Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 359

Search results for: metabolism

359 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina


In review the generalized data about biosynthetic routs formation anthraquinone molecules in natural cells. The basic possibilities of various ways of biosynthesis of different quinoid substances are shown.

Keywords: anthraquinones, biochemical evolution, biosynthesis, metabolism

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358 Study and Melanocyte Adrenocorticotropic Effects on Sugar Metabolism and Immune Response in Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus

Authors: A. Bouaouiche, M. S. Boulakoud


The functioning of the pineal gland, the transducer body of environmental information to the neuroendocrine system is subject to a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is the main neuro-hormone expressing this operation. It is synthesized in the pinealocytes after conversion serotonin via N-acetyl-transferase enzyme, itself subject to a photoperiodic modulation (activation dark inhibition by light). Some authors have suggested that melatonin is involved in diabetic disease and found that it could have a diabetogenic effect. To this study the effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism has long been subject to controversy. Agreeing in effect and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic effect. In order to illustrate the level of interaction of melatonin with neuro-immune- corticotropin axis and its impact on carbohydrate metabolism, we studied the impact homeostatic (glucose) through the solicitation of two control systems (gland pineal and corticotropin axis). We then found that melatonin could have an indirect influence on insulin control (glucose metabolism) to the levels of the growth hormone axis (somatostatin) and adrenocorticotropic (corticotropin). In addition, we have suggested that melatonin might limit the hyperglycemic action of corticosteroids by direct action at peripheral level.

Keywords: pinéal gland, melatonin, neuro-immuno-corticotrop, metabolism

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357 A System Dynamic Based DSS for Ecological Urban Management in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Mona M. Salem, Khaled S. Al-Hagla, Hany M. Ayad


The concept of urban metabolism has increasingly been employed in a diverse range of disciplines as a mean to analyze and theorize the city. Urban ecology has a particular focus on the implications of applying the metabolism concept to the urban realm. This approach has been developed by a few researchers, though it has rarely if ever been used in policy development for city planning. The aim of this research is to use ecologically informed urban planning interventions to increase the sustainability of urban metabolism; with special focus on land stock as a most important city resource by developing a system dynamic based DSS. This model identifies two critical management strategy variables for the Strategic Urban Plan Alexandria SUP 2032. As a result, this comprehensive and precise quantitative approach is needed to monitor, measure, evaluate and observe dynamic urban changes working as a decision support system (DSS) for policy making.

Keywords: ecology, land resource, LULCC, management, metabolism, model, scenarios, system dynamics, urban development

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356 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz


Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: gibberellic acid, GABA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., salinity, drought

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355 Flux Balance Network Expansion Predicts Stage-Specific Human Preimplantation Embryo Metabolism

Authors: Andisheh Dadashi, Derek Martinez


Metabolism is an essential cellular process for the growth and maintenance of organisms. A better understanding of metabolism during embryogenesis may shed light on the developmental origins of human disease. Metabolic networks, however, are vastly complex with many redundant pathways and interconnected circuits. Thus, computational approaches serve as a practical solution for unraveling the genetic basis of embryo metabolism to help guide future experimental investigations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first model of human peri-implantation embryo metabolism via flux balance network expansion. The model accounts for 8 separate reaction compartments (extracellular, peroxisome, mitochondria, cytosol, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus) including transport and exchange reactions between compartments. We found that modulating oxygen uptake promotes lactate diffusion across the outer mitochondrial layer, providing in silico support for a proposed lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle. While RNA-sequencing and other profiling technologies make it possible to elucidate metabolic genotype-phenotype relationships; yet, our understanding of metabolism during early mammalian development is currently limited. Very few studies have examined the temporal or spatial metabolomics of the human embryo, and prohibitively small sample sizes traditionally observed in human embryo research have presented logistical challenges for metabolic flux studies, hindering progress towards the reconstruction of the human embryonic metabolome. Thus, we developed a stage-specific model to serve as a proof-of-concept for the reconstruction of future metabolic developmental models. Our work shows that it is feasible to model human metabolism with respect to time-dependent changes characteristic of peri-implantation development.

Keywords: human peri-implantation embryo metabolism, flux balance analysis, network expansion, pathway analysis.

