding Xiao, Liu Dong, Wang Haiping, Yang Yanhui, Hu Yang


The hot deformation behavior of Inconel 718 alloy was studied by uniaxial compression tests under the deformation temperature of 940~1040℃ and strain rate of 0.001-10s⁻¹. The double cone compression (DCC) tests develop strains range from 30% to the 79% strain including all intermediate values of stains at different temperature (960~1040℃). DCC tests were simulated by finite element software which shown the strain and strain rates distribution. The result shows that the peak stress level of the alloy decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, which could be characterized by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation. The characterization method of hot processing window containing recrystallization volume fraction and average grain size was proposed for double cone compression test of uniform coarse grain, mixed crystal and uniform fine grain double conical specimen in hydraulic press and screw press. The results show that uniform microstructures can be obtained by low temperature with high deformation followed by high temperature with small deformation on the hydraulic press and low temperature, medium deformation, multi-pass on the screw press. The two methods were applied in industrial forgings process, and the forgings with uniform microstructure were obtained successfully.

Keywords: inconel 718 superalloy, hot processing windows, double cone compression, uniform microstructure

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