Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: sociology

121 Sociology Curriculum and Capabilities Formation: A Case Study of Two South African Universities

Authors: B. Manyonga

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Across the world, higher education (HE) is expanding rapidly and issues of curriculum change have become more contentious and political than ever before. Although research informing curricula review in social sciences and particularly sociology has been conducted, much analysis has been devoted to teaching and transmitting disciplinary knowledge, student identity and epistemology, with little focus on curriculum conceptualisation and capability formation. This paper builds on and contributes to accumulating knowledge in the field of sociology curriculum design in the South African HE context. Drawing from the principles of Capabilities Approach (CA) of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, the paper argues that sociology curriculum conceptualisation may be enriched by capabilities identification for students. Thus, the sociological canon ought to be the vehicle through which student capabilities could be developed. The CA throws a fresh light on how curriculum ought to be designed to offer students real opportunities, expanding choices for individuals to be what they want to be and do. The paper uses a case of two South African universities to present analysis of qualitative data collected from undergraduate sociology lecturers. The major findings of the paper indicate that there is no clear philosophy guiding the conceptualisation of curriculum. The conceptualisation is based on lecturer expertise, carrying out research, response to topical and societal issues. Sociology lecturers highlighted that they do not consult students on what they want to do and to be as a result of studying for a sociology degree. Although lecturers recognise some human development capabilities such as critical thinking, multiple perspectives and problem solving as important for sociology students, there is little evidence to illustrate how these are being cultivated in students. Taken together, the results suggest that sociological canon is being regarded as the starting point for curriculum planning and construction.

Keywords: capabilities approach, graduate attributes, higher education, sociology curriculum

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120 Representation of Women in TV Commercials

Authors: Elmira Fotoohi

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Representation of women in commercials and the place of sex in advertising is a part of communication studies and all of them are subset of advertising sociology. In this context, a lot of national and international studies have been done from different aspects. But in the meantime, and in connection with women issues, researchers in Communication Science and Sociology are interested in two topics “use of pornographic images of women” and “repeated representations of women in traditional roles and gender stereotypes by emphasizing the differences between men and women”, more than any other topics. Considering a number of changes that have occurred in social institutions and at different levels, the main research question currently are, what is the role of women in our TV ads and how are they represented in them? Do the local television ads represent women in the same issues as the researchers on this topic has proposed or new changes have occurred? Many scholars and thinkers in the field of media outlet that, today, media not just focus on women as gender issues or sex objects, but also seeks to strengthen the gender division of labor in the family and emphasize on the traditional muliebrity and masculinity stereotype.

Keywords: women, representation, tv commercials, advertising sociology, gender stereotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
119 Sociology of Vis and Ramin

Authors: Farzane Yusef Ghanbari

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A sociological analysis on the ancient poetry of Vis and Ramin reveals important points about the political, cultural, and social conditions of the Iranian ancient history. The reciprocal relationship between the effect and structure of society helps the understanding and interpretation of the work. Therefore, informed by the Goldman genetic structuralism and through a glance at social epistemology, this study attempts to explain the role of spell in shaping the social knowledge of ancient people. The results suggest that due to the lack of a central government, and secularism in politics and freedom of speech and opinion, such romantic stories as Vis and Ramin, with a focal female character, has emerged.

Keywords: persian literature, Vis and Ramin, sociology, developmental structuralism

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118 Story of Alex: Sociology of Gender

Authors: Karen V. Lee

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The significance of this study involves autoethnographic research about a music teacher learning about the socialization of gender issues in teaching. Mentorship involving intervention helps with the consequences influencing a transgendered music teacher. Basic storytelling methodology involves the qualitative method of research as a theoretical framework where the author provides a storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers and the sociology of gender. Sub-themes involve counseling, adult education to ensure students and teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and educational resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how stories are helpful resources for others who struggle with the socialization of gender. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist having his sex reassignment surgery during his undergraduate education degree. In conclusion, the research is a reflexive storied framework that embraces a positive outlook about a transgendered teacher during his masectomy. The sensory experience seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of the sociology of gender and society provides transformative aspects that contributes to social change. Overall, the surgery surrounding the story about transgendered issues are not uncommon in society. Thus, continued education supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome and understand issues of gender that can socially impacts their professional lives as teachers.

Keywords: sociology of gender, transgender, music teachers, story, autoethnography as research, ideology

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117 Political Skills in Social Management and Responsibility of Media Studies

