Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 345

Search results for: Google

345 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: blended learning, learning app, google classroom, schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
344 Comparison of the H-Index of Researchers of Google Scholar and Scopus

Authors: Adian Fatchur Rochim, Abdul Muis, Riri Fitri Sari

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H-index has been widely used as a performance indicator of researchers around the world especially in Indonesia. The Government uses Scopus and Google scholar as indexing references in providing recognition and appreciation. However, those two indexing services yield to different H-index values. For that purpose, this paper evaluates the difference of the H-index from those services. Researchers indexed by Webometrics, are used as reference’s data in this paper. Currently, Webometrics only uses H-index from Google Scholar. This paper observed and compared corresponding researchers’ data from Scopus to get their H-index score. Subsequently, some researchers with huge differences in score are observed in more detail on their paper’s publisher. This paper shows that the H-index of researchers in Google Scholar is approximately 2.45 times of their Scopus H-Index. Most difference exists due to the existence of uncertified publishers, which is considered in Google Scholar but not in Scopus.

Keywords: Google Scholar, H-index, Scopus, performance indicator

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
343 Utilizing Google Earth for Internet GIS

Authors: Alireza Derambakhsh

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The objective of this examination is to explore the capability of utilizing Google Earth for Internet GIS applications. The study particularly analyzes the utilization of vector and characteristic information and the capability of showing and preparing this information in new ways utilizing the Google Earth stage. It has progressively been perceived that future improvements in GIS will fixate on Internet GIS, and in three noteworthy territories: GIS information access, spatial data scattering and GIS displaying/preparing. Google Earth is one of the group of geobrowsers that offer a free and simple to utilize administration that empower information with a spatial part to be overlain on top of a 3-D model of the Earth. This examination makes a methodological structure to accomplish its objective that comprises of three noteworthy parts: A database level, an application level and a customer level. As verification of idea a web model has been produced, which incorporates a differing scope of datasets and lets clients direst inquiries and make perceptions of this custom information. The outcomes uncovered that both vector and property information can be successfully spoken to and imagined utilizing Google Earth. In addition, the usefulness to question custom information and envision results has been added to the Google Earth stage.

Keywords: Google earth, internet GIS, vector, characteristic information

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
342 The Pedagogical Functions of Arts and Cultural-Heritage Education with ICTs in Museums – A Case Study of FINNA and Google Art

Authors: Pei Zhao, Sara Sintonen, Heikki Kynäslahti

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Digital museums and arts galleries have become popular in museum education and management. Museum and arts galleries website is one of the most effective and efficient ways. Google, a corporation specializing in Internet-related services and projects, not only puts high-resolution arts images online, but also uses augmented-reality in digital art gallery. The Google Art Project, Google’s production, provides users a platform in appreciating and learning arts. After Google Art Project, more and more countries released their own museum and arts gallery websites, like British Paining in BBC, and FINNA in Finland. Pedagogical function in these websites is one of the most important functions. In this paper, we use Google Art Project and FINNA as the case studies to investigate what kinds of pedagogical functions exist in these websites. Finally, this paper will give the recommendation to digital museums and websites development, especially the pedagogical functions development, in the future.

Keywords: arts education, cultural-heritage education, education with ICTs, pedagogical functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
341 Estimating Current Suicide Rates Using Google Trends

Authors: Ladislav Kristoufek, Helen Susannah Moat, Tobias Preis

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Data on the number of people who have committed suicide tends to be reported with a substantial time lag of around two years. We examine whether online activity measured by Google searches can help us improve estimates of the number of suicide occurrences in England before official figures are released. Specifically, we analyse how data on the number of Google searches for the terms “depression” and “suicide” relate to the number of suicides between 2004 and 2013. We find that estimates drawing on Google data are significantly better than estimates using previous suicide data alone. We show that a greater number of searches for the term “depression” is related to fewer suicides, whereas a greater number of searches for the term “suicide” is related to more suicides. Data on suicide related search behaviour can be used to improve current estimates of the number of suicide occurrences.

