Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: LSTM

84 Long Short-Time Memory Neural Networks for Human Driving Behavior Modelling

Authors: Lu Zhao, Nadir Farhi, Yeltsin Valero, Zoi Christoforou, Nadia Haddadou


In this paper, a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model is proposed to replicate simultaneously car-following and lane-changing behaviors in road networks. By combining two kinds of LSTM layers and three input designs of the neural network, six variants of the LSTM model have been created. These models were trained and tested on the NGSIM 101 dataset, and the results were evaluated in terms of longitudinal speed and lateral position, respectively. Then, we compared the LSTM model with a classical car-following model (the intelligent driving model (IDM)) in the part of speed decision. In addition, the LSTM model is compared with a model using classical neural networks. After the comparison, the LSTM model demonstrates higher accuracy than the physical model IDM in terms of car-following behavior and displays better performance with regard to both car-following and lane-changing behavior compared to the classical neural network model.

Keywords: traffic modeling, neural networks, LSTM, car-following, lane-change

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
83 The Convolution Recurrent Network of Using Residual LSTM to Process the Output of the Downsampling for Monaural Speech Enhancement

Authors: Shibo Wei, Ting Jiang


Convolutional-recurrent neural networks (CRN) have achieved much success recently in the speech enhancement field. The common processing method is to use the convolution layer to compress the feature space by multiple upsampling and then model the compressed features with the LSTM layer. At last, the enhanced speech is obtained by deconvolution operation to integrate the global information of the speech sequence. However, the feature space compression process may cause the loss of information, so we propose to model the upsampling result of each step with the residual LSTM layer, then join it with the output of the deconvolution layer and input them to the next deconvolution layer, by this way, we want to integrate the global information of speech sequence better. The experimental results show the network model (RES-CRN) we introduce can achieve better performance than LSTM without residual and overlaying LSTM simply in the original CRN in terms of scale-invariant signal-to-distortion ratio (SI-SNR), speech quality (PESQ), and intelligibility (STOI).

Keywords: convolutional-recurrent neural networks, speech enhancement, residual LSTM, SI-SNR

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
82 Performance Evaluation of the Classic seq2seq Model versus a Proposed Semi-supervised Long Short-Term Memory Autoencoder for Time Series Data Forecasting

Authors: Aswathi Thrivikraman, S. Advaith


The study is aimed at designing encoders for deciphering intricacies in time series data by redescribing the dynamics operating on a lower-dimensional manifold. A semi-supervised LSTM autoencoder is devised and investigated to see if the latent representation of the time series data can better forecast the data. End-to-end training of the LSTM autoencoder, together with another LSTM network that is connected to the latent space, forces the hidden states of the encoder to represent the most meaningful latent variables relevant for forecasting. Furthermore, the study compares the predictions with those of a traditional seq2seq model.

Keywords: LSTM, autoencoder, forecasting, seq2seq model

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
81 Hard Disk Failure Predictions in Supercomputing System Based on CNN-LSTM and Oversampling Technique

Authors: Yingkun Huang, Li Guo, Zekang Lan, Kai Tian


Hard disk drives (HDD) failure of the exascale supercomputing system may lead to service interruption and invalidate previous calculations, and it will cause permanent data loss. Therefore, initiating corrective actions before hard drive failures materialize is critical to the continued operation of jobs. In this paper, a highly accurate analysis model based on CNN-LSTM and oversampling technique was proposed, which can correctly predict the necessity of a disk replacement even ten days in advance. Generally, the learning-based method performs poorly on a training dataset with long-tail distribution, especially fault prediction is a very classic situation as the scarcity of failure data. To overcome the puzzle, a new oversampling was employed to augment the data, and then, an improved CNN-LSTM with the shortcut was built to learn more effective features. The shortcut transmits the results of the previous layer of CNN and is used as the input of the LSTM model after weighted fusion with the output of the next layer. Finally, a detailed, empirical comparison of 6 prediction methods is presented and discussed on a public dataset for evaluation. The experiments indicate that the proposed method predicts disk failure with 0.91 Precision, 0.91 Recall, 0.91 F-measure, and 0.90 MCC for 10 days prediction horizon. Thus, the proposed algorithm is an efficient algorithm for predicting HDD failure in supercomputing.

