Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: radiology

71 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi

Abstract:

Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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70 A Simulation of Patient Queuing System on Radiology Department at Tertiary Specialized Referral Hospital in Indonesia

Authors: Yonathan Audhitya Suthihono, Ratih Dyah Kusumastuti

Abstract:

The radiology department in a tertiary referral hospital faces service operation challenges such as huge and various patient arrival, which can increase the probability of patient queuing. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is mandatory to apply social distancing protocol in the radiology department. A strategy to prevent the accumulation of patients at one spot would be required. The aim of this study is to identify an alternative solution which can reduce the patient’s waiting time in radiology department. Discrete event simulation (DES) is used for this study by constructing several improvement scenarios with Arena simulation software. Statistical analysis is used to test the validity of the base case scenario model and to investigate the performance of the improvement scenarios. The result of this study shows that the selected scenario is able to reduce patient waiting time significantly, which leads to more efficient services in a radiology department, be able to serve patients more effectively, and thus increase patient satisfaction. The result of the simulation can be used by the hospital management to improve the operational performance of the radiology department.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, hospital management patient queuing model, radiology department services

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
69 Optimization of the Self-Recognition Direct Digital Radiology Technology by Applying the Density Detector Sensors

Authors: M. Dabirinezhad, M. Bayat Pour, A. Dabirinejad

Abstract:

In 2020, the technology was introduced to solve some of the deficiencies of direct digital radiology. SDDR is an invention that is capable of capturing dental images without human intervention, and it was invented by the authors of this paper. Adjusting the radiology wave dose is a part of the dentists, radiologists, and dental nurses’ tasks during the radiology photography process. In this paper, an improvement will be added to enable SDDR to set the suitable radiology wave dose according to the density and age of the patients automatically. The separate sensors will be included in the sensors’ package to use the ultrasonic wave to detect the density of the teeth and change the wave dose. It facilitates the process of dental photography in terms of time and enhances the accuracy of choosing the correct wave dose for each patient separately. Since the radiology waves are well known to trigger off other diseases such as cancer, choosing the most suitable wave dose can be helpful to decrease the side effect of that for human health. In other words, it decreases the exposure time for the patients. On the other hand, due to saving time, less energy will be consumed, and saving energy can be beneficial to decrease the environmental impact as well.

Keywords: dental direct digital imaging, environmental impacts, SDDR technology, wave dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
68 E-learning resources for radiology training: Is an ideal program available?

Authors: Eric Fang, Robert Chen, Ghim Song Chia, Bien Soo Tan

Abstract:

Objective and Rationale: Training of radiology residents hinges on practical, on-the-job training in all facets and modalities of diagnostic radiology. Although residency is structured to be comprehensive, clinical exposure depends on the case mix available locally and during the posting period. To supplement clinical training, there are several e-learning resources available to allow for greater exposure to radiological cases. The objective of this study was to survey residents and faculty on the usefulness of these e-learning resources. Methods: E-learning resources were shortlisted with input from radiology residents, Google search and online discussion groups, and screened by their purported focus. Twelve e-learning resources were found to meet the criteria. Both radiology residents and experienced radiology faculty were then surveyed electronically. The e-survey asked for ratings on breadth, depth, testing capability and user-friendliness for each resource, as well as for rankings for the top 3 resources. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.4. Results: Seventeen residents and fifteen faculties completed an e-survey. Mean response rate was 54% ± 8% (Range: 14- 96%). Ratings and rankings were statistically identical between residents and faculty. On a 5-point rating scale, breadth was 3.68 ± 0.18, depth was 3.95 ± 0.14, testing capability was 2.64 ± 0.16 and user-friendliness was 3.39 ± 0.13. Top-ranked resources were STATdx (first), Radiopaedia (second) and Radiology Assistant (third). 9% of responders singled out R-ITI as potentially good but ‘prohibitively costly’. Statistically significant predictive factors for higher rankings are familiarity with the resource (p = 0.001) and user-friendliness (p = 0.006). Conclusion: A good e-learning system will complement on-the-job training with a broad case base, deep discussion and quality trainee evaluation. Based on our study on twelve e-learning resources, no single program fulfilled all requirements. The perception and use of radiology e-learning resources depended more on familiarity and user-friendliness than on content differences and testing capability.