Keywords: nowcasting, search data, Google Trends, official statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
340 Mountain Photo Sphere: An Android Application of Mountain Hiking Street View

Authors: Yanto Budisusanto, Aulia Rachmawati

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Land navigation technology that is being developed is Google Street View to provide 360° street views, enabling the user to know the road conditions physically with the photo display. For climbers, especially beginners, detail information of climbing terrain is needed so climbers can prepare supplies and strategies before climbing. Therefore, we built a mountaineer guide application named Mountain Photo Sphere. This application displays a 360̊ panoramic view of mountain hiking trail and important points along the hiking path and its surrounding conditions. By combining panoramic photos 360̊ and tracking paths from coordinate data, a virtual tour will be formed. It is built using Java language and Android Studio. The hiking trail map composed by Google Maps API (Gaining access to google maps), Google GEO API (Gaining access to google maps), and OpenStreetMap API (Getting map files to be accessed offline on the Application). This application can be accessed offline so that climbers can use the application during climbing activities.

Keywords: google street view, panoramic photo 360°, mountain hiking, mountain photo sphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
339 Google Translate: AI Application

Authors: Shaima Almalhan, Lubna Shukri, Miriam Talal, Safaa Teskieh

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Since artificial intelligence is a rapidly evolving topic that has had a significant impact on technical growth and innovation, this paper examines people's awareness, use, and engagement with the Google Translate application. To see how familiar aware users are with the app and its features, quantitative and qualitative research was conducted. The findings revealed that consumers have a high level of confidence in the application and how far people they benefit from this sort of innovation and how convenient it makes communication.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, google translate, speech recognition, language translation, camera translation, speech to text, text to speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
338 Semantic Search Engine Based on Query Expansion with Google Ranking and Similarity Measures

Authors: Ahmad Shahin, Fadi Chakik, Walid Moudani

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Our study is about elaborating a potential solution for a search engine that involves semantic technology to retrieve information and display it significantly. Semantic search engines are not used widely over the web as the majorities are still in Beta stage or under construction. Many problems face the current applications in semantic search, the major problem is to analyze and calculate the meaning of query in order to retrieve relevant information. Another problem is the ontology based index and its updates. Ranking results according to concept meaning and its relation with query is another challenge. In this paper, we are offering a light meta-engine (QESM) which uses Google search, and therefore Google’s index, with some adaptations to its returned results by adding multi-query expansion. The mission was to find a reliable ranking algorithm that involves semantics and uses concepts and meanings to rank results. At the beginning, the engine finds synonyms of each query term entered by the user based on a lexical database. Then, query expansion is applied to generate different semantically analogous sentences. These are generated randomly by combining the found synonyms and the original query terms. Our model suggests the use of semantic similarity measures between two sentences. Practically, we used this method to calculate semantic similarity between each query and the description of each page’s content generated by Google. The generated sentences are sent to Google engine one by one, and ranked again all together with the adapted ranking method (QESM). Finally, our system will place Google pages with higher similarities on the top of the results. We have conducted experimentations with 6 different queries. We have observed that most ranked results with QESM were altered with Google’s original generated pages. With our experimented queries, QESM generates frequently better accuracy than Google. In some worst cases, it behaves like Google.

Keywords: semantic search engine, Google indexing, query expansion, similarity measures

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
337 The Democratization of 3D Capturing: An Application Investigating Google Tango Potentials

Authors: Carlo Bianchini, Lorenzo Catena

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The appearance of 3D scanners and then, more recently, of image-based systems that generate point clouds directly from common digital images have deeply affected the survey process in terms of both capturing and 2D/3D modelling. In this context, low cost and mobile systems are increasingly playing a key role and actually paving the way to the democratization of what in the past was the realm of few specialized technicians and expensive equipment. The application of Google Tango on the ancient church of Santa Maria delle Vigne in Pratica di Mare – Rome presented in this paper is one of these examples.