Keywords: HDD replacement, failure, CNN-LSTM, oversampling, prediction

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80 Sentiment Analysis of Chinese Microblog Comments: Comparison between Support Vector Machine and Long Short-Term Memory

Authors: Xu Jiaqiao


Text sentiment analysis is an important branch of natural language processing. This technology is widely used in public opinion analysis and web surfing recommendations. At present, the mainstream sentiment analysis methods include three parts: sentiment analysis based on a sentiment dictionary, based on traditional machine learning, and based on deep learning. This paper mainly analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the SVM method of traditional machine learning and the Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) method of deep learning in the field of Chinese sentiment analysis, using Chinese comments on Sina Microblog as the data set. Firstly, this paper classifies and adds labels to the original comment dataset obtained by the web crawler, and then uses Jieba word segmentation to classify the original dataset and remove stop words. After that, this paper extracts text feature vectors and builds document word vectors to facilitate the training of the model. Finally, SVM and LSTM models are trained respectively. After accuracy calculation, it can be obtained that the accuracy of the LSTM model is 85.80%, while the accuracy of SVM is 91.07%. But at the same time, LSTM operation only needs 2.57 seconds, SVM model needs 6.06 seconds. Therefore, this paper concludes that: compared with the SVM model, the LSTM model is worse in accuracy but faster in processing speed.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, support vector machine, long short-term memory, Chinese microblog comments

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79 ACBM: Attention-Based CNN and Bi-LSTM Model for Continuous Identity Authentication

Authors: Rui Mao, Heming Ji, Xiaoyu Wang


Keystroke dynamics are widely used in identity recognition. It has the advantage that the individual typing rhythm is difficult to imitate. It also supports continuous authentication through the keyboard without extra devices. The existing keystroke dynamics authentication methods based on machine learning have a drawback in supporting relatively complex scenarios with massive data. There are drawbacks to both feature extraction and model optimization in these methods. To overcome the above weakness, an authentication model of keystroke dynamics based on deep learning is proposed. The model uses feature vectors formed by keystroke content and keystroke time. It ensures efficient continuous authentication by cooperating attention mechanisms with the combination of CNN and Bi-LSTM. The model has been tested with Open Data Buffalo dataset, and the result shows that the FRR is 3.09%, FAR is 3.03%, and EER is 4.23%. This proves that the model is efficient and accurate on continuous authentication.

Keywords: keystroke dynamics, identity authentication, deep learning, CNN, LSTM

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
78 Artificial Neural Network for Forecasting of Daily Reservoir Inflow: Case Study of the Kotmale Reservoir in Sri Lanka

Authors: E. U. Dampage, Ovindi D. Bandara, Vinushi S. Waraketiya, Samitha S. R. De Silva, Yasiru S. Gunarathne


The knowledge of water inflow figures is paramount in decision making on the allocation for consumption for numerous purposes; irrigation, hydropower, domestic and industrial usage, and flood control. The understanding of how reservoir inflows are affected by different climatic and hydrological conditions is crucial to enable effective water management and downstream flood control. In this research, we propose a method using a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to assist the aforesaid decision-making process. The Kotmale reservoir, which is the uppermost reservoir in the Mahaweli reservoir complex in Sri Lanka, was used as the test bed for this research. The ANN uses the runoff in the Kotmale reservoir catchment area and the effect of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) to make a forecast for seven days ahead. Three types of ANN are tested; Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and LSTM. The extensive field trials and validation endeavors found that the LSTM ANN provides superior performance in the aspects of accuracy and latency.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, CNN, inflow, long short-term memory, LSTM, multi-layer perceptron, MLP, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
77 Time Series Analysis the Case of China and USA Trade Examining during Covid-19 Trade Enormity of Abnormal Pricing with the Exchange rate

