Search results for: gene expression
2612 Macronutrients and the FTO Gene Expression in Hypothalamus: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies
Authors: Saeid Doaei
Abstract:The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of the existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In conclusion, the level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.
Keywords: obesity, gene expression, FTO, macronutrientsProcedia PDF Downloads 207
2611 Finding Bicluster on Gene Expression Data of Lymphoma Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Hierarchical Clustering
Authors: Alhadi Bustaman, Soeganda Formalidin, Titin Siswantining
Abstract:DNA microarray technology is used to analyze thousand gene expression data simultaneously and a very important task for drug development and test, function annotation, and cancer diagnosis. Various clustering methods have been used for analyzing gene expression data. However, when analyzing very large and heterogeneous collections of gene expression data, conventional clustering methods often cannot produce a satisfactory solution. Biclustering algorithm has been used as an alternative approach to identifying structures from gene expression data. In this paper, we introduce a transform technique based on singular value decomposition to identify normalized matrix of gene expression data followed by Mixed-Clustering algorithm and the Lift algorithm, inspired in the node-deletion and node-addition phases proposed by Cheng and Church based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). Experimental study on standard datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in gene expression data.
Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), biclustering, gene expression data, lymphoma, singular value decomposition (SVD)Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2610 Using Gene Expression Programming in Learning Process of Rough Neural Networks
Authors: Sanaa Rashed Abdallah, Yasser F. Hassan
Abstract:The paper will introduce an approach where a rough sets, gene expression programming and rough neural networks are used cooperatively for learning and classification support. The Objective of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is to obtain new classified data with minimum error in training and testing process. Starting point of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is an information system and the output from this approach is a structure of rough neural networks which is including the weights and thresholds with minimum classification error.
Keywords: rough sets, gene expression programming, rough neural networks, classificationProcedia PDF Downloads 261
2609 Correlation of P53 Gene Expression With Serum Alanine Transaminase Levels and Hepatitis B Viral Load in Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Authors: Umme Shahera, Saifullah Munshi, Munira Jahan, Afzalun Nessa, Shahinul Alam, Shahina Tabassum
Abstract:The development of HCC is a multi-stage process. Several extrinsic factors, such as aflatoxin, HBV, nutrition, alcohol, and trace elements are thought to initiate or/and promote the hepatocarcinogenesis. Alteration of p53 status is an important intrinsic factor in this process as p53 is essential for preventing inappropriate cell proliferation and maintaining genome integrity following genotoxic stress. This study was designed to assess the correlation of p53 gene expression with HBV-DNA and serum Alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients with cirrhosis and HCC. The study was conducted among 60 patients. The study population were divided into four groups (15 in each groups)-HBV positive cirrhosis, HBV negative cirrhosis, HBV positive HCC and HBV negative HCC. Expression of p53 gene was observed using real time PCR. P53 gene expressions in the above mentioned groups were correlated with serum ALT level and HBV viral load. p53 gene was significantly higher in HBV-positive patients with HCC than HBV-positive cirrhosis. Similarly, the expression of p53 was significantly higher in HBV-positive HCC than HBV-negative HCC patients. However, the expression of p53 was reduced in HBV-positive cirrhosis in comparison with HBV-negative cirrhosis. P53 gene expression in liver was not correlated with the serum levels of ALT in any of the study groups. HBV- DNA load also did not correlated with p53 gene expression in HBV positive HCC and HBV positive cirrhosis patients. This study shows that there was no significant change with the expression of p53 gene in any of the study groups with ALT level or viral load, though differential expression of p53 gene were observed in cirrhosis and HCC patients.
Keywords: P53, ALT, HBV-DNA, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinomaProcedia PDF Downloads 28
2608 A Novel PfkB Gene Cloning and Characterization for Expression in Potato Plants
Authors: Arfan Ali, Idrees Ahmad Nasir
Abstract:Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important cash crop and popular vegetable in Pakistan and throughout the world. Cold storage of potatoes accelerates the conversion of starch into reduced sugars (glucose and fructose). This process causes dry mass and bitter taste in the potatoes that are not acceptable to end consumers. In the current study, the phosphofructokinase B gene was cloned into the pET-30 vector for protein expression and the pCambia-1301 vector for plant expression. Amplification of a 930bp product from an E. coli strain determined the successful isolation of the phosphofructokinase B gene. Restriction digestion using NcoI and BglII along with the amplification of the 930bp product using gene specific primers confirmed the successful cloning of the PfkB gene in both vectors. The protein was expressed as a His-PfkB fusion protein. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35 Kda PfkB protein when hybridized with anti-His antibodies. The construct Fani-01 was evaluated transiently using a histochemical gus assay. The appearance of blue color in the agroinfiltrated area of potato leaves confirmed the successful expression of construct Fani-01. Further, the area displaying gus expression was evaluated for PfkB expression using ELISA. Moreover, PfkB gene expression evaluated through transient expression determined successful gene expression and highlighted its potential utilization for stable expression in potato to reduce sweetening due to long-term storage.