Keywords: the architectural survey, augmented/mixed/virtual reality, Google Tango project, image-based 3D capturing

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336 The Potential of Cloud Computing in Overcoming the Problems of Collective Learning

Authors: Hussah M. AlShayea

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This study aimed to identify the potential of cloud computing, "Google Drive" in overcoming the problems of collective learning from the viewpoint of Princess Noura University students. The study included (92) students from the College of Education. To achieve the goal of the study, several steps have been taken. First, the most important problems of collective learning were identified from the viewpoint of the students. After that, a survey identifying the potential of cloud computing "Google Drive" in overcoming the problems of collective learning was distributed among the students. The study results showed that the students believe that the use of Google Drive contributed to overcoming these problems. In the light of those results, the researcher presented a set of recommendations and proposals, including: encouraging teachers and learners to employ cloud computing to overcome the problems and constraints of collective learning.

Keywords: cloud computing, collective learning, Google drive, Princess Noura University

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
335 Comparison of Slope Data between Google Earth and the Digital Terrain Model, for Registration in Car

Authors: André Felipe Gimenez, Flávia Alessandra Ribeiro da Silva, Roberto Saverio Souza Costa

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Currently, the rural producer has been facing problems regarding environmental regularization, which is precisely why the CAR (Rural Environmental Registry) was created. CAR is an electronic registry for rural properties with the purpose of assimilating notions about legal reserve areas, permanent preservation areas, areas of limited use, stable areas, forests and remnants of native vegetation, and all rural properties in Brazil. . The objective of this work was to evaluate and compare altimetry and slope data from google Earth with a digital terrain model (MDT) generated by aerophotogrammetry, in three plots of a steep slope, for the purpose of declaration in the CAR (Rural Environmental Registry). The realization of this work is justified in these areas, in which rural landowners have doubts about the reliability of the use of the free software Google Earth to diagnose inclinations greater than 25 degrees, as recommended by federal law 12651/2012. Added to the fact that in the literature, there is a deficiency of this type of study for the purpose of declaration of the CAR. The results showed that when comparing the drone altimetry data with the Google Earth image data, in areas of high slope (above 40% slope), Google underestimated the real values of terrain slope. Thus, it is concluded that Google Earth is not reliable for diagnosing areas with an inclination greater than 25 degrees (46% declivity) for the purpose of declaration in the CAR, being essential to carry out the local topographic survey.

Keywords: MDT, drone, RPA, SiCar, photogrammetry

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334 An Online Adaptive Thresholding Method to Classify Google Trends Data Anomalies for Investor Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Duygu Dere, Mert Ergeneci, Kaan Gokcesu

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Google Trends data has gained increasing popularity in the applications of behavioral finance, decision science and risk management. Because of Google’s wide range of use, the Trends statistics provide significant information about the investor sentiment and intention, which can be used as decisive factors for corporate and risk management fields. However, an anomaly, a significant increase or decrease, in a certain query cannot be detected by the state of the art applications of computation due to the random baseline noise of the Trends data, which is modelled as an Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Since through time, the baseline noise power shows a gradual change an adaptive thresholding method is required to track and learn the baseline noise for a correct classification. To this end, we introduce an online method to classify meaningful deviations in Google Trends data. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our method can successfully classify various anomalies for plenty of different data.

Keywords: adaptive data processing, behavioral finance , convex optimization, online learning, soft minimum thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
333 Optimizing the Use of Google Translate in Translation Teaching: A Case Study at Prince Sultan University