Authors: Md. Mahadi Hasan Sany, Mumenunnessa Keya, Sharun Khushbu, Sheikh Abujar


Since the beginning of China's economic reform, trade between the U.S. and China has grown rapidly, and has increased since China's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001. The US imports more than it exports from China, reducing the trade war between China and the U.S. for the 2019 trade deficit, but in 2020, the opposite happens. In international and U.S. trade, Washington launched a full-scale trade war against China in March 2016, which occurred a catastrophic epidemic. The main goal of our study is to measure and predict trade relations between China and the U.S., before and after the arrival of the COVID epidemic. The ML model uses different data as input but has no time dimension that is present in the time series models and is only able to predict the future from previously observed data. The LSTM (a well-known Recurrent Neural Network) model is applied as the best time series model for trading forecasting. We have been able to create a sustainable forecasting system in trade between China and the US by closely monitoring a dataset published by the State Website NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2021. Throughout the survey, we provided a 180-day forecast that outlined what would happen to trade between China and the US during COVID-19. In addition, we have illustrated that the LSTM model provides outstanding outcome in time series data analysis rather than RFR and SVR (e.g., both ML models). The study looks at how the current Covid outbreak affects China-US trade. As a comparative study, RMSE transmission rate is calculated for LSTM, RFR and SVR. From our time series analysis, it can be said that the LSTM model has given very favorable thoughts in terms of China-US trade on the future export situation.

Keywords: RFR, China-U.S. trade war, SVR, LSTM, deep learning, Covid-19, export value, forecasting, time series analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
76 Research on Air pollution Spatiotemporal Forecast Model Based on LSTM

Authors: JingWei Yu, Hong Yang Yu


At present, the increasingly serious air pollution in various cities of China has made people pay more attention to the air quality index(hereinafter referred to as AQI) of their living areas. To face this situation, it is of great significance to predict air pollution in heavily polluted areas. In this paper, based on the time series model of LSTM, a spatiotemporal prediction model of PM2.5 concentration in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, is established. The model fully considers the temporal variability and spatial distribution characteristics of PM2.5 concentration. The spatial correlation of air quality at different locations is based on the Air quality status of other nearby monitoring stations, including AQI and meteorological data to predict the air quality of a monitoring station. The experimental results show that the method has good prediction accuracy that the fitting degree with the actual measured data reaches more than 0.7, which can be applied to the modeling and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of regional PM2.5 concentration.

Keywords: LSTM, PM2.5, neural networks, spatio-temporal prediction

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75 Prediction on Housing Price Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Li Yu, Chenlu Jiao, Hongrun Xin, Yan Wang, Kaiyang Wang


In order to study the impact of various factors on the housing price, we propose to build different prediction models based on deep learning to determine the existing data of the real estate in order to more accurately predict the housing price or its changing trend in the future. Considering that the factors which affect the housing price vary widely, the proposed prediction models include two categories. The first one is based on multiple characteristic factors of the real estate. We built Convolution Neural Network (CNN) prediction model and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network prediction model based on deep learning, and logical regression model was implemented to make a comparison between these three models. Another prediction model is time series model. Based on deep learning, we proposed an LSTM-1 model purely regard to time series, then implementing and comparing the LSTM model and the Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model. In this paper, comprehensive study of the second-hand housing price in Beijing has been conducted from three aspects: crawling and analyzing, housing price predicting, and the result comparing. Ultimately the best model program was produced, which is of great significance to evaluation and prediction of the housing price in the real estate industry.

Keywords: deep learning, convolutional neural network, LSTM, housing prediction

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74 Detecting Covid-19 Fake News Using Deep Learning Technique

Authors: AnjalI A. Prasad


Nowadays, social media played an important role in spreading misinformation or fake news. This study analyzes the fake news related to the COVID-19 pandemic spread in social media. This paper aims at evaluating and comparing different approaches that are used to mitigate this issue, including popular deep learning approaches, such as CNN, RNN, LSTM, and BERT algorithm for classification. To evaluate models’ performance, we used accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score as the evaluation metrics. And finally, compare which algorithm shows better result among the four algorithms.

Keywords: BERT, CNN, LSTM, RNN

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73 Reinforcement Learning With Memory Based Self-Attention for Visual and Navigation Tasks

Authors: Sudaman Katti, Shweta Singh


The most popular sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent neural networks in an encoder-decoder configuration. The model proposed in this research makes use of a transformer based solely on a self-attention mechanism, dispensing with recurrence entirely. More specifically, encoders and decoders, which use self-attention and operate on memory, are used. In this research work, results for various 3D reinforcement learning visual and non-visual tasks designed in Unity software were obtained. Convolutional neural networks are used for input processing in visual tasks and comparison with standard long short-term memory (LSTM) architecture is done for both visual and non-visual tasks. This research work combines the transformer architecture with the proximal policy optimization algorithm used popularly in reinforcement learning for stability and better policy updates during training. The transformer, which uses memory and a self-attention mechanism in an encoder-decoder configuration, proved to be superior to LSTM in terms of exploration and rewards achieved.