Keywords: potato, Solanum tuberosum, transformation, PfkB, anti-sweeteningProcedia PDF Downloads 402
2607 Application of KL Divergence for Estimation of Each Metabolic Pathway Genes
Authors: Shohei Maruyama, Yasuo Matsuyama, Sachiyo Aburatani
Abstract:The development of the method to annotate unknown gene functions is an important task in bioinformatics. One of the approaches for the annotation is The identification of the metabolic pathway that genes are involved in. Gene expression data have been utilized for the identification, since gene expression data reflect various intracellular phenomena. However, it has been difficult to estimate the gene function with high accuracy. It is considered that the low accuracy of the estimation is caused by the difficulty of accurately measuring a gene expression. Even though they are measured under the same condition, the gene expressions will vary usually. In this study, we proposed a feature extraction method focusing on the variability of gene expressions to estimate the genes' metabolic pathway accurately. First, we estimated the distribution of each gene expression from replicate data. Next, we calculated the similarity between all gene pairs by KL divergence, which is a method for calculating the similarity between distributions. Finally, we utilized the similarity vectors as feature vectors and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway. To evaluate our developed method, we applied the method to budding yeast and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the seven metabolic pathways. As a result, the accuracy that calculated by our developed method was higher than the one that calculated from the raw gene expression data. Thus, our developed method combined with KL divergence is useful for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway.
Keywords: metabolic pathways, gene expression data, microarray, Kullback–Leibler divergence, KL divergence, support vector machines, SVM, machine learningProcedia PDF Downloads 347
2606 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells
Authors: Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, N. Zarghami, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani
Abstract:Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.
Keywords: curcumin, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, telomerase, lung cancer cellsProcedia PDF Downloads 242
2605 Analysis of Expression Data Using Unsupervised Techniques
Authors: M. A. I Perera, C. R. Wijesinghe, A. R. Weerasinghe
Abstract:his study was conducted to review and identify the unsupervised techniques that can be employed to analyze gene expression data in order to identify better subtypes of tumors. Identifying subtypes of cancer help in improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of the treatments by identifying clues to find target therapeutics. Process of gene expression data analysis described under three steps as preprocessing, clustering, and cluster validation. Feature selection is important since the genomic data are high dimensional with a large number of features compared to samples. Hierarchical clustering and K Means are often used in the analysis of gene expression data. There are several cluster validation techniques used in validating the clusters. Heatmaps are an effective external validation method that allows comparing the identified classes with clinical variables and visual analysis of the classes.
Keywords: cancer subtypes, gene expression data analysis, clustering, cluster validationProcedia PDF Downloads 78
2604 Pathway and Differential Gene Expression Studies for Colorectal Cancer
Authors: Ankita Shukla, Tiratha Raj Singh
Abstract:Colorectal cancer (CRC) imposes serious mortality burden worldwide and it has been increasing for past consecutive years. Continuous efforts have been made so far to diagnose the disease condition and to identify the root cause for it. In this study, we performed the pathway level as well as the differential gene expression studies for CRC. We analyzed the gene expression profile GSE24514 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) along with the gene pathways involved in the CRC. This analysis helps us to understand the behavior of the genes that have shown differential expression through their targeted pathways. Pathway analysis for the targeted genes covers the wider area which therefore decreases the possibility to miss the significant ones. This will prove to be beneficial to expose the ones that have not been given attention so far. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the various neighboring genes that have close relationship to the targeted one and thus proved to be significantly controlling the CRC. It is anticipated that the identified hub and neighboring genes will provide new directions to look at the pathway level differently and will be crucial for the regulatory processes of the disease.