Authors: Saadia Elamin

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The quasi-universal use of smart phones with internet connection available all the time makes it a reflex action for translation undergraduates, once they encounter the least translation problem, to turn to the freely available web resource: Google Translate. Like for other translator resources and aids, the use of Google Translate needs to be moderated in such a way that it contributes to developing translation competence. Here, instead of interfering with students’ learning by providing ready-made solutions which might not always fit into the contexts of use, it can help to consolidate the skills of analysis and transfer which students have already acquired. One way to do so is by training students to adhere to the basic principles of translation work. The most important of these is that analyzing the source text for comprehension comes first and foremost before jumping into the search for target language equivalents. Another basic principle is that certain translator aids and tools can be used for comprehension, while others are to be confined to the phase of re-expressing the meaning into the target language. The present paper reports on the experience of making a measured and reasonable use of Google Translate in translation teaching at Prince Sultan University (PSU), Riyadh. First, it traces the development that has taken place in the field of translation in this age of information technology, be it in translation teaching and translator training, or in the real-world practice of the profession. Second, it describes how, with the aim of reflecting this development onto the way translation is taught, senior students, after being trained on post-editing machine translation output, are authorized to use Google Translate in classwork and assignments. Third, the paper elaborates on the findings of this case study which has demonstrated that Google Translate, if used at the appropriate levels of training, can help to enhance students’ ability to perform different translation tasks. This help extends from the search for terms and expressions, to the tasks of drafting the target text, revising its content and finally editing it. In addition, using Google Translate in this way fosters a reflexive and critical attitude towards web resources in general, maximizing thus the benefit gained from them in preparing students to meet the requirements of the modern translation job market.

Keywords: Google Translate, post-editing machine translation output, principles of translation work, translation competence, translation teaching, translator aids and tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
332 State of Play of Mobile Government Apps on Google Play Store

Authors: Abdelbaset Rabaiah

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e-Government mobile applications provide an extension for effective e-government services in today’s omniconnected world. They constitute part of m-government platforms. This study explores the usefulness, availability, discoverability and maturity of such applications. While this study impacts theory by addressing a relatively lacking area, it impacts practice more. The outcomes of this study suggest valuable recommendations for practitioners-developers of e-government applications. The methodology followed is to examine a large number of e-government smartphone applications. The focus is on applications available at the Google Play Store. Moreover, the study investigates applications published on government portals of a number of countries. A sample of 15 countries is researched. The results show a diversity in the level of discoverability, development, maturity, and usage of smartphone apps dedicated for use of e-government services. It was found that there are major issues in discovering e-government applications on both the Google Play Store and as-well-as on local government portals. The study found that only a fraction of mobile government applications was published on the Play Store. Only 19% of apps were multilingual, and 43% were developed by third parties including private individuals. Further analysis was made, and important recommendations are suggested in this paper for a better utilization of e-government smartphone applications. These recommendations will result in better discoverability, maturity, and usefulness of e-government applications.

Keywords: mobile applications, e-government, m-government, Google Play Store

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
331 Empirical Study on Factors Influencing SEO

Authors: Pakinee Aimmanee, Phoom Chokratsamesiri

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Search engine has become an essential tool nowadays for people to search for their needed information on the internet. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the search engine from three factors: the keyword frequency, the number of inbound links, and the difficulty of the keyword. The evaluations are based on the ranking position and the number of days that Google has seen or detect the webpage. We find that the keyword frequency and the difficulty of the keyword do not affect the Google ranking where the number of inbound links gives remarkable improvement of the ranking position. The optimal number of inbound links found in the experiment is 10.

Keywords: SEO, information retrieval, web search, knowledge technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
330 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

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Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
329 When Digital Innovation Augments Cultural Heritage: An Innovation from Tradition Story

Authors: Danilo Pesce, Emilio Paolucci, Mariolina Affatato

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Looking at the future and at the post-digital era, innovations commonly tend to dismiss the old and replace it with the new. The aim of this research is to study the role that digital innovation can play alongside the information chain within the traditional sectors and the subsequent value creation opportunities that actors and stakeholders can exploit. By drawing on a wide body of literature on innovation and strategic management and by conducting a case study on the cultural heritage industry, namely Google Arts & Culture, this study shows that technology augments complements, and amplifies the way people experience their cultural interests and experience. Furthermore, the study shows a process of democratization of art since museums can exploit new digital and virtual ways to distribute art globally. Moreover, new needs arose from the 2020 pandemic that hit and forced the world to a state of cultural fasting and caused a radical transformation of the paradigm online vs. onsite. Finally, the study highlights the capabilities that are emerging at different stages of the value chain, owing to the technological innovation available in the market. In essence, this research underlines the role of Google in allowing museums to reach users worldwide, thus unlocking new mechanisms of value creation in the cultural heritage industry. Likewise, this study points out how Google provides value to users by means of increasing the provision of artworks, improving the audience engagement and virtual experience, and providing new ways to access the online contents. The paper ends with a discussion of managerial and policy-making implications.