Keywords: e-learning, medicine, radiology, survey

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67 Exchanging Radiology Reporting System with Electronic Health Record: Designing a Conceptual Model

Authors: Azadeh Bashiri

Abstract:

Introduction: In order to better designing of electronic health record system in Iran, integration of health information systems based on a common language must be done to interpret and exchange this information with this system is required. Background: This study, provides a conceptual model of radiology reporting system using unified modeling language. The proposed model can solve the problem of integration this information system with electronic health record system. By using this model and design its service based, easily connect to electronic health record in Iran and facilitate transfer radiology report data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013. The student community was 22 experts that working at the Imaging Center in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and the sample was accorded with the community. Research tool was a questionnaire that prepared by the researcher to determine the information requirements. Content validity and test-retest method was used to measure validity and reliability of questioner respectively. Data analyzed with average index, using SPSS. Also, Visual Paradigm software was used to design a conceptual model. Result: Based on the requirements assessment of experts and related texts, administrative, demographic and clinical data and radiological examination results and if the anesthesia procedure performed, anesthesia data suggested as minimum data set for radiology report and based it class diagram designed. Also by identifying radiology reporting system process, use case was drawn. Conclusion: According to the application of radiology reports in electronic health record system for diagnosing and managing of clinical problem of the patient, provide the conceptual Model for radiology reporting system; in order to systematically design it, the problem of data sharing between these systems and electronic health records system would eliminate.

Keywords: structured radiology report, information needs, minimum data set, electronic health record system in Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
66 Generation Y Leaders in Radiology Nursing - Changing the Culture by Understanding the Challenges of a Multi-Generational Workforce

Authors: Amie Smith, Jodi-Lyn Benjamin

Abstract:

In 2020, there are currently four generations in the nursing workforce: The Veterans, Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y (Gen Y). Understanding each generation and their growing needs will equip the workforce for when the Boomers prepare for retirement, with majority of nursing leadership positions to be potentially replaced with Gen Y nurses. In SA Medical Imaging(SAMI), at Flinders Medical Centre (FMC), it has been proven that despite challenges in succession planning, Gen Y nurse leaders are able to overcome these obstacles and provide the leadership necessary to meet the changing needs in healthcare and across organisations. Changing the culture in radiology nursing has been seen as an obstacle due to the historical nursing practices and resistance to adapt to current/future practice. As radiology advances so does the role of the nurse in imaging, this has required resilience and strong support through leadership as we change and develop the culture to keep up with the evolution of technology and standard of patient care. As a result of supporting Gen Y nurses in leadership roles, SAMI, FMC has seen a positive change in culture by creating a healthy work environment which has allowed Gen Y nurses to make long lasting contributions to the nursing profession.

Keywords: changing culture, Generation Y, radiology, nursing, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
65 Using Discrete Event Simulation Approach to Reduce Waiting Times in Computed Tomography Radiology Department

Authors: Mwafak Shakoor

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to reduce patient waiting times, improve system throughput and improve resources utilization in radiology department. A discrete event simulation model was developed using Arena simulation software to investigate different alternatives to improve the overall system delivery based on adding resource scenarios due to the linkage between patient waiting times and resource availability. The study revealed that there is no addition investment need to procure additional scanner but hospital management deploy managerial tactics to enhance machine utilization and reduce the long waiting time in the department.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, radiology department, arena, waiting time, healthcare modeling, computed tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
64 Comparative Study of Radiation Protection in a Hospital Environment

Authors: Lahoucine Zaama, Sanae Douama

Abstract:

In this work, we present the results of a dosimetry study in a Moroccan radiology department . The results are compared with those of a similar study in France. Furthermore, it determines the coefficient of transmission of the lead sheets of different thicknesses depending on the voltage (KV) in a direct exposure. The objective of this study is to choose the thickness of the radiation means to determine the leaf sample sealed with the smallest percentage value radiation transmission, and that in the context of optimization. Thus the comparison among the studies is essential to consider conduct studies and research in this framework to achieve the goal of optimization.

Keywords: radiology, dosimetry, radiation, dose, transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
63 Ontology-Driven Generation of Radiation Protection Procedures

Authors: Chamseddine Barki, Salam Labidi, Hanen Boussi Rahmouni

Abstract:

In this article, we present the principle and suitable methodology for the design of a medical ontology that highlights the radiological and dosimetric knowledge, applied in diagnostic radiology and radiation-therapy. Our ontology, which we named «Onto.Rap», is the subject of radiation protection in medical and radiology centers by providing a standardized regulatory oversight. Thanks to its added values of knowledge-sharing, reuse and the ease of maintenance, this ontology tends to solve many problems. Of which we name the confusion between radiological procedures a practitioner might face while performing a patient radiological exam. Adding to it, the difficulties they might have in interpreting applicable patient radioprotection standards. Here, the ontology, thanks to its concepts simplification and expressiveness capabilities, can ensure an efficient classification of radiological procedures. It also provides an explicit representation of the relations between the different components of the studied concept. In fact, an ontology based-radioprotection expert system, when used in radiological center, could implement systematic radioprotection best practices during patient exam and a regulatory compliance service auditing afterwards.