Keywords: mismatch repair, microsatellite instability, carcinogenesis, morbidityProcedia PDF Downloads 248
2603 Wt1 and FoxL2 Genes Expression Pattern in Mesonephros-Gonad Complexes of Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Embryos Incubated in Feminization and Masculinization Temperature
Authors: Fitria D. Ayuningtyas, Anggraini Barlian
Abstract:Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of TSD (Temperature-dependent Sex Determination, TSD) animals which sex is determined by the egg’s incubation temperature. GSD (Genotypic Sex Determination) homologous genes such as Wilms’ Tumor (Wt1) and Forkhead Box L2 (FoxL2) play a role in TSD animal sex determination process. Wt1 plays a role in both male pathway, as a transcription factor for Sf1 gene and in female pathway, as a transcription factor for Dax1. FoxL2 plays a role specifically in female sex determination, and known as transcriptional factor for Aromatase gene. Until now, research on the pattern of Wt1 and FoxL2 genes expression in C.mydas has not been conducted yet. The aim of this research is to know the pattern of Wt1 and FoxL2 genes expression in Mesonephros-Gonad (MG) complexes of Chelonia mydas embryos incubated in masculinizing temperature (MT) and feminizing temperature (FT). Eggs of C.mydas incubated in 3 different stage of TSP (Thermosensitive Period) at masculinizing temperature (26±10C, MT) and feminizing temperature (31±10C FT). Mesonefros-gonad complexes were isolated at Pre-TSP stage (FT at days 14th, MT at days 24th), TSP stage (FT at days 24th, MT at days 36th) and differentiated stage (FT at days 40th, MT at days 58th). RNA from mesonephros-gonad (MG) complexes were converted into cDNA by RT-PCR process, and the pattern of Wt1 and FoxL2 genes expression is analyzed by quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) method, β-actin gene is used as an internal control. The pattern of Wt1 gene expression in Pre-TSP stage was almost the same between MG complexes incubated at MT or FT, while TSP and differentiation stage, the pattern of Wt1 gene expression in MG complexes incubated at MT or FT was increased. Wt1 gene expression of MG complexes that incubated at FT was higher than at MT. There was a difference pattern between Wt1 gene expression in this research compared to the previous research in protein level. It could be assumed that the difference caused by post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms before mRNA of Wt1 gene translated into protein structure. The pattern of FoxL2 gene expression in Pre-TSP stage was almost the same between MG complexes that incubated at MT and FT, and increased in both TSP and differentiated stage. The FoxL2 gene expression in MG complexes that incubated in FT is higher than MT on TSP and differentiated stage. Based on the results of this research, it can be assumed that Wt1 and FoxL2 gene were expressed in MG complexes that incubated both at MT and FT since Pre-TSP stage. The pattern of Wt1 gene expression was increased in every stage of gonadal development, and so do the pattern of FoxL2 gene expression. Wt1 and FoxL2 gene expressions were higher in MG complexes incubated at FT than MT.
Keywords: chelonia mydas, FoxL2, gene expression, TSD, Wt1Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2602 SCANet: A Workflow for Single-Cell Co-Expression Based Analysis
Authors: Mhaned Oubounyt, Jan Baumbach
Abstract:Differences in co-expression networks between two or multiple cells (sub)types across conditions is a pressing problem in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). A key challenge is to define those co-variations that differ between or among cell types and/or conditions and phenotypes to examine small regulatory networks that can explain mechanistic differences. To this end, we developed SCANet, an all-in-one Python package that uses state-of-the-art algorithms to facilitate the workflow of a combined single-cell GCN (Gene Correlation Network) and GRN (Gene Regulatory Networks) pipeline, including inference of gene co-expression modules from scRNA-seq, followed by trait and cell type associations, hub gene detection, co-regulatory networks, and drug-gene interactions. In an example case, we illustrate how SCANet can be applied to identify regulatory drivers behind a cytokine storm associated with mortality in patients with acute respiratory illness. SCANet is available as a free, open-source, and user-friendly Python package that can be easily integrated into systems biology pipelines.
Keywords: single-cell, co-expression networks, drug-gene interactions, co-regulatory networksProcedia PDF Downloads 28
2601 A Review of Effective Gene Selection Methods for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Gene Expression Profile
Authors: Hala Alshamlan, Ghada Badr, Yousef Alohali
Abstract:Cancer is one of the dreadful diseases, which causes considerable death rate in humans. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling has been emerged as an efficient technique for cancer classification, as well as for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment purposes. In recent years, a DNA microarray technique has gained more attraction in both scientific and in industrial fields. It is important to determine the informative genes that cause cancer to improve early cancer diagnosis and to give effective chemotherapy treatment. In order to gain deep insight into the cancer classification problem, it is necessary to take a closer look at the proposed gene selection methods. We believe that they should be an integral preprocessing step for cancer classification. Furthermore, finding an accurate gene selection method is a very significant issue in a cancer classification area because it reduces the dimensionality of microarray dataset and selects informative genes. In this paper, we classify and review the state-of-art gene selection methods. We proceed by evaluating the performance of each gene selection approach based on their classification accuracy and number of informative genes. In our evaluation, we will use four benchmark microarray datasets for the cancer diagnosis (leukemia, colon, lung, and prostate). In addition, we compare the performance of gene selection method to investigate the effective gene selection method that has the ability to identify a small set of marker genes, and ensure high cancer classification accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to compare gene selection approaches for cancer classification using microarray gene expression profile.