Authors: Musa Miah

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Society and social activities are directly governed by political sociology. Political sociology has an impact on the whole of human society, the interrelationships of people in society, social responsibilities and duties, the nature of society, society and culture of different countries, conducting social activities, social change and social development. Through this, the correct knowledge and decision are made by analyzing the complexities of society in different ways. In modern civilized society, people need to get accurate knowledge about how they live, their behavior, customs and principles. The need for political sociology is undeniable, even if new plans are to be adopted for the development of society. The importance of practicing political sociology is immense if any country, nation, or society is to move forward on the path of sustainable development. Research has shown that political sociology is an essential aspect of the social impact of development, sociological analysis of poverty or underdevelopment, development of human values in individual life. The importance of political sociology for knowing the overall aspect of society is undeniable. Because, to know about social problems, to identify social problems, to find the cause of any social problem, one needs to know political sociology. Apart from knowing about the class structure of the society, people of different classes and professions live in the society. It is possible to gain knowledge about. He is also involved in various societies, communities and groups in the country and abroad. Therefore, research has shown that in order to successfully solve any task of the society, it is necessary to know the society in full. Media Studies: Media studies are directly related to socialization. Media strategy has had a positive impact on the management and direction of society. At present, Media Studies in Bangladesh is working towards providing opportunities for up-to-date and quality higher education. Introduced Department of Journalism, Communication and Media Studies in different universities of Bangladesh. The department has gained immense popularity since its inception. Here the top degree holders, as well as eminent editors, senior journalists, writers and researchers, are giving their opinions. Now there is ample scope for research in newspapers, magazines, radio, television and online media as well as outside of work as an advertising-documentary filmmaker or in domestic and foreign NGOs or other corporate organizations. According to the study, media studies have had a positive impact on the media in Bangladesh, especially television channels, the expansion and development of online media and the creation of clear ideas about communication, journalism and the media. Workshops, seminars and discussions are being held on contemporary national and international issues in addition to theoretical concepts. Journalism, communication and mass media are quite exceptional and challenging compared to the traditional subjects considering the present times. In this regard, there is a unique opportunity to build a modern society with taste and personality without mere employment.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Dhaka, social activities, political sociology

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116 Affinity between Sociology and Islamic Economy: An Inquiry into the Possibilities of Social Constructivism

Authors: Hideki Kitamura

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Since Islamic banking has broadly started in the late 1970s, Islamic economy has been paid much attention by both academia and the business world. However, despite abundant studies, descriptive exploration of practices of Islamic economy from a sociological/anthropological perspective is underrepresented, and most are basically designed for evaluating current practice or proposing ideal types of Islamic economy in accordance with their religious conviction. Overall, their interest is not paid to actors of Islamic economy such as practitioner’s decision-making and thought, while sociological/anthropological studies on Muslim’s religious life can be observed well. Herein, the paper aims to look into the possibilities of sociology/anthropology for exploration of the role of actors of Islamic economy, by revisiting the benefit of sociological/anthropological studies on the religion of Islam and its adaptability to the research on Islamic economy. The paper suggests that practices of Islamic economy can be assumed as results of practitioner’s dilemma between Islamic ideals and market realities in each society, by applying the perspective of social constructivism. The paper then proposes focusing on the human agency of practitioners in translating Islamic principles into economic behavior, thereby enabling a more descriptive inquiry into how Islamic economy is produced and operated.

Keywords: Islamic economy, economic sociology/anthropology, human agency, social constructivism

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115 Impacts of Sociological Dynamics on Entomophagy Practice and Food Security in Nigeria

Authors: O. B. Oriolowo, O. J. John

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Empirical findings have shown insects to be nutritious and good source of food for man. However, human food preferences are not only determined by nutritional values of food consumed but, more importantly, by sociology and economic pressure. This study examined the interrelation between science and sociology in sustaining the acceptance of entomophagy among college students to combat food insecurity. A twenty items five Likert scale, College Students Entomophagy Questionnaire (CSEQ), was used to elucidate information from the respondents. The reliability coefficient was obtained to be 0.91 using Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. Also, quantitative nutritional analysis of few insects and some established conventional protein sources were undertaking in order to compare their nutritional status. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentages and inferential statistics of correlation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that entomophagy has cultural heritage among different tribes in Nigeria and is an acceptable practice; it cuts across every social stratum and is practiced among both major religions. Moreover, insects compared favourably in term of nutrient contents when compared with the conventional animal protein sources analyzed. However, there is a gradual decline in the practice of entomophagy among students, which may be attributed to the influence of western civilization. This study, therefore, recommended an intensification of research and enlightenment of people on the usefulness of entomophagy so as to preserve its cultural heritage as well as boost human food security.

Keywords: entomophagy, food security, malnutrition, poverty alleviation, sociology

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114 Alignment in Earnings Management Research: Italy Looking towards US

Authors: Giulia Leoni, Cristina Florio

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The paper aims to investigate the factors driving the increasing alignment of Italian earnings management (EM) research to US research on the same field. After characterizing the progressive similarity of Italian EM research with respect to US one by means of an historical comparison, the paper relies on a subsequent secondary source analysis to detect the possible causes of said alignment. Once identified that the alignment increased along three subsequent periods, the paper analyses and discusses this incremental similarity according to new institutional sociology (NIS) and highlights the presence of different combination of isomorphic pressures that help explaining this incremental similarity. The paper contributes to the institutional literature by providing evidence of isomorphism in academic research; it also contributes to accounting research by indicating the forces that are able to drive change and development in accounting research at national and international level. The paper also enlarges the explanatory value of NIS in alternative contexts, like academic accounting research.