Keywords: knowledge, ontology, radiation protection, radiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
62 Comprehensive Evaluation of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in "COVID-19"

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurrence has carried considerabletrials to the world health system, comprising the training of dental and maxillofacial radiology (DMFR). DMFR will keep avital role in healthcare throughout this disaster. Severe acute breathing disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus producing the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is not only extremely contagious but can make solemn consequences in susceptible persons comprising dental patients and dental health care personnel (DHCPs). Reactions to COVID-19 have been available by the Cores for Infection Switch and Inhibition and the American Dental Association, but a more detailed answer is necessary for the harmless preparation of oral and maxillofacial radiology. Our goal is to evaluation the existing information just how the illness threatens patients and DHCPs and how to define which patients are possible to be SARS-CoV-2 infected; study how the usage of private shielding utensils and contamination control measures based on recent top observes, and knowledge can decrease the danger of virus spread in radiologic trials; and scrutinize how intraoral radiography, with its actually superior danger of scattering the infection, might be changed by extraoralradiographic methods for definite diagnostic jobs. In the pandemic, teleradiology has been extensively recycled for diagnostic determinations of COVID-19 patients, for discussions with radiologists in crisis cases, or managing of distance among radiology clinics. Dentists can have the digital radiographic images of their emergency patients through online service area also by electronic message or messaging applications to view in their smart phones, laptops, or other electronic devices.

Keywords: radiology, dental, oral, COVID-19, infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
61 Optimization of the Dental Direct Digital Imaging by Applying the Self-Recognition Technology

Authors: Mina Dabirinezhad, Mohsen Bayat Pour, Amin Dabirinejad

Abstract:

This paper is intended to introduce the technology to solve some of the deficiencies of the direct digital radiology. Nowadays, digital radiology is the latest progression in dental imaging, which has become an essential part of dentistry. There are two main parts of the direct digital radiology comprised of an intraoral X-ray machine and a sensor (digital image receptor). The dentists and the dental nurses experience afflictions during the taking image process by the direct digital X-ray machine. For instance, sometimes they need to readjust the sensor in the mouth of the patient to take the X-ray image again due to the low quality of that. Another problem is, the position of the sensor may move in the mouth of the patient and it triggers off an inappropriate image for the dentists. It means that it is a time-consuming process for dentists or dental nurses. On the other hand, taking several the X-ray images brings some problems for the patient such as being harmful to their health and feeling pain in their mouth due to the pressure of the sensor to the jaw. The author provides a technology to solve the above-mentioned issues that is called “Self-Recognition Direct Digital Radiology” (SDDR). This technology is based on the principle that the intraoral X-ray machine is capable to diagnose the location of the sensor in the mouth of the patient automatically. In addition, to solve the aforementioned problems, SDDR technology brings out fewer environmental impacts in comparison to the previous version.

Keywords: Dental direct digital imaging, digital image receptor, digital x-ray machine, and environmental impacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
60 Monte Carlo Simulation of X-Ray Spectra in Diagnostic Radiology and Mammography Using MCNP4C

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

The overall goal Monte Carlo N-atom radioactivity transference PC program (MCNP4C) was done for the regeneration of x-ray groups in diagnostic radiology and mammography. The electrons were transported till they slow down and stopover in the target. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray creation were measured in this study. In this issue, the x-ray spectra forecast by several computational models recycled in the diagnostic radiology and mammography energy kind have been calculated by appraisal with dignified spectra and their outcome on the scheming of absorbed dose and effective dose (ED) told to the adult ORNL hermaphroditic phantom quantified. This comprises practical models (TASMIP and MASMIP), semi-practical models (X-rayb&m, X-raytbc, XCOMP, IPEM, Tucker et al., and Blough et al.), and Monte Carlo modeling (EGS4, ITS3.0, and MCNP4C). Images got consuming synchrotron radiation (SR) and both screen-film and the CR system were related with images of the similar trials attained with digital mammography equipment. In sight of the worthy feature of the effects gained, the CR system was used in two mammographic inspections with SR. For separately mammography unit, the capability acquiesced bilateral mediolateral oblique (MLO) and craniocaudal(CC) mammograms attained in a woman with fatty breasts and a woman with dense breasts. Referees planned the common groups and definite absences that managed to a choice to miscarry the part that formed the scientific imaginings.

Keywords: mammography, monte carlo, effective dose, radiology

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59 A Comparative Study of Deep Learning Methods for COVID-19 Detection

Authors: Aishrith Rao

Abstract:

COVID 19 is a pandemic which has resulted in thousands of deaths around the world and a huge impact on the global economy. Testing is a huge issue as the test kits have limited availability and are expensive to manufacture. Using deep learning methods on radiology images in the detection of the coronavirus as these images contain information about the spread of the virus in the lungs is extremely economical and time-saving as it can be used in areas with a lack of testing facilities. This paper focuses on binary classification and multi-class classification of COVID 19 and other diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc. Different deep learning methods such as VGG-19, COVID-Net, ResNET+ SVM, Deep CNN, DarkCovidnet, etc., have been used, and their accuracy has been compared using the Chest X-Ray dataset.