Keywords: gene selection, feature selection, cancer classification, microarray, gene expression profileProcedia PDF Downloads 386
2600 Robustness Conditions for the Establishment of Stationary Patterns of Drosophila Segmentation Gene Expression
Authors: Ekaterina M. Myasnikova, Andrey A. Makashov, Alexander V. Spirov
Abstract:First manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains (along with the main embryo axis) of genes belonging to the trunk gene class. Highly variable expression of genes from gap family in early Drosophila embryo is strongly reduced by the start of gastrulation due to the gene cross-regulation. The dynamics of gene expression is described by a gene circuit model for a system of four gap genes. It is shown that for the formation of a steep and stationary border by the model it is necessary that there existed a nucleus (modeling point) in which the gene expression level is constant in time and hence is described by a stationary equation. All the rest genes expressed in this nucleus are in a dynamic equilibrium. The mechanism of border formation associated with the existence of a stationary nucleus is also confirmed by the experiment. An important advantage of this approach is that properties of the system in a stationary nucleus are described by algebraic equations and can be easily handled analytically. Thus we explicitly characterize the cross-regulation properties necessary for the robustness and formulate the conditions providing this effect through the properties of the initial input data. It is shown that our formally derived conditions are satisfied for the previously published model solutions.
Keywords: drosophila, gap genes, reaction-diffusion model, robustnessProcedia PDF Downloads 304
2599 An Analysis on Clustering Based Gene Selection and Classification for Gene Expression Data
Authors: K. Sathishkumar, V. Thiagarasu
Abstract:Due to recent advances in DNA microarray technology, it is now feasible to obtain gene expression profiles of tissue samples at relatively low costs. Many scientists around the world use the advantage of this gene profiling to characterize complex biological circumstances and diseases. Microarray techniques that are used in genome-wide gene expression and genome mutation analysis help scientists and physicians in understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, in diagnoses and prognoses, and choosing treatment plans. DNA microarray technology has now made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes during important biological processes and across collections of related samples. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the large number of genes and the complexity of biological networks greatly increase the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data, which often consists of millions of measurements. A first step toward addressing this challenge is the use of clustering techniques, which is essential in the data mining process to reveal natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. This work presents an analysis of several clustering algorithms proposed to deals with the gene expression data effectively. The existing clustering algorithms like Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-means algorithm and evolutionary algorithm etc. are analyzed thoroughly to identify the advantages and limitations. The performance evaluation of the existing algorithms is carried out to determine the best approach. In order to improve the classification performance of the best approach in terms of Accuracy, Convergence Behavior and processing time, a hybrid clustering based optimization approach has been proposed.
Keywords: microarray technology, gene expression data, clustering, gene SelectionProcedia PDF Downloads 251
2598 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens
Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak
Abstract:Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.
Keywords: lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), broiler, abdominal fat, gene expressionProcedia PDF Downloads 103
2597 Quantitative Evaluation of Endogenous Reference Genes for ddPCR under Salt Stress Using a Moderate Halophile
Authors: Qinghua Xing, Noha M. Mesbah, Haisheng Wang, Jun Li, Baisuo Zhao
Abstract:Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is being increasingly adopted for gene detection and quantification because of its higher sensitivity and specificity. According to previous observations and our lab data, it is essential to use endogenous reference genes (RGs) when investigating gene expression at the mRNA level under salt stress. This study aimed to select and validate suitable RGs for gene expression under salt stress using ddPCR. Six candidate RGs were selected based on the tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled quantitative proteomics of Alkalicoccus halolimnae at four salinities. The expression stability of these candidate genes was evaluated using statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder). There was a small fluctuation in cycle threshold (Ct) value and copy number of the pdp gene. Its expression stability was ranked in the vanguard of all algorithms, and was the most suitable RG for quantification of expression by both qPCR and ddPCR of A. halolimnae under salt stress. Single RG pdp and RG combinations were used to normalize the expression of ectA, ectB, ectC, and ectD under four salinities. The present study constitutes the first systematic analysis of endogenous RG selection for halophiles responding to salt stress. This work provides a valuable theory and an approach reference of internal control identification for ddPCR-based stress response models.
Keywords: endogenous reference gene, salt stress, ddPCR, RT-qPCR, Alkalicoccus halolimnaeProcedia PDF Downloads 11
2596 Cloning and Expression of the ansZ Gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 Isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru
Authors: Stephy Saavedra, Annsy C. Arredondo, Gisele Monteiro, Adalberto Pessoa Jr, Carol N. Flores-Fernandez, Amparo I. Zavaleta
Abstract:L-asparaginase from bacterial sources is used in leukemic treatment and food industry. This enzyme is classified based on its affinity towards L-asparagine and L-glutamine. Likewise, ansZ genes express L-asparaginase with higher affinity to L-asparagine. The aim of this work was to clone and express of ansZ gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru. The gene encoding L-asparaginase was cloned into pET15b vector and transformed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The expression was carried out in a batch culture using LB broth and 0.5 mM IPTG. The recombinant L-asparaginase showed a molecular weight of ~ 39 kDa by SDS PAGE and a specific activity of 3.19 IU/mg of protein. The cloning and expression of ansZ gene from this halotolerant Bacillus sp. CH11 allowed having a biological input to improve a future scaling-up.