Keywords: big data, digital platforms, digital transformation, digitization, Google Arts and Culture, stakeholders’ interests

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
328 Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Sentiment Analysis Applied to Three Presidential Pre-Candidates in Costa Rica

Authors: Félix David Suárez Bonilla

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A sentiment analysis service to detect polarity (positive, neural, and negative), based on transfer learning, was built using a Spanish version of BERT and applied to tweets written in Spanish. The dataset that was used consisted of 11975 reviews, which were extracted from Google Play using the google-play-scrapper package. The BETO trained model used: the AdamW optimizer, a batch size of 16, a learning rate of 2x10⁻⁵ and 10 epochs. The system was tested using tweets of three presidential pre-candidates from Costa Rica. The system was finally validated using human labeled examples, achieving an accuracy of 83.3%.

Keywords: NLP, transfer learning, BERT, sentiment analysis, social media, opinion mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
327 Technology Enhanced Learning Using Virtual and Augmented Realities: An Applied Method to Improve the Animation Teaching Delivery

Authors: Rosana Marar, Edward Jaser

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This paper presents a software solution to enhance the content and presentation of graphic design and animation related textbooks. Using augmented and virtual reality concepts, a mobile application is developed to improve the static material found in books. This allows users to interact with animated examples and tutorials using their mobile phones and stereoscopic 3D viewers which will enhance information delivery. The application is tested on Google Cardboard with visual content in 3D space. Evaluation of the proposed application demonstrates that it improved the readability of static content and provided new experiences to the reader.

Keywords: animation, augmented reality, google cardboard, interactive media, technology enhanced learning, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
326 Practitioner Reflections: The Live Case Studies

Authors: Kate Barnett-Richards, Marie Sams

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As the need for integration between students and industry grows, classroom practitioners must find ways of engaging students whilst also involving industry professionals to help shape the changing nature of university level education. As part of a project funded by the Disruptive Media Learning Lab at Coventry University, traditional case study based seminars on two modules were replaced by interactive live cases. Utilising Google+ as a social media platform allowed students and industry professional to come together and share ideas on a range of current issues. As technology becomes an ever increasingly important part of the higher education landscape, classroom practitioners need to adapt and find ways of utilising technological tools which can enhance the overall classroom experience. Given that many of these innovations come from the individuals involved in delivering classroom based sessions it is vital to share ideas, experiences and best practices so as to allow and encourage others to use the numerous free tools and platforms available. This poster presents the reflections, challenges, and problems faced by education practitioners when engaging students with industry partners in live case study discussions via Google+ within a classroom setting. It is expected that this poster will be of interest to a number of academics and teaching fellows who may be considering utilising social media tools to connect their students with industry.

Keywords: case study, Google+, practitioner, reflections.

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
325 Software Defined Storage: Object Storage over Hadoop Platform

Authors: Amritesh Srivastava, Gaurav Sharma

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The purpose of this project is to develop an open source object storage system that is highly durable, scalable and reliable. There are two representative systems in cloud computing: Google and Amazon. Their storage systems for Google GFS and Amazon S3 provide high reliability, performance and stability. Our proposed system is highly inspired from Amazon S3. We are using Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Java API to implement our system. We propose the architecture of object storage system based on Hadoop. We discuss the requirements of our system, what we expect from our system and what problems we may encounter. We also give detailed design proposal along with the abstract source code to implement it. The final goal of the system is to provide REST based access to our object storage system that exists on top of HDFS.