Keywords: deep learning, computer vision, radiology, COVID-19, ResNet, VGG-19, deep neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
58 Introduction of Digital Radiology to Improve the Timeliness in Availability of Radiological Diagnostic Images for Trauma Care

Authors: Anuruddha Jagoda, Samiddhi Samarakoon, Anil Jasinghe

Abstract:

In an emergency department ‘where every second count for patient’s management’ timely availability of X- rays play a vital role in early diagnosis and management of patients. Trauma care centers rely heavily on timely radiologic imaging for patient care and radiology plays a crucial role in the emergency department (ED) operations. A research study was carried out to assess timeliness of availability of X-rays and total turnaround time at the Accident Service of National Hospital of Sri Lanka which is the premier trauma center in the country. Digital Radiology system was implemented as an intervention to improve the timeliness of availability of X-rays. Post-implementation assessment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Reduction in all three aspects of waiting times namely waiting for initial examination by doctors, waiting until X –ray is performed and waiting for image availability was observed after implementation of the intervention. However, the most significant improvement was seen in waiting time for image availability and reduction in time for image availability had indirect impact on reducing waiting time for initial examination by doctors and waiting until X –ray is performed. The most significant reduction in time for image availability was observed when performing 4-5 X rays with DR system. The least improvement in timeliness was seen in patients who are categorized as critical.

Keywords: emergency department, digital radilogy, timeliness, trauma care

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
57 Radiology Information System’s Mechanisms: HL7-MHS & HL7/DICOM Translation

Authors: Kulwinder Singh Mann

Abstract:

The innovative features of information system, known as Radiology Information System (RIS), for electronic medical records has shown a good impact in the hospital. The objective is to help and make their work easier; such as for a physician to access the patient’s data and for a patient to check their bill transparently. The interoperability of RIS with the other intra-hospital information systems it interacts with, dealing with the compatibility and open architecture issues, are accomplished by two novel mechanisms. The first one is the particular message handling system that is applied for the exchange of information, according to the Health Level Seven (HL7) protocol’s specifications and serves the transfer of medical and administrative data among the RIS applications and data store unit. The second one implements the translation of information between the formats that HL7 and Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) protocols specify, providing the communication between RIS and Picture and Archive Communication System (PACS) which is used for the increasing incorporation of modern medical imaging equipment.

Keywords: RIS, PACS, HIS, HL7, DICOM, messaging service, interoperability, digital images

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
56 Evaluation of Occupational Doses in Interventional Radiology

Authors: Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Maria Eugênia Dela Rosa, Regina Moura, Diana Rodrigues De Pina

Abstract:

Interventional Radiology is the radiology modality that provides the highest dose values to medical staff. Recent researches show that personal dosimeters may underestimate dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities (hands and feet) and eye lens. The aim of this work was to study radiation exposure levels of medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures and estimate the annual maximum numbers of procedures (AMN) that each physician could perform without exceed the annual limits of dose established by normative. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were positioned in different body regions of the interventional physician (eye lens, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot) above the radiological protection vests as lead apron and thyroid shield. Attenuation values for lead protection vests were based on international guidelines. Based on these data were chosen as 90% attenuation of the lead vests and 60% attenuation of the protective glasses. 25 procedures were evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 10 angioplasty, and 5-aneurysm treatment. The AMN of diagnostic procedures was 641 for the primary interventional radiologist and 930 for the assisting interventional radiologist. For the angioplasty procedures, the AMN for primary interventional radiologist was 445 and for assisting interventional radiologist was 1202. As for the procedures of aneurism treatment, the AMN for the primary interventional radiologist was 113 and for the assisting interventional radiologist were 215. All AMN were limited by the eye lens doses already considering the use of protective glasses. In all categories evaluated, the higher dose values are found in gonads and in the lower regions of professionals, both for the primary interventionist and for the assisting, but the eyes lens dose limits are smaller than these regions. Additional protections as mobile barriers, which can be positioned between the interventionist and the patient, can decrease the exposures in the eye lens, providing a greater protection for the medical staff. The alternation of professionals to perform each type of procedure can reduce the dose values received by them over a period. The analysis of dose profiles proposed in this work showed that personal dosimeters positioned in chest might underestimate dose values in other body parts of the interventional physician, especially in extremities and eye lens. As each body region of the interventionist is subject to different levels of exposure, dose distribution in each region provides a better approach to what actions are necessary to ensure the radiological protection of medical staff.