Keywords: ansZ gene, Bacillus sp, Chilca salterns, recombinant L-asparaginaseProcedia PDF Downloads 96
2595 An Analysis System for Integrating High-Throughput Transcript Abundance Data with Metabolic Pathways in Green Algae
Authors: Han-Qin Zheng, Yi-Fan Chiang-Hsieh, Chia-Hung Chien, Wen-Chi Chang
Abstract:As the most important non-vascular plants, algae have many research applications, including high species diversity, biofuel sources, adsorption of heavy metals and, following processing, health supplements. With the increasing availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for algae genomes and transcriptomes, an integrated resource for retrieving gene expression data and metabolic pathway is essential for functional analysis and systems biology in algae. However, gene expression profiles and biological pathways are displayed separately in current resources, and making it impossible to search current databases directly to identify the cellular response mechanisms. Therefore, this work develops a novel AlgaePath database to retrieve gene expression profiles efficiently under various conditions in numerous metabolic pathways. AlgaePath, a web-based database, integrates gene information, biological pathways, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets in Chlamydomonasreinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4. Users can identify gene expression profiles and pathway information by using five query pages (i.e. Gene Search, Pathway Search, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Search, Gene Group Analysis, and Co-Expression Analysis). The gene expression data of 45 and 4 samples can be obtained directly on pathway maps in C. reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4, respectively. Genes that are differentially expressed between two conditions can be identified in Folds Search. Furthermore, the Gene Group Analysis of AlgaePath includes pathway enrichment analysis, and can easily compare the gene expression profiles of functionally related genes in a map. Finally, Co-Expression Analysis provides co-expressed transcripts of a target gene. The analysis results provide a valuable reference for designing further experiments and elucidating critical mechanisms from high-throughput data. More than an effective interface to clarify the transcript response mechanisms in different metabolic pathways under various conditions, AlgaePath is also a data mining system to identify critical mechanisms based on high-throughput sequencing.
Keywords: next-generation sequencing (NGS), algae, transcriptome, metabolic pathway, co-expressionProcedia PDF Downloads 343
2594 Study on Developmental and Pathogenesis Related Genes Expression Deregulation in Brassica compestris Infected with 16Sr-IX Associated Phytoplasma
Authors: Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Samia Yasin, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir, Jam Nazeer Ahmad
Abstract:Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhibited plant pathogenic bacteria that are transferred by insect vectors. Among biotic factors, Phytoplasma infection induces abnormality influencing the physiology as well as morphology of plants. In 16Sr-IX group phytoplasma-infected brassica compestris, flower abnormalities have been associated with changes in the expression of floral development genes. To determine whether methylation was involved in down-regulation of flower development, the process of DNA methylation and Demethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism for regulation of floral gene expression in phytoplasma infected Brassica transmitted by Orosious orientalis vector by using RT-PCR, MSRE-PCR, Southern blotting, Bisulfite Sequencing, etc. Transcriptional expression of methylated genes was found to be globally down-regulated in plants infected with phytoplasma, but not severely in those infested by insect vectors and variation in expression was found in genes involved in methylation. These results also showed that genes particularly orthologous to Arabidopsis APETALA3 involved in petal formation and flower development was down-regulated severely in phytoplasma-infected brassica and with the fact that phytoplasma and insect induce variation in developmental gene expression. The DNA methylation status of flower developmental gene in phytoplasma infected plants with 5-azacytidine restored gene expression strongly suggesting that DNA methylation was involved in down-regulation of floral development genes in phytoplasma infected brassica.
Keywords: genes expression, phytoplasma, DNA methylation, flower developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 230
2593 Construction of the Large Scale Biological Networks from Microarrays
Authors: Fadhl Alakwaa
Abstract:One of the sustainable goals of the system biology is understanding gene-gene interactions. Hence, gene regulatory networks (GRN) need to be constructed for understanding the disease ontology and to reduce the cost of drug development. To construct gene regulatory from gene expression we need to overcome many challenges such as data denoising and dimensionality. In this paper, we develop an integrated system to reduce data dimension and remove the noise. The generated network from our system was validated via available interaction databases and was compared to previous methods. The result revealed the performance of our proposed method.