Keywords: accounting research, earnings management, international comparison, Italy, new institutional sociology, US

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113 The Sociology of the Facebook: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Liana Melissa E. de la Rosa, Jayson P. Ada

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This exploratory study was conducted to determine the sociology of the Facebook. Specifically, it aimed to know the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, year level and monthly allowance; find out the common usage of Facebook to the respondents; identify the features of Facebook that are commonly used by the respondents; understand the benefits and risks of using the Facebook; determine how frequent the respondents use the Facebook; and find out if there is a significant relationship between socio-demographic profile of the respondents and their Facebook usage. This study used the exploratory research design and correlational design employing research survey questionnaire as its main data gathering instrument. Students of the University of Eastern Philippines were selected as the respondents of this study through quota sampling. Ten (10) students were randomly selected from each college of the university. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusion were drawn: The majority of the respondents are aged 18 and 21 old, female, are third year students, and have monthly allowance of P 2,000 above. On the respondents’ usage of Facebook, the majority of use the Facebook on a daily basis for one to two (1-2) hours everyday. And most users used Facebook by renting a computer in an internet cafe. On the use of Facebook, most users have created their profiles mainly to connect with people and gain new friends. The most commonly used features of Facebook, are: photos application, like button, wall, notification, friend, chat, network, groups and “like” pages status updates, messages and inbox and events. While the other Facebook features that are seldom used by the respondents are games, news feed, user name, video sharing and notes. And the least used Facebook features are questions, poke feature, credits and the market place. The respondents stated that the major benefit that the Facebook has given to its users is its ability to keep in touch with family members or friends while the main risk identified is that the users can become addicted to the Internet. On the tests of relationships between the respondents’ use of Facebook and the four (4) socio-demographic profile variables: age, sex, year level, and month allowance, were found to be not significantly related to the respondents’ use of the Facebook. While the variable found to be significantly related was gender.

Keywords: Facebook, sociology, social networking, exploratory study

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112 Centering Critical Sociology for Social Justice and Inclusive Education

Authors: Al Karim Datoo

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Abstract— The presentation argues for an urgent case to center and integrate critical sociology in enriching potency of educational thought and practice to counteract inequalities and social injustices. COVID phenomenon has starkly exposed burgeoning of social-economic inequalities and widening marginalities which have been historically and politically constructed through deep-seated social and power imbalances and injustices in the world. What potent role could education possibly play to combat these issues? A point of departure for this paper highlights increasing reductionist and exclusionary ‘mind-set’ of education that has been developed through trends in education such as: the commodification of knowledge, standardisation, homogenization, and reification which are products of the positivist ideology of knowledge coopted to serve capitalist interests. To redress these issues of de-contextualization and de-humanization of education, it is emphasized that there is an urgent need to center the role of interpretive and critical epistemologies and pedagogies of social sciences. In this regard, notions of problem-posing versus problem-solving, generative themes, instrumental versus emancipatory reasoning will be discussed. The presentation will conclude by illustrating the pedagogic utility of these critically oriented notions to counteract the social reproduction of exclusionary and inequality in and through education.

Keywords: Critical pedagogy, social justice, inclusion , education

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111 The Effect of the Dramas on the Egyptian Public Opinion Regarding the State of Israel: A Survey Study on the Egyptian Youth at Cairo University

Authors: Dana Hisham Mohamed Abdrabo

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The paper examines the effect of Drama works on the Egyptian public opinion regarding the religion of Judaism, Israel as a state and the Jew's image to Egyptian Muslims. The paper examines the role of Media and in particular, Dramas on achieving interreligious dialogue between Judaism and Islam and its role in making peace between the Egyptian Muslims -and Arabs in general- on the one hand, and the Jew on the other hand, and the implications of this on the relationship between Arab countries and Israel as a state. The research uses the Survey method with Egyptian Muslims as a main sample for the research to examine such effect. Dramas have a role in presenting the Jew, Judaism, and Israel as a state and as a political system in various ways. The paper is related to multidisciplinary fields; it is related to political sciences, political sociology, communication, social change, and cognitive sociology fields. The research adds a new analytical study for a new tool for the peacemaking process in the Middle East region through adopting an interdisciplinary approach which is needed in the studies aim to achieve stability and peace in the Middle East region and its neighboring countries.

Keywords: dramas tool, Egyptian public opinion, interreligious dialogue, Israel & Egyptian relations , Judaism

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110 Nations in Labour: Incorporating National Narratives in Sociological Models of Cultural Labour

Authors: Anna Lytvynova

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This essay presents labour as a performatively national phenomenon from a cultural perspective. Considering Engels’ proposition of labour as the epicentre of development of social structures and communities, it theorizes the formation and sustainment of group identities through labour identities. Taking labour in the cultural sector as the starting point case study, the essay further enunciates such labour and labour identity as a form of engaged citizenship. In doing so, this piece hopes to arrive at a potential contemporary understanding of labour as having a central and dynamic role in cultural organization and citizenship. A parallel goal is to de-link sociological models of cultural labor from narratives of art and culture as something that stands separate from the 'real world' and the economy and exists in precarity. Combining discourse from cultural sociology, performance studies, and economics and grounding it in historical archive, the essay makes a primarily discursive theoretical contribution. Taking North American theatre organizations as the exemplifying starting point, this project positions cultural workers not solely as workers in a professional industry but as active citizen-subjects who are deeply involved in their society’s democratic processes. The resulting discourse can be used to shape more effective labour policies, as well as help art and cultural organizations find more effective organizational structures to engage the arts in the economic, political, and social spheres.