Keywords: interventional radiology, radiation protection, occupationally exposed individual, hemodynamic

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55 Design and Manufacture Detection System for Patient's Unwanted Movements during Radiology and CT Scan

Authors: Anita Yaghobi, Homayoun Ebrahimian

Abstract:

One of the important tools that can help orthopedic doctors for diagnose diseases is imaging scan. Imaging techniques can help physicians in see different parts of the body, including the bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and cartilage. During CT scan, a patient must be in the same position from the start to the end of radiation treatment. Patient movements are usually monitored by the technologists through the closed circuit television (CCTV) during scan. If the patient makes a small movement, it is difficult to be noticed by them. In the present work, a simple patient movement monitoring device is fabricated to monitor the patient movement. It uses an electronic sensing device. It continuously monitors the patient’s position while the CT scan is in process. The device has been retrospectively tested on 51 patients whose movement and distance were measured. The results show that 25 patients moved 1 cm to 2.5 cm from their initial position during the CT scan. Hence, the device can potentially be used to control and monitor patient movement during CT scan and Radiography. In addition, an audible alarm situated at the control panel of the control room is provided with this device to alert the technologists. It is an inexpensive, compact device which can be used in any CT scan machine.

Keywords: CT scan, radiology, X Ray, unwanted movement

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54 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif

Abstract:

This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: radiation medicine, non-destructive testing, TLD, public hospital

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53 Impact of Increased Radiology Staffing on After-Hours Radiology Reporting Efficiency and Quality

Authors: Peregrine James Dalziel, Philip Vu Tran

Abstract:

Objective / Introduction: Demand for radiology services from Emergency Departments (ED) continues to increase with greater demands placed on radiology staff providing reports for the management of complex cases. Queuing theory indicates that wide variability of process time with the random nature of request arrival increases the probability of significant queues. This can lead to delays in the time-to-availability of radiology reports (TTA-RR) and potentially impaired ED patient flow. In addition, greater “cognitive workload” of greater volume may lead to reduced productivity and increased errors. We sought to quantify the potential ED flow improvements obtainable from increased radiology providers serving 3 public hospitals in Melbourne Australia. We sought to assess the potential productivity gains, quality improvement and the cost-effectiveness of increased labor inputs. Methods & Materials: The Western Health Medical Imaging Department moved from single resident coverage on weekend days 8:30 am-10:30 pm to a limited period of 2 resident coverage 1 pm-6 pm on both weekend days. The TTA-RR for weekend CT scans was calculated from the PACs database for the 8 month period symmetrically around the date of staffing change. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to isolate the improvement in TTA-RR, between the two 4-months periods. Daily and hourly scan volume at the time of each CT scan was calculated to assess the impact of varying department workload. To assess any improvement in report quality/errors a random sample of 200 studies was assessed to compare the average number of clinically significant over-read addendums to reports between the 2 periods. Cost-effectiveness was assessed by comparing the marginal cost of additional staffing against a conservative estimate of the economic benefit of improved ED patient throughput using the Australian national insurance rebate for private ED attendance as a revenue proxy. Results: The primary resident on call and the type of scan accounted for most of the explained variability in time to report availability (R2=0.29). Increasing daily volume and hourly volume was associated with increased TTA-RR (1.5m (p<0.01) and 4.8m (p<0.01) respectively per additional scan ordered within each time frame. Reports were available 25.9 minutes sooner on average in the 4 months post-implementation of double coverage (p<0.01) with additional 23.6 minutes improvement when 2 residents were on-site concomitantly (p<0.01). The aggregate average improvement in TTA-RR was 24.8 hours per weekend day This represents the increased decision-making time available to ED physicians and potential improvement in ED bed utilisation. 5% of reports from the intervention period contained clinically significant addendums vs 7% in the single resident period but this was not statistically significant (p=0.7). The marginal cost was less than the anticipated economic benefit based assuming a 50% capture of improved TTA-RR inpatient disposition and using the lowest available national insurance rebate as a proxy for economic benefit. Conclusion: TTA-RR improved significantly during the period of increased staff availability, both during the specific period of increased staffing and throughout the day. Increased labor utilisation is cost-effective compared with the potential improved productivity for ED cases requiring CT imaging.

Keywords: workflow, quality, administration, CT, staffing

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52 Algorithm for Quantification of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chest X-Ray Exams

Authors: Marcela de Oliveira, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Maria Eugenia Dela Rosa, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Diana Rodrigues de Pina

Abstract:

It is estimated that each year one death every 10 seconds (about 2 million deaths) in the world is attributed to tuberculosis (TB). Even after effective treatment, TB leaves sequelae such as, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, compromising the quality of life of patients. Evaluations of the aforementioned sequel are usually performed subjectively by radiology specialists. Subjective evaluation may indicate variations inter and intra observers. The examination of x-rays is the diagnostic imaging method most accomplished in the monitoring of patients diagnosed with TB and of least cost to the institution. The application of computational algorithms is of utmost importance to make a more objective quantification of pulmonary impairment in individuals with tuberculosis. The purpose of this research is the use of computer algorithms to quantify the pulmonary impairment pre and post-treatment of patients with pulmonary TB. The x-ray images of 10 patients with TB diagnosis confirmed by examination of sputum smears were studied. Initially the segmentation of the total lung area was performed (posteroanterior and lateral views) then targeted to the compromised region by pulmonary sequel. Through morphological operators and the application of signal noise tool, it was possible to determine the compromised lung volume. The largest difference found pre- and post-treatment was 85.85% and the smallest was 54.08%.