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354 Human Metabolism of the Drug Candidate PBTZ169

Authors: Vadim Makarov, Stewart T.Cole


PBTZ169 is novel drug candidate with high efficacy in animals models, and its combination treatment of PBTZ169 with BDQ and pyrazinamide was shown to be more efficacious than the standard treatment for tuberculosis in a mouse model. The target of PBTZ169 is famous DprE1, an essential enzyme in cell wall biosynthesis. The crystal structure of the DprE1-PBTZ169 complex reveals formation of a semimercaptal adduct with Cys387 in the active site and explains the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Furthermore, this drug candidate demonstrated during preclinical research ‘drug like’ properties what made it an attractive drug candidate to treat tuberculosis in humans. During first clinical trials several cohorts of the healthy volunteers were treated by the single doses of PBTZ169 as well as two weeks repeated treatment was chosen for two maximal doses. As expected PBTZ169 was well tolerated, and no significant toxicity effects were observed during the trials. The study of the metabolism shown that human metabolism of PBTZ169 is very different from microbial or animals compound transformation. So main pathway of microbial, mice and less rats metabolism connected with reduction processes, but human metabolism mainly connected with oxidation processes. Due to this difference we observed several metabolites of PBTZ169 in humans with antitubercular activity, and now we can conclude that animal antituberculosis activity of PBTZ169 is a result not only activity of the drug itself, but it is a result of the sum activity of the drug and its metabolites. Direct antimicrobial plasma activity was studied, and such activity was observed for 24 hours after human treatment for some doses. This data gets high chance for good efficacy of PBTZ169 in human for treatment TB infection. Second phase of clinical trials was started summer of 2017 and continues to the present day. Available data will be presented.

Keywords: clinical trials, DprE1, PBTZ169, metabolism

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353 Robustness Analysis of the Carbon and Nitrogen Co-Metabolism Model of Mucor mucedo

Authors: Nahid Banihashemi


An emerging important area of the life sciences is systems biology, which involves understanding the integrated behavior of large numbers of components interacting via non-linear reaction terms. A centrally important problem in this area is an understanding of the co-metabolism of protein and carbohydrate, as it has been clearly demonstrated that the ratio of these metabolites in diet is a major determinant of obesity and related chronic disease. In this regard, we have considered a systems biology model for the co-metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in colonies of the fungus Mucor mucedo. Oscillations are an important diagnostic of underlying dynamical processes of this model. The maintenance of specific patterns of oscillation and its relation to the robustness of this system are the important issues which have been targeted in this paper. In this regard, parametric sensitivity approach as a theoretical approach has been considered for the analysis of the robustness of this model. As a result, the parameters of the model which produce the largest sensitivities have been identified. Furthermore, the largest changes that can be made in each parameter of the model without losing the oscillations in biomass production have been computed. The results are obtained from the implementation of parametric sensitivity analysis in Matlab.

Keywords: system biology, parametric sensitivity analysis, robustness, carbon and nitrogen co-metabolism, Mucor mucedo

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352 Cellular Energy Metabolism Decreases with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Honeybees (Apis Mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Yu-Lung Chuang


The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules and cellular energy-regulated molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but those of cellular energy-metabolized molecules is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular energy-metabolized molecules were assayed in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old worker bees by using the techniques of cell and biochemistry. The results showed that (i) the •-hydroxylacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio, non-esterified fatty acids concentrations, the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and the expression of phosphorylated eIF4E binding protein 1 decreased with age; (ii) fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age; and (iii) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio was not correlated with age. These finding indicated that •-oxidation (HOAD/CS) and protein synthsis decreased with age. Glycolysis (PDH/CS) was unchanged with age. The most likely reason is that sugars are the vital food of worker bees. Taken together these data reveal that young workers have higher cellular energy metabolism than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular energy metabolism in worker honeybees.

Keywords: aging, energy, honeybee, metabolism

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351 Effect of Brown Algae, Ecklonia arborea and Silvetia compressa, in Lipidemic and Hepatic Metabolism in Wistar Rats

Authors: Laura Acevedo-Pacheco, Janet Alejandra Gutierrez-Uribe, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz-Suarez, Segio Othon Serna-Saldivar


Seaweeds can generate changes in the metabolism of lipids; as a consequence, this may diminish cholesterol and other lipids in the blood. However, the consumption of marine algae may also alter the functions of other organs. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of two different sorts of algae (Ecklonia arborea and Silvetia compressa) in the metabolism of lipids, as well as, in the physiology of the liver. Wistar male rats were fed for two months with independent diets composed of 20% of fat and 2.5% of E. arborea and S. compressa each. Blood parameters (cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides, hepatic enzymes) and triglycerides in the liver were quantified, and also hepatic histology analyses were performed. While S. compressa reduced 18% total cholesterol compared to the positive control, E. arborea increased it 5.8%. Animals fed with S. compressa presented a decrement, compared to the positive control, not only in low density lipoproteins levels (53%) but also in triglycerides (67%). The presence of steatosis in the histologies and the high levels of triglycerides showed an evident lipid accumulation in hepatic tissues of rats fed with both algae. These results indicate that even though S. compressa showed a promising resource to decrease total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in blood, a detrimental effect was observed in liver physiology. Further investigations should be made to find out if toxic compounds associated with these seaweeds may cause liver damage especially in terms of heavy metals.