Keywords: arts labour, cultural sociology, national identity, performativity

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109 Translators as Agents: Jewish Translators and Zsolnay Publishing House’s Translational Culture in Pre-Anschluss Austria,1924-1938

Authors: Tatsiana Haiden

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The role of the translator in the publishing process has been underestimated for centuries. Any translation is produced in a certain socio-political context by agents with different background, interests, and opinions, i.e., no translation is neutral. Any translation goes beyond the text; it is not only an interlingual transfer of signs but a social phenomenon. The case study shows how Jewish social networks influence publishing translations and aims to explain the unexpected success of the Jewish publishing house in pre-Anschluss Austria. The research shows that translators play a central role (‘Translator’s visibility’ - Pym, ‘Activist turn’ - Wolf, ‘Translator studies’ - Chesterman) in choosing what has to be translated and establishing communication between the author and the publisher. The concept of Translationskultur of Prunc is being historized and applied to the publishing house for the first time by analyzing business correspondence between the main actors of translation (publisher-translator-author). The translation studies project has become interdisciplinary –it encompasses sociology (concepts of Bourdieu’s ‘Field theory’ are used) and history. The historical research method Histoire croiseé is being used to avoid subjectivity and to introduce a new ‘translator-oriented’ vision in translation studies instead of the author-oriented one. In the course of the archival research, it was established that Jewish background plays an essential role in the destiny of the translators and the publishing house, so the Jewish studies have been added to the project. The study goes beyond the Austrian translational culture; it can be used as an example of dealing with publishing houses policies, publishing translations, and translator studies.

Keywords: history of translation, Jewish studies, publishing translations, translation sociology, translator studies, translators as actors

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108 Urban Sexual Geographies, Queer Citizenship and the Socio-Economic Status of LGBTIQs in Vienna

Authors: Karin Schoenpflug, Christine M. Klapeer

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In a large study for the Vienna City Council’s Antidiscrimination unit (WASt) an interdisciplinary team (in the fields of economics, sociology and political science) working with urban economics, critical citizenship studies, the sociology of work & inequality and urban political/human geography conducted an online survey asking LGBTIs (lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender and intersex people) in Vienna detailed questions on their quality-of-life, happiness and well-being. 3.161 persons responded and provided us with a rich data set concerning: 1) Labor market structures, discrimination, working conditions and employment practices (economic citizenship); 2) access to health care, welfare, education and safety in public spaces (social citizenship); 3) political participation as well as access to legal institutions (political citizenship). All those fields are important dimensions in regards to “full” citizenship and the well-being of the LGBTI population, but are also constitutive for the inclusion of sexual and gender minorities into the city population(s) of Vienna. Our data also allows us to map the sexual geography of Vienna as LGBTI communities are more likely to live in certain districts; some places are considered safe(r) and “friendlier”. In this way our work helps to fill a research gap connecting (urban) spaces and sexuality, and it produces new data and insights on the quality-of-life of this subpopulation. Our findings allow for urban (policy) planning and limiting violence and discrimination and improving the collective wellbeing and social cohesion.

Keywords: urban sexual geographies, LGBTI, socio-economic status, Vienna, sitizenship status

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107 Scientific Development as Diffusion on a Social Network: An Empirical Case Study

Authors: Anna Keuchenius

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Broadly speaking, scientific development is studied in either a qualitative manner with a focus on the behavior and interpretations of academics, such as the sociology of science and science studies or in a quantitative manner with a focus on the analysis of publications, such as scientometrics and bibliometrics. Both come with a different set of methodologies and few cross-references. This paper contributes to the bridging of this divide, by on the on hand approaching the process of scientific progress from a qualitative sociological angle and using on the other hand quantitative and computational techniques. As a case study, we analyze the diffusion of Granovetter's hypothesis from his 1973 paper 'On The Strength of Weak Ties.' A network is constructed of all scientists that have referenced this particular paper, with directed edges to all other researchers that are concurrently referenced with Granovetter's 1973 paper. Studying the structure and growth of this network over time, it is found that Granovetter's hypothesis is used by distinct communities of scientists, each with their own key-narrative into which the hypothesis is fit. The diffusion within the communities shares similarities with the diffusion of an innovation in which innovators, early adopters, and an early-late majority can clearly be distinguished. Furthermore, the network structure shows that each community is clustered around one or few hub scientists that are disproportionately often referenced and seem largely responsible for carrying the hypothesis into their scientific subfield. The larger implication of this case study is that the diffusion of scientific hypotheses and ideas are not the spreading of well-defined objects over a network. Rather, the diffusion is a process in which the object itself dynamically changes in concurrence with its spread. Therefore it is argued that the methodology presented in this paper has potential beyond the scientific domain, in the study of diffusion of other not well-defined objects, such as opinions, behavior, and ideas.

Keywords: diffusion of innovations, network analysis, scientific development, sociology of science

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106 Beyond Juridical Approaches: The Role of Sociological Approach in Promoting Human Rights of Migrants

Authors: Ali Aghahosseini Dehaghani

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Every year in this globalized world, thousands of migrants leave their countries hoping to find a better situation of life in other parts of the world. In this regard, many questions, from a human rights point of view, have been raised about how this phenomenon should be managed in the host countries. Although legal approaches such as legislation and litigation are inevitable in the way to respect the human rights of migrants, there is an increasing consensus about the fact that a strict juridical approach is inadequate to protect as well as to prevent violations of migrants’ rights. Indeed, given the multiplicity of factors that affect and shape the application of these rights and considering the fact that law is a social phenomenon, what is needed is an interdisciplinary approach, which combines both juridical approaches and perspectives from other disciplines. In this respect, a sociological approach is important because it shows the social processes through which human rights of migrants have been constructed or violated in particular social situations. Sociologists who study international migration ask the questions such as how many people migrate, who migrates, why people migrate, what happens to them once they arrive in the host country, how migration affects sending and receiving communities, the extent to which migrants help the economy, the effects of migration on crimes, and how migrants change the local communities. This paper is an attempt to show how sociology can promote human rights of migrants. To this end, the article first explores the usefulness and value of an interdisciplinary approach to realize how and to what extent sociology may improve and promote the human rights of migrants in the destination country. It then examines mechanisms which help to reach to a systematic integration of law and sociological discipline to advance migrants’ rights as well as to encourage legal scholars to consider the implications of societal structures in their works.