Keywords: algorithm, radiology, tuberculosis, x-rays exam

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51 Skin-Dose Mapping for Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures: Clinical Experimentations versus a Mathematical Model

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Stefaan Carpentier, Fabrice Leroy, Thibault Julien, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: During an 'Interventional Radiology (IR)' procedure, the patient's skin-dose may become very high for a burn, necrosis and ulceration to appear. In order to prevent these deterministic effects, an accurate calculation of the patient skin-dose mapping is essential. For most machines, the 'Dose Area Product (DAP)' and fluoroscopy time are the only information available for the operator. These two parameters are a very poor indicator of the peak skin dose. We developed a mathematical model that reconstructs the magnitude (delivered dose), shape, and localization of each irradiation field on the patient skin. In case of critical dose exceeding, the system generates warning alerts. We present the results of its comparison with clinical studies. Materials and methods: Two series of comparison of the skin-dose mapping of our mathematical model with clinical studies were performed: 1. At a first time, clinical tests were performed on patient phantoms. Gafchromic films were placed on the table of the IR machine under of PMMA plates (thickness = 20 cm) that simulate the patient. After irradiation, the film darkening is proportional to the radiation dose received by the patient's back and reflects the shape of the X-ray field. After film scanning and analysis, the exact dose value can be obtained at each point of the mapping. Four experimentation were performed, constituting a total of 34 acquisition incidences including all possible exposure configurations. 2. At a second time, clinical trials were launched on real patients during real 'Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO)' procedures for a total of 80 cases. Gafchromic films were placed at the back of patients. We performed comparisons on the dose values, as well as the distribution, and the shape of irradiation fields between the skin dose mapping of our mathematical model and Gafchromic films. Results: The comparison between the dose values shows a difference less than 15%. Moreover, our model shows a very good geometric accuracy: all fields have the same shape, size and location (uncertainty < 5%). Conclusion: This study shows that our model is a reliable tool to warn physicians when a high radiation dose is reached. Thus, deterministic effects can be avoided.

Keywords: clinical experimentation, interventional radiology, mathematical model, patient's skin-dose mapping.

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50 Adverse Reactions from Contrast Media in Patients Undergone Computed Tomography at the Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital

Authors: Pranee Suecharoen, Jaturat Kanpittaya

Abstract:

Background: The incidence of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media has risen. The dearth of reports on reactions to the administration of iso- and low-osmolar contrast media should be addressed. We, therefore, studied the profile of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media; viz., (a) the body systems affected (b) causality, (c) severity, and (d) preventability. Objective: To study adverse reactions (causes and severity) to iodinated contrast media at Srinagarind Hospital. Method: Between March and July, 2015, 1,101 patients from the Department of Radiology were observed and interviewed for the occurrence of adverse reactions. The patients were classified per Naranjo’s algorithm and through use of an adverse reactions questionnaire. Results: A total of 105 cases (9.5%) reported adverse reactions (57% male; 43% female); among whom 2% were iso-osmolar vs. 98% low-osmolar. Diagnoses included hepatoma and cholangiocarcinoma (24.8%), colorectal cancer (9.5%), breast cancer (5.7%), cervical cancer (3.8%), lung cancer (2.9%), bone cancer (1.9%), and others (51.5%). Underlying diseases included hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Mild, moderate, and severe adverse reactions accounted for 92, 5 and 3%, respectively. The respective groups of escalating symptoms included (a) mild urticaria, itching, rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache; (b) moderate hypertension, hypotension, dyspnea, tachycardia and bronchospasm; and (c) severe laryngeal edema, profound hypotension, and convulsions. All reactions could be anticipated per Naranjo’s algorithm. Conclusion: Mild to moderate adverse reactions to low-osmolar contrast media were most common and these occurred immediately after administration. For patient safety and better outcomes, improving the identification of patients likely to have an adverse reaction is essential.

Keywords: adverse reactions, contrast media, computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents

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49 Development of a Model for Predicting Radiological Risks in Interventional Cardiology