Keywords: gene regulatory network, biclustering, denoising, system biologyProcedia PDF Downloads 172
2592 Construction of a Fusion Gene Carrying E10A and K5 with 2A Peptide-Linked by Using Overlap Extension PCR
Authors: Tiancheng Lan
Abstract:E10A is a kind of replication-defective adenovirus which carries the human endostatin gene to inhibit the growth of tumors. Kringle 5(K5) has almost the same function as angiostatin to also inhibit the growth of tumors since they are all the byproduct of the proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen. Tumor size increasing can be suppressed because both of the endostatin and K5 can restrain the angiogenesis process. Therefore, in order to improve the treatment effect on tumor, 2A peptide is used to construct a fusion gene carrying both E10A and K5. Using 2A peptide is an ideal strategy when a fusion gene is expressed because it can avoid many problems during the expression of more than one kind of protein. The overlap extension PCR is also used to connect 2A peptide with E10A and K5. The final construction of fusion gene E10A-2A-K5 can provide a possible new method of the anti-angiogenesis treatment with a better expression performance.
Keywords: E10A, Kringle 5, 2A peptide, overlap extension PCRProcedia PDF Downloads 86
2591 The Identification of Combined Genomic Expressions as a Diagnostic Factor for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Authors: Ki-Yeo Kim
Abstract:Trends in genetics are transforming in order to identify differential coexpressions of correlated gene expression rather than the significant individual gene. Moreover, it is known that a combined biomarker pattern improves the discrimination of a specific cancer. The identification of the combined biomarker is also necessary for the early detection of invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To identify the combined biomarker that could improve the discrimination of OSCC, we explored an appropriate number of genes in a combined gene set in order to attain the highest level of accuracy. After detecting a significant gene set, including the pre-defined number of genes, a combined expression was identified using the weights of genes in a gene set. We used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the weight calculation. In this process, we used three public microarray datasets. One dataset was used for identifying the combined biomarker, and the other two datasets were used for validation. The discrimination accuracy was measured by the out-of-bag (OOB) error. There was no relation between the significance and the discrimination accuracy in each individual gene. The identified gene set included both significant and insignificant genes. One of the most significant gene sets in the classification of normal and OSCC included MMP1, SOCS3 and ACOX1. Furthermore, in the case of oral dysplasia and OSCC discrimination, two combined biomarkers were identified. The combined genomic expression achieved better performance in the discrimination of different conditions than in a single significant gene. Therefore, it could be expected that accurate diagnosis for cancer could be possible with a combined biomarker.
Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma, combined biomarker, microarray dataset, correlated genesProcedia PDF Downloads 365
2590 Cloning and Expression of Human Interleukin 15: A Promising Candidate for Cytokine Immunotherapy
Authors: Sadaf Ilyas
Abstract:Recombinant cytokines have been employed successfully as potential therapeutic agent. Some cytokine therapies are already used as a part of clinical practice, ranging from early exploratory trials to well established therapies that have already received approval. Interleukin 15 is a pleiotropic cytokine having multiple roles in peripheral innate and adaptive immune cell function. It regulates the activation, proliferation and maturation of NK cells, T-cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, and the interactions between them thus acting as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Unraveling the biology of IL-15 has revealed some interesting surprises that may point toward some of the first therapeutic applications for this cytokine. In this study, the human interleukin 15 gene was isolated, amplified and ligated to a TA vector which was then transfected to a bacterial host, E. coli Top10F’. The sequence of cloned gene was confirmed and it showed 100% homology with the reported sequence. The confirmed gene was then subcloned in pET Expression system to study the IPTG induced expression of IL-15 gene. Positive expression was obtained for number of clones that showed 15 kd band of IL-15 in SDS-PAGE analysis, indicating the successful strain development that can be studied further to assess the potential therapeutic intervention of this cytokine in relevance to human diseases.
Keywords: Interleukin 15, pET expression system, immune therapy, protein purificationProcedia PDF Downloads 338
2589 The Expression of Toll-Like Receptors Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Betong (KU Line) Chicken
Authors: Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Anutian Suklek, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn, Autchara Kayan
Abstract:Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved microbial sensing receptors located on cell surface that are able to detect different pathogens. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of TLR gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of Betong (KU line) chicken. Blood samples were collected from healthy 12 Betong (KU line) chicken. PBMCs were isolated and maintained in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. The expression of TLRs gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results showed that PBMCs viability from Betong (KU line) chicken was 95.38 ± 1.06%. From the study of TLRs gene expression, results indicated that there are expressions of TLR1.1 TLR1.2 TLR2.1 TLR2.2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR 7 TLR15 and TLR21 in PBMCs of Betong (KU line) chicken. In conclusion, PBMCs isolated from blood of Betong (KU line) chicken had a high cell viability ( > 95%). The expression of TLRs in chicken was all found in PBMCs, which indicated that PBMC isolated from the blood of Betong (KU line) chicken can be used as an in vitro immune responses study.