Keywords: Hadoop, HBase, object storage, REST

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
324 Video Games Technologies Approach for Their Use in the Classroom

Authors: Daniel Vargas-Herrera, Ivette Caldelas, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

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In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the implementation of a set of educational materials based on video games technologies. Essentially these materials correspond to projects developed and under development as bachelor thesis of some Computer Engineering students of the Engineering School. All materials are based on the Unity SDK; integrating some devices such as kinect, leap motion, oculus rift, data gloves and Google cardboard. In detail, we present a virtual reality application for neurosciences students (suitable for neural rehabilitation), and virtual scenes for the Google cardboard, which will be used by the psychology students for phobias treatment. The objective is these materials will be located at a server to be available for all students, in the classroom or in the cloud, considering the use of smartphones has been widely extended between students.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, video games, educational materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
323 Governing External Innovation: Lessons from Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android

Authors: Amir Mohagheghzadeh, Solaleh Salimi, Ramin Tafazzoli

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Ecosystem and networks plays significant roles in product innovation. External innovation within developing firms can bring a wide range of advantages for a firm in a competitive market. Using external innovation can be mentioned as one of the most significant concepts regarding the firm’s transition phase into openness. Derivative concepts such as open or shared platform and app stores are the main result of this thinking within the firms. However, adopting this concept and leverage the defined advantages of external innovation should be aligned with other strategies and policies of a firm. Consequently, one of the key aspects that have been raised while using external innovation is how to govern external innovation within a developing firm. This paper describes the frameworks that two pioneer companies in mobile operating system development have used in order to control and govern external innovation through platform.

Keywords: external innovation, open innovation, governance, governance mechanisms, innovation, Apple, iOS, Google, Android

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322 Multi-Temporal Mapping of Built-up Areas Using Daytime and Nighttime Satellite Images Based on Google Earth Engine Platform

Authors: S. Hutasavi, D. Chen

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The built-up area is a significant proxy to measure regional economic growth and reflects the Gross Provincial Product (GPP). However, an up-to-date and reliable database of built-up areas is not always available, especially in developing countries. The cloud-based geospatial analysis platform such as Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides an opportunity with accessibility and computational power for those countries to generate the built-up data. Therefore, this study aims to extract the built-up areas in Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC), Thailand using day and nighttime satellite imagery based on GEE facilities. The normalized indices were generated from Landsat 8 surface reflectance dataset, including Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Built-up Index (BUI), and Modified Built-up Index (MBUI). These indices were applied to identify built-up areas in EEC. The result shows that MBUI performs better than BUI and NDBI, with the highest accuracy of 0.85 and Kappa of 0.82. Moreover, the overall accuracy of classification was improved from 79% to 90%, and error of total built-up area was decreased from 29% to 0.7%, after night-time light data from the Visible and Infrared Imaging Suite (VIIRS) Day Night Band (DNB). The results suggest that MBUI with night-time light imagery is appropriate for built-up area extraction and be utilize for further study of socioeconomic impacts of regional development policy over the EEC region.

Keywords: built-up area extraction, google earth engine, adaptive thresholding method, rapid mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
321 A Qualitative Research of Online Fraud Decision-Making Process

Authors: Semire Yekta

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Many online retailers set up manual review teams to overcome the limitations of automated online fraud detection systems. This study critically examines the strategies they adapt in their decision-making process to set apart fraudulent individuals from non-fraudulent online shoppers. The study uses a mix method research approach. 32 in-depth interviews have been conducted alongside with participant observation and auto-ethnography. The study found out that all steps of the decision-making process are significantly affected by a level of subjectivity, personal understandings of online fraud, preferences and judgments and not necessarily by objectively identifiable facts. Rather clearly knowing who the fraudulent individuals are, the team members have to predict whether they think the customer might be a fraudster. Common strategies used are relying on the classification and fraud scorings in the automated fraud detection systems, weighing up arguments for and against the customer and making a decision, using cancellation to test customers’ reaction and making use of personal experiences and “the sixth sense”. The interaction in the team also plays a significant role given that some decisions turn into a group discussion. While customer data represent the basis for the decision-making, fraud management teams frequently make use of Google search and Google Maps to find out additional information about the customer and verify whether the customer is the person they claim to be. While this, on the one hand, raises ethical concerns, on the other hand, Google Street View on the address and area of the customer puts customers living in less privileged housing and areas at a higher risk of being classified as fraudsters. Phone validation is used as a final measurement to make decisions for or against the customer when previous strategies and Google Search do not suffice. However, phone validation is also characterized by individuals’ subjectivity, personal views and judgment on customer’s reaction on the phone that results in a final classification as genuine or fraudulent.