Authors: Stefaan Carpentier, Aya Al Masri, Fabrice Leroy, Thibault Julien, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: During an 'Interventional Radiology (IR)' procedure, the patient's skin-dose may become very high for a burn, necrosis, and ulceration to appear. In order to prevent these deterministic effects, a prediction of the peak skin-dose for the patient is important in order to improve the post-operative care to be given to the patient. The objective of this study is to estimate, before the intervention, the patient dose for ‘Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO)’ procedures by selecting relevant clinical indicators. Materials and methods: 103 procedures were performed in the ‘Interventional Cardiology (IC)’ department using a Siemens Artis Zee image intensifier that provides the Air Kerma of each IC exam. Peak Skin Dose (PSD) was measured for each procedure using radiochromic films. Patient parameters such as sex, age, weight, and height were recorded. The complexity index J-CTO score, specific to each intervention, was determined by the cardiologist. A correlation method applied to these indicators allowed to specify their influence on the dose. A predictive model of the dose was created using multiple linear regressions. Results: Out of 103 patients involved in the study, 5 were excluded for clinical reasons and 2 for placement of radiochromic films outside the exposure field. 96 2D-dose maps were finally used. The influencing factors having the highest correlation with the PSD are the patient's diameter and the J-CTO score. The predictive model is based on these parameters. The comparison between estimated and measured skin doses shows an average difference of 0.85 ± 0.55 Gy for doses of less than 6 Gy. The mean difference between air-Kerma and PSD is 1.66 Gy ± 1.16 Gy. Conclusion: Using our developed method, a first estimate of the dose to the skin of the patient is available before the start of the procedure, which helps the cardiologist in carrying out its intervention. This estimation is more accurate than that provided by the Air-Kerma.

Keywords: chronic total occlusion procedures, clinical experimentation, interventional radiology, patient's peak skin dose

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48 Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Investigations of Doped LiF Nanophosphor

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is one of the most effective methods for the assessment of dose during diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy applications. In these applications monitoring of absorbed dose is essential to prevent patient from undue exposure and to evaluate the risks that may arise due to exposure. LiF based thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters are promising materials for the estimation, calibration and monitoring of dose due to their favourable dosimetric characteristics like tissue-equivalence, high sensitivity, energy independence and dose linearity. As the TL efficiency of a phosphor strongly depends on the preparation route, it is interesting to investigate the TL properties of LiF based phosphor in nanocrystalline form. LiF doped with magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), sodium (Na) and silicon (Si) in nanocrystalline form has been prepared using chemical co-precipitation method. Cubical shape LiF nanostructures are formed. TL dosimetry properties have been investigated by exposing it to gamma rays. TL glow curve structure of nanocrystalline form consists of a single peak at 419 K as compared to the multiple peaks observed in microcrystalline form. A consistent glow curve structure with maximum TL intensity at annealing temperature of 573 K and linear dose response from 0.1 to 1000 Gy is observed which is advantageous for radiotherapy application. Good reusability, low fading (5 % over a month) and negligible residual signal (0.0019%) are observed. As per photoluminescence measurements, wide emission band at 360 nm - 550 nm is observed in an undoped LiF. However, an intense peak at 488 nm is observed in doped LiF nanophosphor. The phosphor also exhibits the intense optically stimulated luminescence. Nanocrystalline LiF: Mg, Cu, Na, Si phosphor prepared by co-precipitation method showed simple glow curve structure, linear dose response, reproducibility, negligible residual signal, good thermal stability and low fading. The LiF: Mg, Cu, Na, Si phosphor in nanocrystalline form has tremendous potential in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and high energy radiation application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, nanophosphor, optically stimulated luminescence, co-precipitation method

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47 Gender Identification Using Digital Forensics

Authors: Vinod C. Nayak

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In day-to-day forensic practice, identification is always a difficult task. Availability of anti-mortem and postmortem records plays a major rule in facilitating this tough task. However, the advent of digital forensic is a boon for forensic experts. This study has made use of digital forensics to establish identity by radiological dimensions of maxillary sinus using workstation software. The findings suggest a significant association between maxillary sinus dimensions and human gender. The author will be discussing the methods and results of the study in this e-poster.

Keywords: digital forensics, identification, maxillary sinus, radiology

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46 Dogs Chest Homogeneous Phantom for Image Optimization

Authors: Maris Eugênia Dela Rosa, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Marcela De Oliveira, Diana Rodrigues De Pina, Luis Carlos Vulcano