Keywords: toll-like receptor, Betong (KU line) chicken, peripheral blood mononuclear cellsProcedia PDF Downloads 80
2588 Functional Gene Expression in Human Cells Using Linear Vectors Derived from Bacteriophage N15 Processing
Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Pei-Sheng Liew
Abstract:This paper adapts the bacteriophage N15 protelomerase enzyme to assemble linear chromosomes as vectors for gene expression in human cells. Phage N15 has the unique ability to replicate as a linear plasmid with telomeres in E. coli during its prophage stage of life-cycle. The virus-encoded protelomerase enzyme cuts its circular genome and caps its ends to form hairpin telomeres, resulting in a linear human-chromosome-like structure in E. coli. In mammalian cells, however, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show for the first-time transfer of the protelomerase from phage into human and mouse cells and demonstrate recapitulation of its activity in these hosts. The function of this enzyme is assayed by demonstrating cleavage of its target DNA, followed by detecting telomere formation based on its resistance to recBCD enzyme digestion. We show protelomerase expression persists for at least 60 days, which indicates limited silencing of its expression. Next, we show that an intact human β-globin gene delivered on this linear chromosome accurately retains its expression in the human cellular environment for at least 60 hours, demonstrating its stability and potential as a vector. These results demonstrate that the N15 protelomerse is able to function in mammalian cells to cut and heal DNA to create telomeres, which provides a new tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts.
Keywords: chromosome, beta-globin, DNA, gene expression, linear vectorProcedia PDF Downloads 52
2587 Light-Controlled Gene Expression in Yeast
Authors: Peter. M. Kusen, Georg Wandrey, Christopher Probst, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Jochen Buchs, Jorg Pietruszkau
Abstract:Light as a stimulus provides the capability to develop regulation techniques for customizable gene expression. A great advantage is the extremely flexible and accurate dosing that can be performed in a non invasive and sterile manner even for high throughput technologies. Therefore, light regulation in a multiwell microbioreactor system was realized providing the opportunity to control gene expression with outstanding complexity. A light-regulated gene expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was designed applying the strategy of caged compounds. These compounds are photo-labile protected and therefore biologically inactive regulator molecules which can be reactivated by irradiation with certain light conditions. The “caging” of a repressor molecule which is consumed after deprotection was essential to create a flexible expression system. Thereby, gene expression could be temporally repressed by irradiation and subsequent release of the active repressor molecule. Afterwards, the repressor molecule is consumed by the yeast cells leading to reactivation of gene expression. A yeast strain harboring a construct with the corresponding repressible promoter in combination with a fluorescent marker protein was applied in a Photo-BioLector platform which allows individual irradiation as well as online fluorescence and growth detection. This device was used to precisely control the repression duration by adjusting the amount of released repressor via different irradiation times. With the presented screening platform the regulation of complex expression procedures was achieved by combination of several repression/derepression intervals. In particular, a stepwise increase of temporally-constant expression levels was demonstrated which could be used to study concentration dependent effects on cell functions. Also linear expression rates with variable slopes could be shown representing a possible solution for challenging protein productions, whereby excessive production rates lead to misfolding or intoxication. Finally, the very flexible regulation enabled accurate control over the expression induction, although we used a repressible promoter. Summing up, the continuous online regulation of gene expression has the potential to synchronize gene expression levels to optimize metabolic flux, artificial enzyme cascades, growth rates for co cultivations and many other applications addicted to complex expression regulation. The developed light-regulated expression platform represents an innovative screening approach to find optimization potential for production processes.
Keywords: caged-compounds, gene expression regulation, optogenetics, photo-labile protecting groupProcedia PDF Downloads 252
2586 Transcriptomine: The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Transcriptome Database
Authors: Scott A. Ochsner, Christopher M. Watkins, Apollo McOwiti, David L. Steffen Lauren B. Becnel, Neil J. McKenna
Abstract:Understanding signaling by nuclear receptors (NRs) requires an appreciation of their cognate ligand- and tissue-specific transcriptomes. While target gene regulation data are abundant in this field, they reside in hundreds of discrete publications in formats refractory to routine query and analysis and, accordingly, their full value to the NR signaling community has not been realized. One of the mandates of the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is to facilitate access of the community to existing public datasets. Pursuant to this mandate we are developing a freely-accessible community web resource, Transcriptomine, to bring together the sum total of available expression array and RNA-Seq data points generated by the field in a single location. Transcriptomine currently contains over 25,000,000 gene fold change datapoints from over 1200 contrasts relevant to over 100 NRs, ligands and coregulators in over 200 tissues and cell lines. Transcriptomine is designed to accommodate a spectrum of end users ranging from the bench researcher to those with advanced bioinformatic training. Visualization tools allow users to build custom charts to compare and contrast patterns of gene regulation across different tissues and in response to different ligands. Our resource affords an entirely new paradigm for leveraging gene expression data in the NR signaling field, empowering users to query gene fold changes across diverse regulatory molecules, tissues and cell lines, target genes, biological functions and disease associations, and that would otherwise be prohibitive in terms of time and effort. Transcriptomine will be regularly updated with gene lists from future genome-wide expression array and expression-sequencing datasets in the NR signaling field.