Keywords: brown algae, Eisenia arborea, hepatic metabolism, lipidemic metabolism, Pelvetia compressa, steatosis

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350 Linking Metabolism, Pluripotency and Epigenetic Changes during Early Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Authors: Arieh Moussaieff, Bénédicte Elena-Herrmann, Yaakov Nahmias, Daniel Aberdam


Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is a slow process, marked by the gradual loss of pluripotency factors over days in culture. While the first few days of differentiation show minor changes in the cellular transcriptome, intracellular signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Recently, several groups demonstrated that the metabolism of pluripotent mouse and human cells is different from that of somatic cells, showing a marked increase in glycolysis previously identified in cancer as the Warburg effect. Here, we sought to identify the earliest metabolic changes induced at the first hours of differentiation. High-resolution NMR analysis identified 35 metabolites and a distinct, gradual transition in metabolism during early differentiation. Metabolic and transcriptional analyses showed the induction of glycolysis toward acetate and acetyl-coA in pluripotent cells, and an increase in cholesterol biosynthesis during early differentiation. Importantly, this metabolic pathway regulated differentiation of human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Acetate delayed differentiation preventing differentiation-induced histone de-acetylation in a dose-dependent manner. Glycolytic inhibitors upstream of acetate caused differentiation of pluripotent cells, while those downstream delayed differentiation. Our data suggests that a rapid loss of glycolysis in early differentiation down-regulates acetate and acetyl-coA production, causing a loss of histone acetylation and concomitant loss of pluripotency. It demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells utilize a novel metabolism pathway to maintain pluripotency through acetate/acetyl-coA and highlights the important role metabolism plays in pluripotency and early differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: pluripotency, metabolomics, epigenetics, acetyl-coA

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349 Coffee Consumption and Glucose Metabolism: a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

Authors: Caio E. G. Reis, Jose G. Dórea, Teresa H. M. da Costa


Objective: Epidemiological data shows an inverse association of coffee consumption with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the clinical effects of coffee consumption on the glucose metabolism biomarkers remain controversial. Thus, this paper reviews clinical trials that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on glucose metabolism. Research Design and Methods: We identified studies published until December 2014 by searching electronic databases and reference lists. We included randomized clinical trials which the intervention group received caffeinated and/or decaffeinated coffee and the control group received water or placebo treatments and measured biomarkers of glucose metabolism. The Jadad Score was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies whereas studies that scored ≥ 3 points were considered for the analyses. Results: Seven clinical trials (total of 237 subjects) were analyzed involving adult healthy, overweight and diabetic subjects. The studies were divided in short-term (1 to 3h) and long-term (2 to 16 weeks) duration. The results for short-term studies showed that caffeinated coffee consumption may increase the area under the curve for glucose response, while for long-term studies caffeinated coffee may improve the glycemic metabolism by reducing the glucose curve and increasing insulin response. These results seem to show that the benefits of coffee consumption occur in the long-term as has been shown in the reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in epidemiological studies. Nevertheless, until the relationship between long-term coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus is better understood and any mechanism involved identified, it is premature to make claims about coffee preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The findings suggest that caffeinated coffee may impairs glucose metabolism in short-term but in the long-term the studies indicate reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. More clinical trials with comparable methodology are needed to unravel this paradox.

Keywords: coffee, diabetes mellitus type 2, glucose, insulin

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348 Reducing Metabolism Residues in Maintenance Goldfish (Carrasius auratus auratus) by Phytoremediation Plant

Authors: Anna Nurkhasanah, Hamzah Muhammad Ihsan, Nurul Wulandari


Water quality affects the body condition of aquatic organisms. One of the methods to manage water quality, usually called phytoremediation, involves using aquatic plants. The purpose of this study is to find out the best aquatic plants to reducing metabolism residues from aquatic organism. 5 aquariums (40x30x30 cm) containing 100 grams from each 4 different plants such as water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), salvinia (Salvinia molesta), cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana), and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), thirteen goldfis (Carrasius auratus auratus) are maintained. The maintenance is conducted through a week and water quality measurements are performed three times. The results show that pH value tends to range between 7,22-8,72. The temperature varies between 25-26 °C. DO values varies between 5,2-10,5 mg/L. Amoniac value is between 0,005–5,2 mg/L. Nitrite value is between 0,005 mg/L-2,356 mg/L. Nitrate value is between 0,791 mg/L-1,737 mg/L. CO2 value is between 2,2 mg/L-6,1 mg/L. The result of survival rate of goldfish for all treatments is 100%. Based on this study, the best aquatic plant to reduce metabolism residues is hydrilla.