Keywords: human rights, migrants, sociological approach, interdisciplinary study

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105 Sociology of Muslim Endowments (Waqf) in Indian Kashmir: A Thesis Report

Authors: Adfer Rashid Shah

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This study brings an introduction to the concept of waqf and explores the institution of waqf in the valley of Kashmir. Waqfs (pl. Auqaf) are Islamic endowments which can be movable or immovable property by Muslims for the welfare of the poor and the upkeep of the mosques, shrines, imambaras, madrassas, orphanages, etc,. The study was undertaken to venture into the sociology of these endowments and see the dynamics and role of waqf institution in the welfare of masses especially the deserving populace of the state of Jamu and Kashmir. The Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Waqf Board (JKMWB) is a significant religio-social organization for it possesses the largest assets after the State government and has an immense potential and ownership in terms of huge properties besides having rich and perpetual cash and kind donations, gold, silver and other commodities from the believers. It is certainly the perpetual wealth of faith. Therefore this study besides exploring the waqf institution, sociologically probed into the social, religious and philanthropic interventions of the Wakf Board besides studying the waqf of education (both religious and general). Also, a passing reference on personalized Auqaf, local waqf committees particularly shia Auqaf was also made. As far methodology employed, the study was purely a qualitative study using various sociological perspectives like functionalism, grounded theory besides a range other concepts to see the total role of waqf that it has been playing for the people’s welfare in the valley of Kashmir since its establishment in 1940’s. The overall discussion revealed the social dynamics of waqf institution in Kashmir valley is increasing its social interventions and making difference in the lives of many deserving Muslims within its capacities.

Keywords: waqf, wakf board, religious waqf, philanthropy and education waqf, religious waqf, Kashmir

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104 The Integration of Digital Humanities into the Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse Analysis

Authors: Gertraud Koch, Teresa Stumpf, Alejandra Tijerina García

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Discourse analysis research approaches belong to the central research strategies applied throughout the humanities; they focus on the countless forms and ways digital texts and images shape present-day notions of the world. Despite the constantly growing number of relevant digital, multimodal discourse resources, digital humanities (DH) methods are thus far not systematically developed and accessible for discourse analysis approaches. Specifically, the significance of multimodality and meaning plurality modelling are yet to be sufficiently addressed. In order to address this research gap, the D-WISE project aims to develop a prototypical working environment as digital support for the sociology of knowledge approach to discourse analysis and new IT-analysis approaches for the use of context-oriented embedding representations. Playing an essential role throughout our research endeavor is the constant optimization of hermeneutical methodology in the use of (semi)automated processes and their corresponding epistemological reflection. Among the discourse analyses, the sociology of knowledge approach to discourse analysis is characterised by the reconstructive and accompanying research into the formation of knowledge systems in social negotiation processes. The approach analyses how dominant understandings of a phenomenon develop, i.e., the way they are expressed and consolidated by various actors in specific arenas of discourse until a specific understanding of the phenomenon and its socially accepted structure are established. This article presents insights and initial findings from D-WISE, a joint research project running since 2021 between the Institute of Anthropological Studies in Culture and History and the Language Technology Group of the Department of Informatics at the University of Hamburg. As an interdisciplinary team, we develop central innovations with regard to the availability of relevant DH applications by building up a uniform working environment, which supports the procedure of the sociology of knowledge approach to discourse analysis within open corpora and heterogeneous, multimodal data sources for researchers in the humanities. We are hereby expanding the existing range of DH methods by developing contextualized embeddings for improved modelling of the plurality of meaning and the integrated processing of multimodal data. The alignment of this methodological and technical innovation is based on the epistemological working methods according to grounded theory as a hermeneutic methodology. In order to systematically relate, compare, and reflect the approaches of structural-IT and hermeneutic-interpretative analysis, the discourse analysis is carried out both manually and digitally. Using the example of current discourses on digitization in the healthcare sector and the associated issues regarding data protection, we have manually built an initial data corpus of which the relevant actors and discourse positions are analysed in conventional qualitative discourse analysis. At the same time, we are building an extensive digital corpus on the same topic based on the use and further development of entity-centered research tools such as topic crawlers and automated newsreaders. In addition to the text material, this consists of multimodal sources such as images, video sequences, and apps. In a blended reading process, the data material is filtered, annotated, and finally coded with the help of NLP tools such as dependency parsing, named entity recognition, co-reference resolution, entity linking, sentiment analysis, and other project-specific tools that are being adapted and developed. The coding process is carried out (semi-)automated by programs that propose coding paradigms based on the calculated entities and their relationships. Simultaneously, these can be specifically trained by manual coding in a closed reading process and specified according to the content issues. Overall, this approach enables purely qualitative, fully automated, and semi-automated analyses to be compared and reflected upon.