Keywords: online fraud, data mining, manual review, social construction

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320 Jurisdictional Issues between Competition Law and Data Protection Law in Protection of Privacy of Online Consumers

Authors: Pankhudi Khandelwal

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The revenue models of digital giants such as Facebook and Google, use targeted advertising for revenues. Such a model requires huge amounts of consumer data. While the data protection law deals with the protection of personal data, however, this data is acquired by the companies on the basis of consent, performance of a contract, or legitimate interests. This paper analyses the role that competition law can play in evading these loopholes for the protection of data and privacy of online consumers. Digital markets have certain distinctive features such as network effects and feedback loop, which gives incumbents of these markets a first-mover advantage. This creates a situation where the winner takes it all, thus creating entry barriers and concentration in the market. It has been also seen that this dominant position is then used by the undertakings for leveraging in other markets. This can be harmful to the consumers in form of less privacy, less choice, and stifling innovation, as seen in the cases of Facebook Cambridge Analytica, Google Shopping, and Google Android. Therefore, the article aims to provide a legal framework wherein the data protection law and competition law can come together to provide a balance in regulating digital markets. The issue has become more relevant in light of the Facebook decision by German competition authority, where it was held that Facebook had abused its dominant position by not complying with data protection rules, which constituted an exploitative practice. The paper looks into the jurisdictional boundaries that the data protection and competition authorities can work from and suggests ex ante regulation through data protection law and ex post regulation through competition law. It further suggests a change in the consumer welfare standard where harm to privacy should be considered as an indicator of low quality.

Keywords: data protection, dominance, ex ante regulation, ex post regulation

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319 Corpus-Based Neural Machine Translation: Empirical Study Multilingual Corpus for Machine Translation of Opaque Idioms - Cloud AutoML Platform

Authors: Khadija Refouh

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Culture bound-expressions have been a bottleneck for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and comprehension, especially in the case of machine translation (MT). In the last decade, the field of machine translation has greatly advanced. Neural machine translation NMT has recently achieved considerable development in the quality of translation that outperformed previous traditional translation systems in many language pairs. Neural machine translation NMT is an Artificial Intelligence AI and deep neural networks applied to language processing. Despite this development, there remain some serious challenges that face neural machine translation NMT when translating culture bounded-expressions, especially for low resources language pairs such as Arabic-English and Arabic-French, which is not the case with well-established language pairs such as English-French. Machine translation of opaque idioms from English into French are likely to be more accurate than translating them from English into Arabic. For example, Google Translate Application translated the sentence “What a bad weather! It runs cats and dogs.” to “يا له من طقس سيء! تمطر القطط والكلاب” into the target language Arabic which is an inaccurate literal translation. The translation of the same sentence into the target language French was “Quel mauvais temps! Il pleut des cordes.” where Google Translate Application used the accurate French corresponding idioms. This paper aims to perform NMT experiments towards better translation of opaque idioms using high quality clean multilingual corpus. This Corpus will be collected analytically from human generated idiom translation. AutoML translation, a Google Neural Machine Translation Platform, is used as a custom translation model to improve the translation of opaque idioms. The automatic evaluation of the custom model will be compared to the Google NMT using Bilingual Evaluation Understudy Score BLEU. BLEU is an algorithm for evaluating the quality of text which has been machine-translated from one natural language to another. Human evaluation is integrated to test the reliability of the Blue Score. The researcher will examine syntactical, lexical, and semantic features using Halliday's functional theory.