Keywords: phytoremediation, goldfish, aquatic plants, water quality

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347 A Proposal to Integrate Spatially Explicit Ecosystem Services with Urban Metabolic Modelling

Authors: Thomas Elliot, Javier Babi Almenar, Benedetto Rugani


The integration of urban metabolism (UM) with spatially explicit ecosystem service (ES) stocks has the potential to advance sustainable urban development. It will correct the lack of spatially specificity of current urban metabolism models. Furthermore, it will include into UM not only the physical properties of material and energy stocks and flows, but also the implications to the natural capital that provides and maintains human well-being. This paper presents the first stages of a modelling framework by which urban planners can assess spatially the trade-offs of ES flows resulting from urban interventions of different character and scale. This framework allows for a multi-region assessment which takes into account sustainability burdens consequent to an urban planning event occurring elsewhere in the environment. The urban boundary is defined as the Functional Urban Audit (FUA) method to account for trans-administrative ES flows. ES are mapped using CORINE land use within the FUA. These stocks and flows are incorporated into a UM assessment method to demonstrate the transfer and flux of ES arising from different urban planning implementations.

Keywords: ecological economics, ecosystem services, spatial planning, urban metabolism

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346 NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals Dietary Effects in Liver Extracts of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Fed Different Levels of Starch

Authors: Rani Abro, Ali Ata Moazzami, Jan Erik Lindberg, Torbjörn Lundh


The effect of dietary starch level on liver metabolism in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was studied using 1H-NMR based metabolomics. Fingerlings were fed iso-nitrogenous diets containing 0, 10 and 20 % starch for two months before liver samples were collected for metabolite analysis. Metabolite profiling was performed using 600 MHz NMR Chenomx software. In total, 48 metabolites were profiled in liver extracts from both fish species. Following the profiling, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLC-DA) were performed. These revealed that differences in the concentration of significant metabolites were correlated to the dietary starch level in both species. The most prominent difference in metabolic response to starch feeding between the omnivorous tilapia and the carnivorous Arctic charr was an indication of higher anaerobic metabolism in Arctic charr. The data also indicated that amino acid and pyrimidine metabolism was higher in Artic charr than in tilapia.

Keywords: arctic charr, metabolomics, starch, tilapia

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345 Temporal Trends in the Urban Metabolism of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Naif Albelwi, Alan Kwan, Yacine Rezgui


Cities with rapid growth face tremendous challenges not only to provide services to meet this growth but also to assure that this growth occurs in a sustainable way. The consumption of material, energy, and water resources is inextricably linked to population growth with a unique impact in urban areas, especially in light of significant investments in infrastructure to support urban development. Urban Metabolism (UM) is becoming popular as it provides a framework accounting the mass and energy flows through a city. The objective of this study is to determine the energy and material flows of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using locally generated data from 1996 and 2012 and analyzing the temporal trends of energy and material flows. Preliminary results show that while the population of Riyadh grew 90% since 1996, the input and output flows have increased at higher rate. Results also show increasing in energy mobile consumption from 61k TJ in 1996 to 157k TJ in 2012 which points to Riyadh’s inefficient urban form. The study findings highlight the importance to develop effective policies for improving the use of resources.

Keywords: energy and water consumption, sustainability, urban development, urban metabolism

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344 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C .D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi


The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals, sugar

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343 Characterization of the Catalytic and Structural Roles of the Human Hexokinase 2 in Cancer Progression

Authors: Mir Hussain Nawaz, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Haizhong Zhu, Wael M. Rabeh


In this study, we aim to biochemically and structurally characterize the interactions of human HK2 with the mitochondria in addition to the role of its N-terminal domain in catalysis and stability of the full-length enzyme. Here, we solved the crystal structure of human HK2 in complex with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (PDB code: 2NZT), where it is a homodimer with catalytically active N- and C-terminal domains linked by a seven-turn α-helix. Different from the inactive N-terminal domains of isozymes 1 and 3, the N- domain of HK2 not only capable to catalyze a reaction but it is responsible for the thermodynamic stabilizes of the full-length enzyme. Deletion of first α-helix of the N-domain that binds to the mitochondria altered the stability and catalytic activity of the full-length HK2. In addition, we found the linker helix between the N- and C-terminal domains to play an important role in controlling the catalytic activity of the N-terminal domain. HK2 is a major step in the regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer making it an ideal target for the development of new anticancer therapeutics. Characterizing the structural and molecular mechanisms of human HK2 and its role in cancer metabolism will accelerate the design and development of new cancer therapeutics that are safe and cancer specific.

Keywords: cancer metabolism, enzymology, drug discovery, protein stability

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342 Analysis on Thermococcus achaeans with Frequent Pattern Mining

Authors: Jeongyeob Hong, Myeonghoon Park, Taeson Yoon


After the advent of Achaeans which utilize different metabolism pathway and contain conspicuously different cellular structure, they have been recognized as possible materials for developing quality of human beings. Among diverse Achaeans, in this paper, we compared 16s RNA Sequences of four different species of Thermococcus: Achaeans genus specialized in sulfur-dealing metabolism. Four Species, Barophilus, Kodakarensis, Hydrothermalis, and Onnurineus, live near the hydrothermal vent that emits extreme amount of sulfur and heat. By comparing ribosomal sequences of aforementioned four species, we found similarities in their sequences and expressed protein, enabling us to expect that certain ribosomal sequence or proteins are vital for their survival. Apriori algorithms and Decision Tree were used. for comparison.