Keywords: entanglement of structural IT and hermeneutic-interpretative analysis, multimodality, plurality of meaning, sociology of knowledge approach to discourse analysis

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103 Refutation of Imre Hermann's Allegation: János Bolyai Was Not Insane

Authors: Oláh Gál Róbert, Veress Bágyi Ibolya

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The scientific public has relatively little knowledge about the Hungarian János Bolyai, one of the greatest thinkers of all times. Few people know that apart from being the founder of the non-Euclidean geometry he was also interested in sociology, philosophy, epistemology and linguistics. According to the renowned Hungarian psychoanalytic Imre Hermann, who lives in France, János Bolyai was mentally deranged. However, this is incorrect. The present article intends to prove that he was completely sane until the moment of his death.

Keywords: Imre Hermann, insane, János Bolyai, mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry, psyphoanalytic

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102 Medical Examiner Collection of Comprehensive, Objective Medical Evidence for Conducted Electrical Weapons and Their Temporal Relationship to Sudden Arrest

Authors: Michael Brave, Mark Kroll, Steven Karch, Charles Wetli, Michael Graham, Sebastian Kunz, Dorin Panescu

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Background: Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) are now used in 107 countries and are a common law enforcement less-lethal force practice in the United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and others. Use of these devices is rarely temporally associated with the occurrence of sudden arrest-related deaths (ARD). Because such deaths are uncommon, few Medical Examiners (MEs) ever encounter one, and even fewer offices have established comprehensive investigative protocols. Without sufficient scientific data, the role, if any, played by a CEW in a given case is largely supplanted by conjecture often defaulting to a CEW-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the difficulty in investigating individual deaths, the lack of information also detrimentally affects being able to define and evaluate the ARD cohort generally. More comprehensive, better information leads to better interpretation in individual cases and also to better research. The purpose of this presentation is to provide MEs with a comprehensive evidence-based checklist to assist in the assessment of CEW-ARD cases. Methods: PUBMED and Sociology/Criminology data bases were queried to find all medical, scientific, electrical, modeling, engineering, and sociology/criminology peer-reviewed literature for mentions of CEW or synonymous terms. Each paper was then individually reviewed to identify those that discussed possible bioelectrical mechanisms relating CEW to ARD. A Naranjo-type pharmacovigilance algorithm was also employed, when relevant, to identify and quantify possible direct CEW electrical myocardial stimulation. Additionally, CEW operational manuals and training materials were reviewed to allow incorporation of CEW-specific technical parameters. Results: Total relevant PUBMED citations of CEWs were less than 250, and reports of death extremely rare. Much relevant information was available from Sociology/Criminology data bases. Once the relevant published papers were identified, and reviewed, we compiled an annotated checklist of data that we consider critical to a thorough CEW-involved ARD investigation. Conclusion: We have developed an evidenced-based checklist that can be used by MEs and their staffs to assist them in identifying, collecting, documenting, maintaining, and objectively analyzing the role, if any, played by a CEW in any specific case of sudden death temporally associated with the use of a CEW. Even in cases where the collected information is deemed by the ME as insufficient for formulating an opinion or diagnosis to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, information collected as per the checklist will often be adequate for other stakeholders to use as a basis for informed decisions. Having reviewed the appropriate materials in a significant number of cases careful examination of the heart and brain is likely adequate. Channelopathy testing should be considered in some cases, however it may be considered cost prohibitive (aprox $3000). Law enforcement agencies may want to consider establishing a reserve fund to help manage such rare cases. The expense may stay the enormous costs associated with incident-precipitated litigation.

Keywords: ARD, CEW, police, TASER

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101 Process of the Emergence and Evolution of Socio-Cultural Ideas about the "Asian States" In the Context of the Development of US Cinema in 1941-1945

Authors: Selifontova Darya Yurievna

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The study of the process of the emergence and evolution of socio-cultural ideas about the "Asian states" in the context of the development of US cinema in 1941-1945 will contribute both to the approbation of a new approach to the classical subject and will allow using the methodological tools of history, political science, philology, sociology for understanding modern military-political, historical, ideological, socio-cultural processes on a concrete example. This is especially important for understanding the process of constructing the image of the Japanese Empire in the USA. Assessments and images of China and Japan in World War II, created in American cinema, had an immediate impact on the media, public sentiment, and opinions. During the war, the US cinema created new myths and actively exploited old ones, combining them with traditional Hollywood cliches - all this served as a basis for creating the image of China and the Japanese Empire on the screen, which were necessary to solve many foreign policy and domestic political tasks related to the construction of two completely different, but at the same time, similar images of Asia (China and the Japanese Empire). In modern studies devoted to the history of wars, the study of the specifics of the information confrontation of the parties is in demand. A special role in this confrontation is played by propaganda through cinema, which uses images, historical symbols, and stable metaphors, the appeal to which can form a certain public reaction. Soviet documentaries of the war years are proof of this. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that cinema as a means of propaganda was very popular and in demand during the Second World War. This period was the time of creation of real masterpieces in the field of propaganda films, in the documentary space of the cinema of 1941 – 1945. The traditions of depicting the Second World War were laid down. The study of the peculiarities of visualization and mythologization of the Second World War in Soviet cinema is the most important stage for studying the development of the specifics of propaganda methods since the methods and techniques of depicting the war formed in 1941-1945 are also significant at the present stage of the study of society.

Keywords: asian countries, politics, sociology, domestic politics, USA, cinema

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100 Annexation (Al-Iḍāfah) in Thariq bin Ziyad’s Speech

Authors: Annisa D. Febryandini

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Annexation is a typical construction that commonly used in Arabic language. The use of the construction appears in Arabic speech such as the speech of Thariq bin Ziyad. The speech as one of the most famous speeches in the history of Islam uses many annexations. This qualitative research paper uses the secondary data by library method. Based on the data, this paper concludes that the speech has two basic structures with some variations and has some grammatical relationship. Different from the other researches that identify the speech in sociology field, the speech in this paper will be analyzed in linguistic field to take a look at the structure of its annexation as well as the grammatical relationship.