Keywords: CNN, unity game engine, reinforcement learning, transformers, LSTM

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72 Deep Learning for Renewable Power Forecasting: An Approach Using LSTM Neural Networks

Authors: Fazıl Gökgöz, Fahrettin Filiz


Load forecasting has become crucial in recent years and become popular in forecasting area. Many different power forecasting models have been tried out for this purpose. Electricity load forecasting is necessary for energy policies, healthy and reliable grid systems. Effective power forecasting of renewable energy load leads the decision makers to minimize the costs of electric utilities and power plants. Forecasting tools are required that can be used to predict how much renewable energy can be utilized. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of LSTM-based neural networks for estimating renewable energy loads. In this study, we present models for predicting renewable energy loads based on deep neural networks, especially the Long Term Memory (LSTM) algorithms. Deep learning allows multiple layers of models to learn representation of data. LSTM algorithms are able to store information for long periods of time. Deep learning models have recently been used to forecast the renewable energy sources such as predicting wind and solar energy power. Historical load and weather information represent the most important variables for the inputs within the power forecasting models. The dataset contained power consumption measurements are gathered between January 2016 and December 2017 with one-hour resolution. Models use publicly available data from the Turkish Renewable Energy Resources Support Mechanism. Forecasting studies have been carried out with these data via deep neural networks approach including LSTM technique for Turkish electricity markets. 432 different models are created by changing layers cell count and dropout. The adaptive moment estimation (ADAM) algorithm is used for training as a gradient-based optimizer instead of SGD (stochastic gradient). ADAM performed better than SGD in terms of faster convergence and lower error rates. Models performance is compared according to MAE (Mean Absolute Error) and MSE (Mean Squared Error). Best five MAE results out of 432 tested models are 0.66, 0.74, 0.85 and 1.09. The forecasting performance of the proposed LSTM models gives successful results compared to literature searches.

Keywords: deep learning, long short term memory, energy, renewable energy load forecasting

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71 Improving Forecasting Demand for Maintenance Spare Parts: Case Study

Authors: Abdulaziz Afandi


Minimizing the inventory cost, optimizing the inventory quantities, and increasing system operational availability are the main motivations to enhance forecasting demand of spare parts in a major power utility company in Medina. This paper reports in an effort made to optimize the orders quantities of spare parts by improving the method of forecasting the demand. The study focuses on equipment that has frequent spare parts purchase orders with uncertain demand. The pattern of the demand considers a lumpy pattern which makes conventional forecasting methods less effective. A comparison was made by benchmarking various methods of forecasting based on experts’ criteria to select the most suitable method for the case study. Three actual data sets were used to make the forecast in this case study. Two neural networks (NN) approaches were utilized and compared, namely long short-term memory (LSTM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The results as expected, showed that the NN models gave better results than traditional forecasting method (judgmental method). In addition, the LSTM model had a higher predictive accuracy than the MLP model.

Keywords: neural network, LSTM, MLP, forecasting demand, inventory management

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70 Market Index Trend Prediction using Deep Learning and Risk Analysis

Authors: Shervin Alaei, Reza Moradi


Trading in financial markets is subject to risks due to their high volatilities. Here, using an LSTM neural network, and by doing some risk-based feature engineering tasks, we developed a method that can accurately predict trends of the Tehran stock exchange market index from a few days ago. Our test results have shown that the proposed method with an average prediction accuracy of more than 94% is superior to the other common machine learning algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work incorporating deep learning and risk factors to accurately predict market trends.

Keywords: deep learning, LSTM, trend prediction, risk management, artificial neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
69 An Approach for Pattern Recognition and Prediction of Information Diffusion Model on Twitter

Authors: Amartya Hatua, Trung Nguyen, Andrew Sung


In this paper, we study the information diffusion process on Twitter as a multivariate time series problem. Our model concerns three measures (volume, network influence, and sentiment of tweets) based on 10 features, and we collected 27 million tweets to build our information diffusion time series dataset for analysis. Then, different time series clustering techniques with Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance were used to identify different patterns of information diffusion. Finally, we built the information diffusion prediction models for new hashtags which comprise two phrases: The first phrase is recognizing the pattern using k-NN with DTW distance; the second phrase is building the forecasting model using the traditional Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model and the non-linear recurrent neural network of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). Preliminary results of performance evaluation between different forecasting models show that LSTM with clustering information notably outperforms other models. Therefore, our approach can be applied in real-world applications to analyze and predict the information diffusion characteristics of selected topics or memes (hashtags) in Twitter.