Keywords: target gene database, informatics, gene expression, transcriptomicsProcedia PDF Downloads 216
2585 Expression Level of Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding/DREB Gene of Some Local Corn Cultivars from Kisar Island-Maluku Indonesia Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR
Authors: Hermalina Sinay, Estri L. Arumingtyas
Abstract:The research objective was to determine the expression level of dehydration responsive element binding/DREB gene of local corn cultivars from Kisar Island Maluku. The study design was a randomized block design with single factor consist of six local corn cultivars obtained from farmers in Kisar Island and one reference varieties wich has been released by the government as a drought-tolerant varieties and obtained from Cereal Crops Research Institute (ICERI) Maros South Sulawesi. Leaf samples were taken is the second leaf after the flag leaf at the 65 days after planting. Isolation of total RNA from leaf samples was carried out according to the protocols of the R & A-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit and was used as a template for cDNA synthesis. The making of cDNA from total RNA was carried out according to the protocol of One-Step Reverse Transcriptase PCR Premix Kit. Real Time-PCR was performed on cDNA from reverse transcription followed the procedures of Real MODTM Green Real-Time PCR Master Mix Kit. Data obtained from the real time-PCR results were analyzed using relative quantification method based on the critical point / Cycle Threshold (CP / CT). The results of gene expression analysis of DREB gene showed that the expression level of the gene was highest obtained at Deep Yellow local corn cultivar, and the lowest one was obtained at the Rubby Brown Cob cultivar. It can be concluded that the expression level of DREB gene of Deep Yellow local corn cultivar was highest than other local corn cultivars and Srikandi variety as a reference variety.
Keywords: expression, level, DREB gene, local corn cultivars, Kisar Island, MalukuProcedia PDF Downloads 243
2584 A Local Tensor Clustering Algorithm to Annotate Uncharacterized Genes with Many Biological Networks
Authors: Paul Shize Li, Frank Alber
Abstract:A fundamental task of clinical genomics is to unravel the functions of genes and their associations with disorders. Although experimental biology has made efforts to discover and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of individual genes in the past decades, still about 40% of human genes have unknown functions, not to mention the diseases they may be related to. For those biologists who are interested in a particular gene with unknown functions, a powerful computational method tailored for inferring the functions and disease relevance of uncharacterized genes is strongly needed. Studies have shown that genes strongly linked to each other in multiple biological networks are more likely to have similar functions. This indicates that the densely connected subgraphs in multiple biological networks are useful in the functional and phenotypic annotation of uncharacterized genes. Therefore, in this work, we have developed an integrative network approach to identify the frequent local clusters, which are defined as those densely connected subgraphs that frequently occur in multiple biological networks and consist of the query gene that has few or no disease or function annotations. This is a local clustering algorithm that models multiple biological networks sharing the same gene set as a three-dimensional matrix, the so-called tensor, and employs the tensor-based optimization method to efficiently find the frequent local clusters. Specifically, massive public gene expression data sets that comprehensively cover dynamic, physiological, and environmental conditions are used to generate hundreds of gene co-expression networks. By integrating these gene co-expression networks, for a given uncharacterized gene that is of biologist’s interest, the proposed method can be applied to identify the frequent local clusters that consist of this uncharacterized gene. Finally, those frequent local clusters are used for function and disease annotation of this uncharacterized gene. This local tensor clustering algorithm outperformed the competing tensor-based algorithm in both module discovery and running time. We also demonstrated the use of the proposed method on real data of hundreds of gene co-expression data and showed that it can comprehensively characterize the query gene. Therefore, this study provides a new tool for annotating the uncharacterized genes and has great potential to assist clinical genomic diagnostics.
Keywords: local tensor clustering, query gene, gene co-expression network, gene annotationProcedia PDF Downloads 51
2583 Paper-Based Detection Using Synthetic Gene Circuits
Authors: Vanessa Funk, Steven Blum, Stephanie Cole, Jorge Maciel, Matthew Lux
Abstract:Paper-based synthetic gene circuits offer a new paradigm for programmable, fieldable biodetection. We demonstrate that by freeze-drying gene circuits with in vitro expression machinery, we can use complimentary RNA sequences to trigger colorimetric changes upon rehydration. We have successfully utilized both green fluorescent protein and luciferase-based reporters for easy visualization purposes in solution. Through several efforts, we are aiming to use this new platform technology to address a variety of needs in portable detection by demonstrating several more expression and reporter systems for detection functions on paper. In addition to RNA-based biodetection, we are exploring the use of various mechanisms that cells use to respond to environmental conditions to move towards all-hazards detection. Examples include explosives, heavy metals for water quality, and toxic chemicals.
Keywords: cell-free lysates, detection, gene circuits, in vitroProcedia PDF Downloads 297