Keywords: annexation, Thariq bin Ziyad, grammatical relationship, Arabic syntax

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99 Between the ‘Principle of Hope’ and ‘Spiritual Booze’: An Analysis of Religious Themes in the Language Used by the Russian Marxists

Authors: George Bocean

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In the mainstream academic spheres of thought, there is a tendency to associate the writings of Russian Marxists as being constantly against the practice of religion itself. Such arguments mainly stem from how the attitude of the Russian Marxists, specifically the Bolsheviks, towards the concept of religion supposedly originates from its own Marxist ideology. Although Marxism is critical of religion as an institution, the approach that Marxism would have on the question of religion is not as clear. Such aspect is specifically observed in the use of language of major leading Russian Marxist figures, such as Lenin and Trotsky, throughout the early 20th century, where the use of religious metaphors was widely used in their philosophical writings and speeches, as well as in propaganda posters of general left-wing movements in Russia as a whole. The methodology of the research will consist of a sociolinguistic and sociology of language approach within a sociohistorical framework of late Tsarist and early Soviet Russia, 1905-1926. The purpose of such approaches are not simply to point out the religious metaphors used in the writings and speeches of Marxists in Russia, but rather in order to analyse how the use of such metaphors represent an important socio-political connection with the context of Russia at the time. In other words, the use of religious metaphors was not only more akin to Russian culture at the time, but this also resonated and was more familiar with the conditions of the working class and peasantry. An example in this study can be observed in the writings of Lenin, where the theme of chudo (miracle) is often mentioned in his writings, and such a word is commonly associated with an idealist philosophy rather than a materialist one, which represents a common theme in Russian culture in regards to the principle of hope for a better life. A further and even more obvious example is Trotsky’s writings about how the revolution of 1905 “would be revived”, which not only resonates with the theme of resurrection, but also prophesises the “second coming” of a future revolution. Such metaphors are important in the writings of such authors, as they simultaneously contain Marxist ideas, as well as religious themes. In doing this research, this paper will demonstrate two aspects. Firstly, the paper will analyse the use of the metaphors by Russian Marxists as a whole in regards to a socio-political and ideological perspectives akin to those of Marxism. Secondly, it will also demonstrate the role that such metaphors have in regards to their impact on the left-wing movements within Russia itself, as well as their relation to the working class and peasantry of Russia within the historical context.

Keywords: language and politics, Marxism, Russian history, social history, sociology of language

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98 Development of Researcher Knowledge in Mathematics Education: Towards a Confluence Framework

Authors: Igor Kontorovich, Rina Zazkis

Abstract:

We present a framework of researcher knowledge ‎development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key ‎components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a ‎particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing ‎filters that influence a researcher decision making. The components of ‎the framework originated from a confluence between constructs and ‎theories in Mathematics Education, Higher Education and Sociology. ‎Drawing on a self-reflective interview with a leading researcher in ‎mathematics education, professor Michèle Artigue, we illustrate how ‎the framework can be utilized in data analysis. Criteria for framework ‎evaluation are discussed. ‎

Keywords: community of practice, knowledge development, mathematics education research, researcher knowledge

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97 "IS Cybernetics": An Idea to Base the International System Theory upon the General System Theory and Cybernetics

Authors: Petra Suchovska

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The spirit of post-modernity remains chaotic and obscure. Geopolitical rivalries raging at the more extreme levels and the ability of intellectual community to explain the entropy of global affairs has been diminishing. The Western-led idea of globalisation imposed upon the world does not seem to bring the bright future for human progress anymore, and its architects lose much of global control, as the strong non-western cultural entities develop new forms of post-modern establishments. The overall growing cultural misunderstanding and mistrust are expressions of political impotence to deal with the inner contradictions within the contemporary phenomenon (capitalism, economic globalisation) that embrace global society. The drivers and effects of global restructuring must be understood in the context of systems and principles reflecting on true complexity of society. The purpose of this paper is to set out some ideas about how cybernetics can contribute to understanding international system structure and analyse possible world futures. “IS Cybernetics” would apply to system thinking and cybernetic principles in IR in order to analyse and handle the complexity of social phenomena from global perspective. “IS cybernetics” would be, for now, the subfield of IR, concerned with applying theories and methodologies from cybernetics and system sciences by offering concepts and tools for addressing problems holistically. It would bring order to the complex relations between disciplines that IR touches upon. One of its tasks would be to map, measure, tackle and find the principles of dynamics and structure of social forces that influence human behaviour and consequently cause political, technological and economic structural reordering, forming and reforming the international system. “IS cyberneticists” task would be to understand the control mechanisms that govern the operation of international society (and the sub-systems in their interconnection) and only then suggest better ways operate these mechanisms on sublevels as cultural, political, technological, religious and other. “IS cybernetics” would also strive to capture the mechanism of social-structural changes in time, which would open space for syntheses between IR and historical sociology. With the cybernetic distinction between first order studies of observed systems and the second order study of observing systems, IS cybernetics would also provide a unifying epistemological and methodological, conceptual framework for multilateralism and multiple modernities theory.