Keywords: Achaeans, Thermococcus, apriori algorithm, decision tree

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341 Reconstruction of a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Simulate Uncoupled Growth of Zymomonas mobilis

Authors: Maryam Saeidi, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati


Zymomonas mobilis is known as an example of the uncoupled growth phenomenon. This microorganism also has a unique metabolism that degrades glucose by the Entner–Doudoroff (ED) pathway. In this paper, a genome-scale metabolic model including 434 genes, 757 reactions and 691 metabolites was reconstructed to simulate uncoupled growth and study its effect on flux distribution in the central metabolism. The model properly predicted that ATPase was activated in experimental growth yields of Z. mobilis. Flux distribution obtained from model indicates that the major carbon flux passed through ED pathway that resulted in the production of ethanol. Small amounts of carbon source were entered into pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle to produce biomass precursors. Predicted flux distribution was in good agreement with experimental data. The model results also indicated that Z. mobilis metabolism is able to produce biomass with maximum growth yield of 123.7 g (mol glucose)-1 if ATP synthase is coupled with growth and produces 82 mmol ATP gDCW-1h-1. Coupling the growth and energy reduced ethanol secretion and changed the flux distribution to produce biomass precursors.

Keywords: genome-scale metabolic model, Zymomonas mobilis, uncoupled growth, flux distribution, ATP dissipation

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340 Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipid Metabolism and Increased Fat around the Muscle Durability by Reducing the Oxidation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid. Despite the fact that 28 different isomers of CLA have already been identified, but the main isomer found in natural diets more than ninety percent CLA on intake of food constitutes demonstrates. CLA is known to be a substance that readily available by rumen microorganisms in some ruminants such as cattle and sheep would likely be made. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of CLA on lipid metabolism and enhanced fat around the muscle durability by reducing the process of oxidation. In order to implement this research, 80 female mice of the Balb/C, with 55 days of age were employed in the experiment. Treatments include various levels of CLA. Over the course of this study blood samples was also taken from the tail vein of the studied mice. Some other relevant parameters such as serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and liver enzymes were also determined. The oxidative stability of fats TBARS technique was investigated at different intervals. The findings of the research were analyzed by statistical software of SAS 98. The results, CLA had no significant effect on liver enzymes (P > 0.05). However, it showed a statistically significant impact on triglycerides and total cholesterol. Ratio of LDL to HDL declined remarkably. Histological studies demonstrated reduced accumulation of fat in the tissues surrounding muscles.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, fat metabolism, fat retention, oxidation process

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339 Adaptative Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Brewers' Spent Grain Fermentation

Authors: M. Acin-Albiac, P. Filannino, R. Coda, Carlo G. Rizzello, M. Gobbetti, R. Di Cagno


Demand for smart management of large amounts of agro-food by-products has become an area of major environmental and economic importance worldwide. Brewers' spent grain (BSG), the most abundant by-product generated in the beer-brewing process, represents an example of valuable raw material and source of health-promoting compounds. To the date, the valorization of BSG as a food ingredient has been limited due to poor technological and sensory properties. Tailored bioprocessing through lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is a versatile and sustainable means for the exploitation of food industry by-products. Indigestible carbohydrates (e.g., hemicelluloses and celluloses), high phenolic content, and mostly lignin make of BSG a hostile environment for microbial survival. Hence, the selection of tailored starters is required for successful fermentation. Our study investigated the metabolic strategies of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum strains to exploit BSG as a food ingredient. Two distinctive BSG samples from different breweries (Italian IT- and Finish FL-BSG) were microbially and chemically characterized. Growth kinetics, organic acid profiles, and the evolution of phenolic profiles during the fermentation in two BSG model media were determined. The results were further complemented with gene expression targeting genes involved in the degradation cellulose, hemicelluloses building blocks, and the metabolism of anti-nutritional factors. Overall, the results were LAB genus dependent showing distinctive metabolic capabilities. Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 may degrade BSG xylans while sucrose metabolism could be furtherly exploited for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production to enhance BSG pro-technological properties. Although L. plantarum strains may follow the same metabolic strategies during BSG fermentation, the mode of action to pursue such strategies was strain-dependent. L. plantarum PU1 showed a great preference for β-galactans compared to strain WCFS1, while the preference for arabinose occurred at different metabolic phases. Phenolic compounds profiling highlighted a novel metabolic route for lignin metabolism. These findings will allow an improvement of understanding of how lactic acid bacteria transform BSG into economically valuable food ingredients.