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In medical veterinary as well as in human medicine, radiological study is essential for a safe diagnosis in clinical practice. Thus, the quality of radiographic image is crucial. In last year’s there has been an increasing substitution of image acquisition screen-film systems for computed radiology equipment (CR) without technical charts adequacy. Furthermore, to carry out a radiographic examination in veterinary patient is required human assistance for restraint this, which can compromise image quality by generating dose increasing to the animal, for Occupationally Exposed and also the increased cost to the institution. The image optimization procedure and construction of radiographic techniques are performed with the use of homogeneous phantoms. In this study, we sought to develop a homogeneous phantom of canine chest to be applied to the optimization of these images for the CR system. In carrying out the simulator was created a database with retrospectives chest images of computed tomography (CT) of the Veterinary Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - UNESP (FMVZ / Botucatu). Images were divided into four groups according to the animal weight employing classification by sizes proposed by Hoskins & Goldston. The thickness of biological tissues were quantified in a 80 animals, separated in groups of 20 animals according to their weights: (S) Small - equal to or less than 9.0 kg, (M) Medium - between 9.0 and 23.0 kg, (L) Large – between 23.1 and 40.0kg and (G) Giant – over 40.1 kg. Mean weight for group (S) was 6.5±2.0 kg, (M) 15.0±5.0 kg, (L) 32.0±5.5 kg and (G) 50.0 ±12.0 kg. An algorithm was developed in Matlab in order to classify and quantify biological tissues present in CT images and convert them in simulator materials. To classify tissues presents, the membership functions were created from the retrospective CT scans according to the type of tissue (adipose, muscle, bone trabecular or cortical and lung tissue). After conversion of the biologic tissue thickness in equivalent material thicknesses (acrylic simulating soft tissues, bone tissues simulated by aluminum and air to the lung) were obtained four different homogeneous phantoms, with (S) 5 cm of acrylic, 0,14 cm of aluminum and 1,8 cm of air; (M) 8,7 cm of acrylic, 0,2 cm of aluminum and 2,4 cm of air; (L) 10,6 cm of acrylic, 0,27 cm of aluminum and 3,1 cm of air and (G) 14,8 cm of acrylic, 0,33 cm of aluminum and 3,8 cm of air. The developed canine homogeneous phantom is a practical tool, which will be employed in future, works to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures.

Keywords: radiation protection, phantom, veterinary radiology, computed radiography

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45 Isolated Hydatidosis of Spleen: A Rare Entity

Authors: Anshul Raja

Abstract:

Cystic lesions of the spleen are rare and splenic hydatid cysts account for only 0.5% to 8% of all hydatidosis. Authors hereby report a case where a 50-year-old female presented to our hospital with the complains of heaviness and pain over left upper abdomen over the past 8-10 years. On radiological examination, ultrasonography revealed findings consistent with isolated splenic hydatid cyst and was later on confirmed on Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). No other organ or system involvement was seen. The patient underwent splenectomy and hydatid cyst was confirmed on histopathology. Owing to its rarity, it offers a diagnostic challenge to physicians but can reliably be diagnosed with great confidence employing various imaging modalities like CT and MRI.

Keywords: gastrointestinal radiology, abdominal imaging, hydatid cyst, medical and health sciences

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44 Renal Angiomyolipoma Rupture Following COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report

Authors: Mohammed Abdurabu, Akram Al-Warqi, Ebrahim M. A. Ebrahim, Jouhar Kollari, Salman Mirza

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The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of the most recent pandemics that invaded earth that left and still leaving hundreds of thousands of patients and ended with high morbidity and mortality rates with no clear cure till this moment. COVID-19 has been proven to be associated with pathologic changes in coagulation, characterized by either thromboembolic or bleeding events. We present this case of a 44-year-old male patient that presented to our Emergency Department with flank pain that later was found to have renal angiomyolipoma (AML) rupture during his COVID-19 infection, ultimately requiring admission for hemorrhage control via Interventional Radiology (IR) drainage. Here, we discuss the role of the front-line physicians and how they should keep a low threshold for the different presentations that could be associated with COVID-19 infection.

Keywords: angiomyolipoma, COVID-19, renal, rupture

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43 Detecting Potential Biomarkers for Ulcerative Colitis Using Hybrid Feature Selection

Authors: Mustafa Alshawaqfeh, Bilal Wajidy, Echin Serpedin, Jan Suchodolski

Abstract:

Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the colon with characteristic inflammation. Clinically IBD is detected using laboratory tests (blood and stool), radiology tests (imaging using CT, MRI), capsule endoscopy and endoscopy. There are two variants of IBD referred to as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. This study employs a hybrid feature selection method that combines a correlation-based variable ranking approach with exhaustive search wrapper methods in order to find potential biomarkers for UC. The proposed biomarkers presented accurate discriminatory power thereby identifying themselves to be possible ingredients to UC therapeutics.

Keywords: ulcerative colitis, biomarker detection, feature selection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

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42 CT Doses Pre and Post SAFIRE: Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction

Authors: N. Noroozian, M. Halim, B. Holloway

Abstract:

Computed Tomography (CT) has become the largest source of radiation exposure in modern countries however, recent technological advances have created new methods to reduce dose without negatively affecting image quality. SAFIRE has emerged as a new software package which utilizes full raw data projections for iterative reconstruction, thereby allowing for lower CT dose to be used. this audit was performed to compare CT doses in certain examinations before and after the introduction of SAFIRE at our Radiology department which showed CT doses were significantly lower using SAFIRE compared with pre-SAFIRE software at SAFIRE 3 setting for the following studies:CSKUH Unenhanced brain scans (-20.9%), CABPEC Abdomen and pelvis with contrast (-21.5%), CCHAPC Chest with contrast (-24.4%), CCHAPC Abdomen and pelvis with contrast (-16.1%), CCHAPC Total chest, abdomen and pelvis (-18.7%).

Keywords: dose reduction, iterative reconstruction, low dose CT techniques, SAFIRE

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