Keywords: ARIMA, DTW, information diffusion, LSTM, RNN, time series clustering, time series forecasting, Twitter

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68 Lightweight Hybrid Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Networks for Wearable Sensor Based Human Activity Recognition

Authors: Sonia Perez-Gamboa, Qingquan Sun, Yan Zhang


Non-intrusive sensor-based human activity recognition (HAR) is utilized in a spectrum of applications, including fitness tracking devices, gaming, health care monitoring, and smartphone applications. Deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and long short term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) provide a way to achieve HAR accurately and effectively. In this paper, we design a multi-layer hybrid architecture with CNN and LSTM and explore a variety of multi-layer combinations. Based on the exploration, we present a lightweight, hybrid, and multi-layer model, which can improve the recognition performance by integrating local features and scale-invariant with dependencies of activities. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model, which can achieve a 94.7% activity recognition rate on a benchmark human activity dataset. This model outperforms traditional machine learning and other deep learning methods. Additionally, our implementation achieves a balance between recognition rate and training time consumption.

Keywords: deep learning, LSTM, CNN, human activity recognition, inertial sensor

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67 Analysis and Prediction of COVID-19 by Using Recurrent LSTM Neural Network Model in Machine Learning

Authors: Grienggrai Rajchakit


As we all know that coronavirus is announced as a pandemic in the world by WHO. It is speeded all over the world with few days of time. To control this spreading, every citizen maintains social distance and self-preventive measures are the best strategies. As of now, many researchers and scientists are continuing their research in finding out the exact vaccine. The machine learning model finds that the coronavirus disease behaves in an exponential manner. To abolish the consequence of this pandemic, an efficient step should be taken to analyze this disease. In this paper, a recurrent neural network model is chosen to predict the number of active cases in a particular state. To make this prediction of active cases, we need a database. The database of COVID-19 is downloaded from the KAGGLE website and is analyzed by applying a recurrent LSTM neural network with univariant features to predict the number of active cases of patients suffering from the corona virus. The downloaded database is divided into training and testing the chosen neural network model. The model is trained with the training data set and tested with a testing dataset to predict the number of active cases in a particular state; here, we have concentrated on Andhra Pradesh state.

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, KAGGLE, LSTM neural network, machine learning

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66 Analysis of Multilayer Neural Network Modeling and Long Short-Term Memory

Authors: Danilo López, Nelson Vera, Luis Pedraza


This paper analyzes fundamental ideas and concepts related to neural networks, which provide the reader a theoretical explanation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks operation classified as Deep Learning Systems, and to explicitly present the mathematical development of Backward Pass equations of the LSTM network model. This mathematical modeling associated with software development will provide the necessary tools to develop an intelligent system capable of predicting the behavior of licensed users in wireless cognitive radio networks.

Keywords: neural networks, multilayer perceptron, long short-term memory, recurrent neuronal network, mathematical analysis

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65 Ground Surface Temperature History Prediction Using Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network Architecture

Authors: Venkat S. Somayajula


Ground surface temperature history prediction model plays a vital role in determining standards for international nuclear waste management. International standards for borehole based nuclear waste disposal require paleoclimate cycle predictions on scale of a million forward years for the place of waste disposal. This research focuses on developing a paleoclimate cycle prediction model using Bayesian long-short term memory (LSTM) neural architecture operated on accumulated borehole temperature history data. Bayesian models have been previously used for paleoclimate cycle prediction based on Monte-Carlo weight method, but due to limitations pertaining model coupling with certain other prediction networks, Bayesian models in past couldn’t accommodate prediction cycle’s over 1000 years. LSTM has provided frontier to couple developed models with other prediction networks with ease. Paleoclimate cycle developed using this process will be trained on existing borehole data and then will be coupled to surface temperature history prediction networks which give endpoints for backpropagation of LSTM network and optimize the cycle of prediction for larger prediction time scales. Trained LSTM will be tested on past data for validation and then propagated for forward prediction of temperatures at borehole locations. This research will be beneficial for study pertaining to nuclear waste management, anthropological cycle predictions and geophysical features