Keywords: cybernetics, historical sociology, international system, systems theory

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96 A Cross-Sectional Study on Evaluation of Studies Conducted on Women in Turkey

Authors: Oya Isik, Filiz Yurtal, Kubilay Vursavus, Muge K. Davran, Metehan Celik, Munire Akgul, Olcay Karacan

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In this study, to discuss the causes and problems of women by bringing together different disciplines engaged in women's studies were aimed. Also, to solve these problems, to share information and experiences in different disciplines about women, and to reach the task areas and decision mechanisms in practice were other objectives. For this purpose, proceedings presented at the Second Congress of Women's Studies held in Adana, Turkey, on 28-30 November 2018 was evaluated. The document analysis model, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the evaluation of the congress proceedings. A total of 86 papers were presented in the congress and the topic distributions of the papers were determined. At the evaluation stage, the papers were classified according to their subjects and descriptive analyses were made on the papers. According to the analysis results of the papers presented in the congress, 64 % of the total 86 papers presented in the Congress were review-based and 36 % were research-based studies. When the distribution of these reports was examined based on subject, the biggest share with the rate of 34.9% (13 reviews and 17 research-based papers) has been studied on women's issues through sociology, psychology and philosophy. This was followed by the economy, employment, organization, and non-governmental organizations with 20.9% (9 reviews and nine research-based papers), arts and literature with 17.4% (15 reviews based papers) and law with 12.8% (11 reviews based papers). The lowest share of the congress was presented in politics with one review based paper (1.2%), health with two research-based paper (2.3%), history with two reviews based papers (2.3%), religion with two reviews and one research-based papers (3.5%) and media-communication with two compilations and two researches based papers (4.7%). In the papers categorized under main headings, women were examined in terms of gender and gender roles. According to the results, it was determined that discrimination against women continued, changes in-laws were not put into practice sufficiently, education and economic independence levels of women were insufficient, and violence against women continued increasingly. To eliminate all these problems and to make the society conscious, it was decided that scientific studies should be supported. Furthermore, support policies should be realized jointly for women and men to make women visible in public life, tolerance or mitigation should not be put forward for any reason or in any group in cases of harassment and assault against women. However, it has been determined that women in Turkey should be in a better position in the social, cultural, psychological, economic and educational areas, and future studies should be carried out to improve women's rights and to create a positive perspective.

Keywords: gender, gender roles, sociology, psychology and philosophy, women studies

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95 Popularization of the Communist Manifesto in 19th Century Europe

Authors: Xuanyu Bai

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“The Communist Manifesto”, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the most significant documents throughout the whole history which covers across different fields including Economic, Politic, Sociology and Philosophy. Instead of discussing the Communist ideas presented in the Communist Manifesto, the essay focuses on exploring the reasons that contributed to the popularization of the document and its influence on political revolutions in 19th century Europe by concentrating on the document itself along with other primary and secondary sources and temporal artwork. Combining the details from the Communist Manifesto and other documents, Marx’s writing style and word choice, his convincible notions about a new society dominated by proletariats, and the revolutionary idea of class destruction has led to the popularization of the Communist Manifesto and influenced the latter political revolutions.

Keywords: communist manifesto, Marx, Engels, capitalism

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94 Nuances of Urban Ecology in the Present Global Scenario: Scope, Issues, Challenges and Implications

Authors: Meenakshi Pappu

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The term, 'urban ecology' has often been misconstrued by the educational practitioners as well as the researchers as a study under a single discipline i.e., the environmental sciences. One who has done research extensively in this study would always argue that urban ecology is not a study under a single discipline, but it is a study across disciplines such as social sciences and other sciences like architecture, engineering, planning, ecology, geography, biology, economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and health sciences. The aim of this paper is to discuss at length the scope of Urban Ecology as an interdisciplinary study. The paper highlights the nuances of urban ecology as a study across disciplines and the challenges and the implications it holds for future research by conducting a qualitative survey in the particular areas.

Keywords: educational practitioners, interdisciplinary, researchers, urban ecology

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93 The Process of Sanctification: A Bourdieusian Approach to the Declension of Power in New England Puritan Clergy

Authors: W. Scott Jackson

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This paper explains the declension of Puritan clerical power following the Great Migration up until when Massachusetts lost its charter in 1684. Historian Perry Miller argued that an overall declension in Puritan culture occurred during this period. However, that notion has been dispelled. There is a resurging field exploring declension in areas outside of Miller’s scope of Puritan culture. I determine that colonial New England existed as a functional theocracy by using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic capital to explain clerical power through symbolic and religious misdirection and conversion. I explore civil and economic power struggles in colonial New England during the decades following the Great Migration to establish that Puritan culture did not largely decline. Instead, it was the Puritan clergy’s power that waned during this period.

Keywords: Bourdieu, Historical Sociology, Symbolic Capital, Puritan

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92 Growth of New Media Advertising

Authors: Palwinder Bhatia

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As all know new media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century which refers to on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. The role of new media in advertisement is impeccable these days. It becomes the cheap and best way of advertising. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. New media brings a revolution in about every field. It makes bridge between customer and companies. World make a global village with the only help of new media. Advertising helps in shaping the consumer behavior and effect on consumer psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. People do comments and like the particular brands on the networking sites which create mesmerism impact on the behavior of customer. Recent study did by Times of India shows that 64% of Facebook users have liked a brand on Facebook.

Keywords: film, visual, culture, media, advertisement

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