Keywords: brewery by-product valorization, metabolism of plant phenolics, metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, gene expression

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338 Determination of the Phosphate Activated Glutaminase Localization in the Astrocyte Mitochondria Using Kinetic Approach

Authors: N. V. Kazmiruk, Y. R. Nartsissov


Phosphate activated glutaminase (GA, E.C. plays a key role in glutamine/glutamate homeostasis in mammalian brain, catalyzing the hydrolytic deamidation of glutamine to glutamate and ammonium ions. GA is mainly localized in mitochondria, where it has the catalytically active form on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and the other soluble form, which is supposed to be dormant. At present time, the exact localization of the membrane glutaminase active site remains a controversial and an unresolved issue. The first hypothesis called c-side localization suggests that the catalytic site of GA faces the inter-membrane space and products of the deamidation reaction have immediate access to cytosolic metabolism. According to the alternative m-side localization hypothesis, GA orients to the matrix, making glutamate and ammonium available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in mitochondria directly. In our study, we used a multi-compartment kinetic approach to simulate metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the astrocytic cytosol and mitochondria. We used physiologically important ratio between the concentrations of glutamine inside the matrix of mitochondria [Glnₘᵢₜ] and glutamine in the cytosol [Glncyt] as a marker for precise functioning of the system. Since this ratio directly depends on the mitochondrial glutamine carrier (MGC) flow parameters, key observation was to investigate the dependence of the [Glnmit]/[Glncyt] ratio on the maximal velocity of MGC at different initial concentrations of mitochondrial glutamate. Another important task was to observe the similar dependence at different inhibition constants of the soluble GA. The simulation results confirmed the experimental c-side localization hypothesis, in which the glutaminase active site faces the outer surface of the IMM. Moreover, in the case of such localization of the enzyme, a 3-fold decrease in ammonium production was predicted.

Keywords: glutamate metabolism, glutaminase, kinetic approach, mitochondrial membrane, multi-compartment modeling

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337 Metabolic Predictive Model for PMV Control Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Eunji Choi, Borang Park, Youngjae Choi, Jinwoo Moon


In this study, a predictive model for estimating the metabolism (MET) of human body was developed for the optimal control of indoor thermal environment. Human body images for indoor activities and human body joint coordinated values were collected as data sets, which are used in predictive model. A deep learning algorithm was used in an initial model, and its number of hidden layers and hidden neurons were optimized. Lastly, the model prediction performance was analyzed after the model being trained through collected data. In conclusion, the possibility of MET prediction was confirmed, and the direction of the future study was proposed as developing various data and the predictive model.

Keywords: deep learning, indoor quality, metabolism, predictive model

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336 Modeling Diel Trends of Dissolved Oxygen for Estimating the Metabolism in Pristine Streams in the Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: Wesley A. Saltarelli, Nicolas R. Finkler, Adriana C. P. Miwa, Maria C. Calijuri, Davi G. F. Cunha


The metabolism of the streams is an indicator of ecosystem disturbance due to the influences of the catchment on the structure of the water bodies. The study of the respiration and photosynthesis allows the estimation of energy fluxes through the food webs and the analysis of the autotrophic and heterotrophic processes. We aimed at evaluating the metabolism in streams located in the Brazilian savannah, Cerrado (Sao Carlos, SP), by determining and modeling the daily changes of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water during one year. Three water bodies with minimal anthropogenic interference in their surroundings were selected, Espraiado (ES), Broa (BR) and Canchim (CA). Every two months, water temperature, pH and conductivity are measured with a multiparameter probe. Nitrogen and phosphorus forms are determined according to standard methods. Also, canopy cover percentages are estimated in situ with a spherical densitometer. Stream flows are quantified through the conservative tracer (NaCl) method. For the metabolism study, DO (PME-MiniDOT) and light (Odyssey Photosynthetic Active Radiation) sensors log data for at least three consecutive days every ten minutes. The reaeration coefficient (k2) is estimated through the method of the tracer gas (SF6). Finally, we model the variations in DO concentrations and calculate the rates of gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP) and respiration based on the one station method described in the literature. Three sampling were carried out in October and December 2015 and February 2016 (the next will be in April, June and August 2016). The results from the first two periods are already available. The mean water temperatures in the streams were 20.0 +/- 0.8C (Oct) and 20.7 +/- 0.5C (Dec). In general, electrical conductivity values were low (ES: 20.5 +/- 3.5uS/cm; BR 5.5 +/- 0.7uS/cm; CA 33 +/- 1.4 uS/cm). The mean pH values were 5.0 (BR), 5.7 (ES) and 6.4 (CA). The mean concentrations of total phosphorus were 8.0ug/L (BR), 66.6ug/L (ES) and 51.5ug/L (CA), whereas soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were always below 21.0ug/L. The BR stream had the lowest concentration of total nitrogen (0.55mg/L) as compared to CA (0.77mg/L) and ES (1.57mg/L). The average discharges were 8.8 +/- 6L/s (ES), 11.4 +/- 3L/s and CA 2.4 +/- 0.5L/s. The average percentages of canopy cover were 72% (ES), 75% (BR) and 79% (CA). Significant daily changes were observed in the DO concentrations, reflecting predominantly heterotrophic conditions (respiration exceeded the gross primary production, with negative net primary production). The GPP varied from 0-0.4g/m2.d (in Oct and Dec) and the R varied from 0.9-22.7g/m2.d (Oct) and from 0.9-7g/m2.d (Dec). The predominance of heterotrophic conditions suggests increased vulnerability of the ecosystems to artificial inputs of organic matter that would demand oxygen. The investigation of the metabolism in the pristine streams can help defining natural reference conditions of trophic state.