Keywords: Bayesian long-short term memory neural network, borehole temperature, ground surface temperature history, paleoclimate cycle

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64 Power Grid Line Ampacity Forecasting Based on a Long-Short-Term Memory Neural Network

Authors: Xiang-Yao Zheng, Jen-Cheng Wang, Joe-Air Jiang


Improving the line ampacity while using existing power grids is an important issue that electricity dispatchers are now facing. Using the information provided by the dynamic thermal rating (DTR) of transmission lines, an overhead power grid can operate safely. However, dispatchers usually lack real-time DTR information. Thus, this study proposes a long-short-term memory (LSTM)-based method, which is one of the neural network models. The LSTM-based method predicts the DTR of lines using the weather data provided by Central Weather Bureau (CWB) of Taiwan. The possible thermal bottlenecks at different locations along the line and the margin of line ampacity can be real-time determined by the proposed LSTM-based prediction method. A case study that targets the 345 kV power grid of TaiPower in Taiwan is utilized to examine the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is useful to provide the information for the smart grid application in the future.

Keywords: electricity dispatch, line ampacity prediction, dynamic thermal rating, long-short-term memory neural network, smart grid

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63 A Long Short-Term Memory Based Deep Learning Model for Corporate Bond Price Predictions

Authors: Vikrant Gupta, Amrit Goswami


The fixed income market forms the basis of the modern financial market. All other assets in financial markets derive their value from the bond market. Owing to its over-the-counter nature, corporate bonds have relatively less data publicly available and thus is researched upon far less compared to Equities. Bond price prediction is a complex financial time series forecasting problem and is considered very crucial in the domain of finance. The bond prices are highly volatile and full of noise which makes it very difficult for traditional statistical time-series models to capture the complexity in series patterns which leads to inefficient forecasts. To overcome the inefficiencies of statistical models, various machine learning techniques were initially used in the literature for more accurate forecasting of time-series. However, simple machine learning methods such as linear regression, support vectors, random forests fail to provide efficient results when tested on highly complex sequences such as stock prices and bond prices. hence to capture these intricate sequence patterns, various deep learning-based methodologies have been discussed in the literature. In this study, a recurrent neural network-based deep learning model using long short term networks for prediction of corporate bond prices has been discussed. Long Short Term networks (LSTM) have been widely used in the literature for various sequence learning tasks in various domains such as machine translation, speech recognition, etc. In recent years, various studies have discussed the effectiveness of LSTMs in forecasting complex time-series sequences and have shown promising results when compared to other methodologies. LSTMs are a special kind of recurrent neural networks which are capable of learning long term dependencies due to its memory function which traditional neural networks fail to capture. In this study, a simple LSTM, Stacked LSTM and a Masked LSTM based model has been discussed with respect to varying input sequences (three days, seven days and 14 days). In order to facilitate faster learning and to gradually decompose the complexity of bond price sequence, an Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) has been used, which has resulted in accuracy improvement of the standalone LSTM model. With a variety of Technical Indicators and EMD decomposed time series, Masked LSTM outperformed the other two counterparts in terms of prediction accuracy. To benchmark the proposed model, the results have been compared with traditional time series models (ARIMA), shallow neural networks and above discussed three different LSTM models. In summary, our results show that the use of LSTM models provide more accurate results and should be explored more within the asset management industry.

Keywords: bond prices, long short-term memory, time series forecasting, empirical mode decomposition

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62 Forecasting the Temperature at a Weather Station Using Deep Neural Networks

Authors: Debneil Saha Roy


Weather forecasting is a complex topic and is well suited for analysis by deep learning approaches. With the wide availability of weather observation data nowadays, these approaches can be utilized to identify immediate comparisons between historical weather forecasts and current observations. This work explores the application of deep learning techniques to weather forecasting in order to accurately predict the weather over a given forecast hori­zon. Three deep neural networks are used in this study, namely, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Long Short Tunn Memory Network (LSTM) and a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and LSTM. The predictive performance of these models is compared using two evaluation metrics. The results show that forecasting accuracy increases with an increase in the complexity of deep neural networks.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, deep learning, long short term memory, multi-layer perceptron