Keywords: multilingual corpora, natural language processing (NLP), neural machine translation (NMT), opaque idioms

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318 Literary Translation Human vs Machine: An Essay about Online Translation

Authors: F. L. Bernardo, R. A. S. Zacarias

Abstract:

The ways to translate are manifold since textual genres undergoing translations are diverse. In this essay, our goal is to give special attention to the literary genre and to the online translation tool Google Translate (GT), widely used either by nonprofessionals or by scholars, in order to show evidence of the indispensability of human wit in a good translation. Our study has its basis on a literary review of prominent authors, with emphasis on translation categories. Also highlighting the issue of polysemous literary translation, we aim to shed light on the translator’s craft and the fallible nature of online translation. To better illustrate these principles, the methodology consisted on performing a comparative analysis involving the original text Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe in English to its online translation given by GT and to a translation into Brazilian Portuguese performed by a human. We proceeded to identifying and analyzing the degrees of textual equivalence according to the following categories: volume, levels and order. The results have attested the unsuitability in a translation done by a computer connected to the World Wide Web.

Keywords: Google Translator, human translation, literary translation, Moll Flanders

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317 Geographic Information System Using Google Fusion Table Technology for the Delivery of Disease Data Information

Authors: I. Nyoman Mahayasa Adiputra

Abstract:

Data in the field of health can be useful for the purposes of data analysis, one example of health data is disease data. Disease data is usually in a geographical plot in accordance with the area. Where the data was collected, in the city of Denpasar, Bali. Disease data report is still published in tabular form, disease information has not been mapped in GIS form. In this research, disease information in Denpasar city will be digitized in the form of a geographic information system with the smallest administrative area in the form of district. Denpasar City consists of 4 districts of North Denpasar, East Denpasar, West Denpasar and South Denpasar. In this research, we use Google fusion table technology for map digitization process, where this technology can facilitate from the administrator and from the recipient information. From the administrator side of the input disease, data can be done easily and quickly. From the receiving end of the information, the resulting GIS application can be published in a website-based application so that it can be accessed anywhere and anytime. In general, the results obtained in this study, divided into two, namely: (1) Geolocation of Denpasar and all of Denpasar districts, the process of digitizing the map of Denpasar city produces a polygon geolocation of each - district of Denpasar city. These results can be utilized in subsequent GIS studies if you want to use the same administrative area. (2) Dengue fever mapping in 2014 and 2015. Disease data used in this study is dengue fever case data taken in 2014 and 2015. Data taken from the profile report Denpasar Health Department 2015 and 2016. This mapping can be useful for the analysis of the spread of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the city of Denpasar.

Keywords: geographic information system, Google fusion table technology, delivery of disease data information, Denpasar city

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316 Investigation of Different Machine Learning Algorithms in Large-Scale Land Cover Mapping within the Google Earth Engine

Authors: Amin Naboureh, Ainong Li, Jinhu Bian, Guangbin Lei, Hamid Ebrahimy

Abstract:

Large-scale land cover mapping has become a new challenge in land change and remote sensing field because of involving a big volume of data. Moreover, selecting the right classification method, especially when there are different types of landscapes in the study area is quite difficult. This paper is an attempt to compare the performance of different machine learning (ML) algorithms for generating a land cover map of the China-Central Asia–West Asia Corridor that is considered as one of the main parts of the Belt and Road Initiative project (BRI). The cloud-based Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform was used for generating a land cover map for the study area from Landsat-8 images (2017) by applying three frequently used ML algorithms including random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural network (ANN). The selected ML algorithms (RF, SVM, and ANN) were trained and tested using reference data obtained from MODIS yearly land cover product and very high-resolution satellite images. The finding of the study illustrated that among three frequently used ML algorithms, RF with 91% overall accuracy had the best result in producing a land cover map for the China-Central Asia–West Asia Corridor whereas ANN showed the worst result with 85% overall accuracy. The great performance of the GEE in applying different ML algorithms and handling huge volume of remotely sensed data in the present study showed that it could also help the researchers to generate reliable long-term land cover change maps. The finding of this research has great importance for decision-makers and BRI’s authorities in strategic land use planning.

Keywords: land cover, google earth engine, machine learning, remote sensing

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