Keywords: low-order streams, metabolism, net primary production, trophic state

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335 A Development of a Weight-Balancing Control System Based On Android Operating System

Authors: Rattanathip Rattanachai, Piyachai Petchyen, Kunyanuth Kularbphettong


This paper describes the development of a Weight- Balancing Control System based on the Android Operating System and it provides recommendations on ways of balancing of user’s weight based on daily metabolism process and need so that user can make informed decisions on his or her weight controls. The system also depicts more information on nutrition details. Furthermore, it was designed to suggest to users what kinds of foods they should eat and how to exercise in the right ways. We describe the design methods and functional components of this prototype. To evaluate the system performance, questionnaires for system usability and Black Box Testing were used to measure expert and user satisfaction. The results were satisfactory as followed: Means for experts and users were 3.94 and 4.07 respectively.

Keywords: weight-balancing control, Android operating system, daily metabolism, black box testing

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334 Proteomic Analysis of 2,4-Epibrassinolide Alleviating Low Temperature Stress in Rice Seedling Leaves

Authors: Jiang Xu, Daoping Wang, Qun Li, Yinghong Pan


2,4-Epibrassinolide (EBR), which is a kind of plant hormone Brassinosteroids (BRs), is widely studied and applied in the global scale but the proteomic characteristics of EBR alleviating low temperature stress in rice seedling leaves are still not clear. In this study, seeding rice of Nipponbare were treated with EBR and distilled water, then stressed at 4℃ or 26 ℃, and analyzed by mass spectrometry analysis, verified by parallel reaction monitoring technique (PRM). The results showed that 5778 proteins were identified in total and 4834 proteins were identified with quantitative information. Among them, 401 up-regulated and 220 down-regulated proteins may be related to EBR alleviating low temperature stress in rice seedling leaves. The molecular functions of most of up-regulated proteins are RNA binding and hydrolase activity and are mainly enriched in the pathways of carbon metabolism, folic acid synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The down-regulated proteins are mainly related to catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity and are mainly enriched in the pathways of limonene and pinene degradation, riboflavin metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. PRM validation and literature analysis showed that NADP-malic acidase, peroxidase, 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, enolase, glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase are closely related to the effect of EBR on low temperature stress. These results also suggested that BRs could relieve the effect of low temperature stress on rice seed germination in many ways.

Keywords: 2, 4-Epibrassinolid, low temperature stress, proteomic analysis, rice

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333 Hypergraph Models of Metabolism

Authors: Nicole Pearcy, Jonathan J. Crofts, Nadia Chuzhanova


In this paper, we employ a directed hypergraph model to investigate the extent to which environmental variability influences the set of available biochemical reactions within a living cell. Such an approach avoids the limitations of the usual complex network formalism by allowing for the multilateral relationships (i.e. connections involving more than two nodes) that naturally occur within many biological processes. More specifically, we extend the concept of network reciprocity to complex hyper-networks, thus enabling us to characterize a network in terms of the existence of mutual hyper-connections, which may be considered a proxy for metabolic network complexity. To demonstrate these ideas, we study 115 metabolic hyper-networks of bacteria, each of which can be classified into one of 6 increasingly varied habitats. In particular, we found that reciprocity increases significantly with increased environmental variability, supporting the view that organism adaptability leads to increased complexities in the resultant biochemical networks.

Keywords: complexity, hypergraphs, reciprocity, metabolism

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332 Assessment of Osteocalcin and Homocysteine Levels in Saudi Female Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Walaa Mohammed Saeed