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61 Text Emotion Recognition by Multi-Head Attention based Bidirectional LSTM Utilizing Multi-Level Classification

Authors: Vishwanath Pethri Kamath, Jayantha Gowda Sarapanahalli, Vishal Mishra, Siddhesh Balwant Bandgar


Recognition of emotional information is essential in any form of communication. Growing HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) in recent times indicates the importance of understanding of emotions expressed and becomes crucial for improving the system or the interaction itself. In this research work, textual data for emotion recognition is used. The text being the least expressive amongst the multimodal resources poses various challenges such as contextual information and also sequential nature of the language construction. In this research work, the proposal is made for a neural architecture to resolve not less than 8 emotions from textual data sources derived from multiple datasets using google pre-trained word2vec word embeddings and a Multi-head attention-based bidirectional LSTM model with a one-vs-all Multi-Level Classification. The emotions targeted in this research are Anger, Disgust, Fear, Guilt, Joy, Sadness, Shame, and Surprise. Textual data from multiple datasets were used for this research work such as ISEAR, Go Emotions, Affect datasets for creating the emotions’ dataset. Data samples overlap or conflicts were considered with careful preprocessing. Our results show a significant improvement with the modeling architecture and as good as 10 points improvement in recognizing some emotions.

Keywords: text emotion recognition, bidirectional LSTM, multi-head attention, multi-level classification, google word2vec word embeddings

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60 Breast Cancer Prediction Using Score-Level Fusion of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models

Authors: Sam Khozama, Ali M. Mayya


Breast cancer is one of the most common types in women. Early prediction of breast cancer helps physicians detect cancer in its early stages. Big cancer data needs a very powerful tool to analyze and extract predictions. Machine learning and deep learning are two of the most efficient tools for predicting cancer based on textual data. In this study, we developed a fusion model of two machine learning and deep learning models. To obtain the final prediction, Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) and ensemble learning with hyper parameters optimization are used, and score-level fusion is used. Experiments are done on the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) dataset after balancing and grouping the class categories. Five different training scenarios are used, and the tests show that the designed fusion model improved the performance by 3.3% compared to the individual models.

Keywords: machine learning, deep learning, cancer prediction, breast cancer, LSTM, fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
59 Author Profiling: Prediction of Learners’ Gender on a MOOC Platform Based on Learners’ Comments

Authors: Tahani Aljohani, Jialin Yu, Alexandra. I. Cristea


The more an educational system knows about a learner, the more personalised interaction it can provide, which leads to better learning. However, asking a learner directly is potentially disruptive, and often ignored by learners. Especially in the booming realm of MOOC Massive Online Learning platforms, only a very low percentage of users disclose demographic information about themselves. Thus, in this paper, we aim to predict learners’ demographic characteristics, by proposing an approach using linguistically motivated Deep Learning Architectures for Learner Profiling, particularly targeting gender prediction on a FutureLearn MOOC platform. Additionally, we tackle here the difficult problem of predicting the gender of learners based on their comments only – which are often available across MOOCs. The most common current approaches to text classification use the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model, considering sentences as sequences. However, human language also has structures. In this research, rather than considering sentences as plain sequences, we hypothesise that higher semantic - and syntactic level sentence processing based on linguistics will render a richer representation. We thus evaluate, the traditional LSTM versus other bleeding edge models, which take into account syntactic structure, such as tree-structured LSTM, Stack-augmented Parser-Interpreter Neural Network (SPINN) and the Structure-Aware Tag Augmented model (SATA). Additionally, we explore using different word-level encoding functions. We have implemented these methods on Our MOOC dataset, which is the most performant one comparing with a public dataset on sentiment analysis that is further used as a cross-examining for the models' results.

Keywords: deep learning, data mining, gender predication, MOOCs

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58 Credit Card Fraud Detection with Ensemble Model: A Meta-Heuristic Approach

Authors: Gong Zhilin, Jing Yang, Jian Yin


The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel system for credit card fraud detection based on sequential modeling of data using hybrid deep learning models. The projected model encapsulates five major phases are pre-processing, imbalance-data handling, feature extraction, optimal feature selection, and fraud detection with an ensemble classifier. The collected raw data (input) is pre-processed to enhance the quality of the data through alleviation of the missing data, noisy data as well as null values. The pre-processed data are class imbalanced in nature, and therefore they are handled effectively with the K-means clustering-based SMOTE model. From the balanced class data, the most relevant features like improved Principal Component Analysis (PCA), statistical features (mean, median, standard deviation) and higher-order statistical features (skewness and kurtosis). Among the extracted features, the most optimal features are selected with the Self-improved Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm (SI-AOA). This SI-AOA model is the conceptual improvement of the standard Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm. The deep learning models like Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and optimized Quantum Deep Neural Network (QDNN). The LSTM and CNN are trained with the extracted optimal features. The outcomes from LSTM and CNN will enter as input to optimized QDNN that provides the final detection outcome. Since the QDNN is the ultimate detector, its weight function is fine-tuned with the Self-improved Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm (SI-AOA).

Keywords: credit card, data mining, fraud detection, money transactions

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57 Multi-Level Attentional Network for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Xinyuan Liu, Xiaojun Jing, Yuan He, Junsheng Mu


Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) has attracted much attention due to its capacity to determine the sentiment polarity of the certain aspect in a sentence. In previous works, great significance of the interaction between aspect and sentence has been exhibited in ABSA. In consequence, a Multi-Level Attentional Networks (MLAN) is proposed. MLAN consists of four parts: Embedding Layer, Encoding Layer, Multi-Level Attentional (MLA) Layers and Final Prediction Layer. Among these parts, MLA Layers including Aspect Level Attentional (ALA) Layer and Interactive Attentional (ILA) Layer is the innovation of MLAN, whose function is to focus on the important information and obtain multiple levels’ attentional weighted representation of aspect and sentence. In the experiments, MLAN is compared with classical TD-LSTM, MemNet, RAM, ATAE-LSTM, IAN, AOA, LCR-Rot and AEN-GloVe on SemEval 2014 Dataset. The experimental results show that MLAN outperforms those state-of-the-art models greatly. And in case study, the works of ALA Layer and ILA Layer have been proven to be effective and interpretable.

Keywords: deep learning, aspect-based sentiment analysis, attention, natural language processing

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56 Using Data-Driven Model on Online Customer Journey

Authors: Ing-Jen Hung, Tzu-Chien Wang


Nowadays, customers can interact with firms through miscellaneous online ads on different channels easily. In other words, customer now has innumerable options and limitless time to accomplish their commercial activities with firms, individualizing their own online customer journey. This kind of convenience emphasizes the importance of online advertisement allocation on different channels. Therefore, profound understanding of customer behavior can make considerable benefit from optimizing fund allocation on diverse ad channels. To achieve this objective, multiple firms utilize numerical methodology to create data-driven advertisement policy. In our research, we aim to exploit online customer click data to discover the correlations between each channel and their sequential relations. We use LSTM to deal with sequential property of our data and compare its accuracy with other non-sequential methods, such as CART decision tree, logistic regression, etc. Besides, we also classify our customers into several groups by their behavioral characteristics to perceive the differences between all groups as customer portrait. As a result, we discover distinct customer journey under each customer portrait. Our article provides some insights into marketing research and can help firm to formulate online advertising criteria.

Keywords: LSTM, customer journey, marketing, channel ads

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55 Long Short-Term Memory Based Model for Modeling Nicotine Consumption Using an Electronic Cigarette and Internet of Things Devices

Authors: Hamdi Amroun, Yacine Benziani, Mehdi Ammi


In this paper, we want to determine whether the accurate prediction of nicotine concentration can be obtained by using a network of smart objects and an e-cigarette. The approach consists of, first, the recognition of factors influencing smoking cessation such as physical activity recognition and participant’s behaviors (using both smartphone and smartwatch), then the prediction of the configuration of the e-cigarette (in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance of e-cigarette). The study uses a network of commonly connected objects; a smartwatch, a smartphone, and an e-cigarette transported by the participants during an uncontrolled experiment. The data obtained from sensors carried in the three devices were trained by a Long short-term memory algorithm (LSTM). Results show that our LSTM-based model allows predicting the configuration of the e-cigarette in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance with a root mean square error percentage of 12.9%, 9.15%, and 11.84%, respectively. This study can help to better control consumption of nicotine and offer an intelligent configuration of the e-cigarette to users.

Keywords: Iot, activity recognition, automatic classification, unconstrained environment

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