Studies suggest a crosstalk between bone and metabolism through Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein that plays an important role in regulating glucose and fat metabolism. Studies relate type II Diabetes Mellitus (DMII) with Homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigates the relationship between levels of OC, Hcy, and DMII in 85 subjects of which 50 were diabetic female patients (29–65 years) and 35 healthy controls. OC and Hcy levels were measured in fasting blood samples using immunoassay analyzer. Fasting serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, were estimated by automated Siemens Dimension XP auto-analyzer. A significant increase in the frequency of low OC levels (p < 0.001) and high Hcy levels (p < 0.001) was detected in diabetic patients compared to controls (chi-squared test). Using ANOVA test, patients were divided into tertiles based on plasma OC and Hcy levels; fasting serum glucose varied inversely with OC but directly with Hcy tertiles (p=0.049, p=0.033 respectively). Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP=Log TG/HDL) predicts that diabetic patients with 36% high and 15% intermediate cardiovascular risk had increased frequency of low OC levels compared to low-risk patients (p=0.047). Another group of diabetic patients with 39% high and 11% intermediate CVD risk had increased frequency of high Hcy levels (p=0.033). A significant negative correlation existed between OC and glucose (r = -0.318; p = 0.035) while correlation between glucose level and Hcy (r = 0.851 p=0.022) was positive. Hence, low serum OC levels and high Hcy levels were associated with impaired glucose metabolism that may increase cardiovascular risk in DMII.

Keywords: osteocalcin, homocysteine, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular

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331 Micro RNAs (194 and 135a) as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: H. Haseena Banu, D. Karthick, R. Stalin, E. Nandha Kumar, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi


Background of the study: Type 2 diabetes is emerging as the predominant metabolic disorder in the world among adults characterized mainly by the resistance of the insulin sensitive tissues towards insulin followed by the decrease in the insulin secretion. The treatment for this disease usually involves treatment with oral synthetic drugs which are known to cause several side effects. Therefore, identification of new biomarkers as therapeutic target is the need of the hour. miRNAs are small, non–protein-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by promoting degradation and/or inhibit the translation of target mRNAs and have emerged as biomarkers in predicting diabetes mellitus. Objective of the study: To elucidate the therapeutic role of gallic acid in modulating the alterations in glucose metabolism induced by miRNAs 194 and 135a in Type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: T2D was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg/body weight (b.wt.) of streptozotocin. Microarrays were used to assess the expression of miRNAs in control, diabetic and gallic acid treated rats. Gene expression studies were carried out by RT PCR analysis. Results: Forty one miRNAs were differentially expressed in Type 2 diabetic rats. Among these, the expression of miRNA 194 was significantly decreased whereas miRNA 135a was significantly increased in Type 2 diabetic rats. The glucose metabolism was also altered significantly in skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: T2D is associated with alterations in the expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle. Both these miRNAs 194 and 135a play an important role in glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Gallic acid effectively ameliorated the alterations in glucose metabolism. Hence, both these miRNAs can serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in diabetes mellitus. The study also establishes the role of gallic acid as therapeutic agent. Acknowledgment: The financial assistance provided in the form of ICMR women scientist by ICMR DHR INDIA is gratefully acknowledged here.

Keywords: gallic acid, high fat diet, type 2 diabetes mellitus, miRNAs

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330 The Metabolism of Built Environment: Energy Flow and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Nigeria

Authors: Yusuf U. Datti


It is becoming increasingly clear that the consumption of resources now enjoyed in the developed nations will be impossible to be sustained worldwide. While developing countries still have the advantage of low consumption and a smaller ecological footprint per person, they cannot simply develop in the same way as other western cities have developed in the past. The severe reality of population and consumption inequalities makes it contentious whether studies done in developed countries can be translated and applied to developing countries. Additional to this disparities, there are few or no metabolism of energy studies in Nigeria. Rather more contentious majority of energy metabolism studies have been done only in developed countries. While researches in Nigeria concentrate on other aspects/principles of sustainability such as water supply, sewage disposal, energy supply, energy efficiency, waste disposal, etc., which will not accurately capture the environmental impact of energy flow in Nigeria, this research will set itself apart by examining the flow of energy in Nigeria and the impact that the flow will have on the environment. The aim of the study is to examine and quantify the metabolic flows of energy in Nigeria and its corresponding environmental impact. The study will quantify the level and pattern of energy inflow and the outflow of greenhouse emissions in Nigeria. This study will describe measures to address the impact of existing energy sources and suggest alternative renewable energy sources in Nigeria that will lower the emission of greenhouse gas emissions. This study will investigate the metabolism of energy in Nigeria through a three-part methodology. The first step involved selecting and defining the study area and some variables that would affect the output of the energy (time of the year, stability of the country, income level, literacy rate and population). The second step involves analyzing, categorizing and quantifying the amount of energy generated by the various energy sources in the country. The third step involves analyzing what effect the variables would have on the environment. To ensure a representative sample of the study area, Africa’s most populous country, with economy that is the second biggest and that is among the top largest oil producing countries in the world is selected. This is due to the understanding that countries with large economy and dense populations are ideal places to examine sustainability strategies; hence, the choice of Nigeria for the study. National data will be utilized unless where such data cannot be found, then local data will be employed which will be aggregated to reflect the national situation. The outcome of the study will help policy-makers better target energy conservation and efficiency programs and enables early identification and mitigation of any negative effects in the environment.

Keywords: built environment, energy metabolism, environmental impact, greenhouse gas emissions and sustainability

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