Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: Oladele Vincent Adeniyi

89 Driving towards Better Health: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Obesity among Commercial Drivers in East London, South Africa

Authors: Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Daniel Ter Goon, Aanuoluwa O. Adedokun, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi

Abstract:

Background: The unhealthy food choices and sedentary lifestyle of commercial drivers predisposes them to obesity and obesity related diseases. Yet, no attention has been paid to obesity burden among this high risk group in South Africa. This study examines the prevalence of obesity and its risk factors among commercial drivers in East London, South Africa. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the WHO STEP wise approach to screen for obesity among 403 drivers in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa. Anthropometric, blood pressure and blood glucose measurements were taken following a standard procedure. Overweight and obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 kgm⁻²–29.9 kg/m² and≥ 30 kg/ m², respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the prevalence and determinants of obesity. Result: The mean age of the participants was 43.3 (SD12.5) years, mean height (cm) and weight (kg) were 170.1(6.2cm) and 83(SD18.7), respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 34.0% and 38.0%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, only age (OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.7), hypertension (OR 3.6, CI 2.3-5.7) and non-smoking (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1) were independent predictors of obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among commercial drivers. Age, hypertension, and non-smoking were independent predictors of obesity among the sample. Measures aimed at promoting health and reducing obesity should be prioritized among this group.

Keywords: Risk Factors, South Africa, obesity and overweight, commercial taxi drivers

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88 Between Efficacy and Danger: Narratives of Female University Students about Emergency Contraception Methods

Authors: Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Ezebunwa Ethelbert Nwokocha, Wilson Akpan, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi

Abstract:

Studies on emergency contraception (EC) mostly utilise quantitative methods and focus on medically approved drugs for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. This methodological bias necessarily obscures insider perspectives on sexual behaviour, particularly on why specific methods are utilized by women who seek to prevent unplanned pregnancies. In order to privilege this perspective, with a view to further enriching the discourse and policy on the prevention and management of unplanned pregnancies, this paper brings together the findings from several focus groups and in-depth interviews conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. The study found that while the research participants had good knowledge of the consequences of unprotected sexual intercourses - with abstinence and condom widely used - participants’ willingness to rely only on medically sound measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies was not always mediated by such knowledge. Some of the methods favored by participants appeared to be those commonly associated with people of low socio-economic status in the society where the study was conducted. Medically unsafe concoctions, some outright dangerous, were widely believed to be efficacious in preventing unwanted pregnancy. Furthermore, respondents’ narratives about their sexual behaviour revealed that inadequate sex education, socio-economic pressures, and misconceptions about the efficacy of “crude” emergency contraception methods were all interrelated. The paper therefore suggests that these different facets of the unplanned pregnancy problem should be the focus of intervention.

Keywords: emergency contraception, unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion, concoctions

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
87 Diet and Exercise Intervention and Bio–Atherogenic Markers for Obesity Classes of Black South Africans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Discriminant Analysis

Authors: Daniel T. Goon, Oladele V. Adeniyi, B. Longo-Mbenza

Abstract:

Background: Lipids are often low or in the normal ranges and controversial in the atherogenesis among Black Africans. The effect of the severity of obesity on some traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors is unclear before and after a diet and exercise maintenance programme among obese black South Africans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors to discriminate obesity classes among patients with T2DM before and after a diet and exercise programme. Methods: This interventional cohort of Black South Africans with T2DM was followed by a very – low calorie diet and exercise programme in Mthatha, between August and November 2013. Gender, age, and the levels of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, monthly income, daily frequency of meals, blood random plasma glucose (RPG), serum creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL –C, HDL – C, Non-HDL, ratios of TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and LDL/HDL were recorded. Univariate analysis (ANOVA) and multivariate discriminant analysis were performed to separate obesity classes: normal weight (BMI = 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI = 25 – 29.9 kg/m2), obesity Class 1 (BMI = 30 – 34.9 kg/m2), obesity Class 2 (BMI = 35 – 39.9 kg/m2), and obesity Class 3 (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Results: At the baseline (1st Month September), all 327 patients were overweight/obese: 19.6% overweight, 42.8% obese class 1, 22.3% obese class 2, and 15.3% obese class 3. In discriminant analysis, only systolic blood pressure (SBP with positive association) and LDL/HDL ratio (negative association) significantly separated increasing obesity classes. At the post – evaluation (3rd Month November), out of all 327 patients, 19.9%, 19.3%, 37.6%, 15%, and 8.3% had normal weight, overweight, obesity class 1, obesity class 2, and obesity class 3, respectively. There was a significant negative association between serum creatinine and increase in BMI. In discriminant analysis, only age (positive association), SBP (U – shaped relationship), monthly income (inverted U – shaped association), daily frequency of meals (positive association), and LDL/HDL ratio (positive association) classified significantly increasing obesity classes. Conclusion: There is an epidemic of diabesity (Obesity + T2DM) in this Black South Africans with some weight loss. Further studies are needed to understand positive or negative linear correlations and paradoxical curvilinear correlations between these markers and increase in BMI among black South African T2DM patients.

Keywords: Obesity, Dietary Interventions, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, south africans

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86 Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Lean Versus Overweight/Obese Peri-Urban Female Adolescent School Learners in Mthatha, South Africa: A Pilot Case Control Study

Authors: Benedicta N. Nkeh-Chungag, Constance R. Sewani-Rusike, Isaac M. Malema, Daniel T. Goon, Oladele V. Adeniyi, Idowu A. Ajayi

Abstract:

Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is an important predictor of adult cardiometabolic diseases. Current data on age- and gender-specific cardiometabolic risk factors are lacking in the peri-urban Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. However, such information is important in designing innovative strategies to promote healthy living among children and adolescents. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare and determine the extent of cardiometabolic risk factors between samples of lean and overweight/obese adolescent population in a peri-urban township of South Africa. Methods: In this case-control study, age-matched, non-pregnant and non-lactating female adolescents consisting of equal number of cases (50 overweight/obese) and control (50 lean) participated in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (Trig), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumferences. Body mass index was calculated. Blood pressure was measured; and metabolic syndrome was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results: Of the 76 participants with complete data, 12/38 of the overweight/obese and 1/38 of the lean group met the criteria for adolescent metabolic syndrome. All cardiometabolic risk factors were elevated in the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: low HDL-C (RR = 2.21), elevated TC (RR = 1.23), elevated LDL-C (RR = 1.42), elevated Trig (RR = 1.73), and elevated hsCRP (RR = 1.9). There were significant atherosclerotic indices among the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: TC/HDL and LDL/HDL (2.99±0.91 vs 2.63±0.48; p=0.016 and 1.73±0.61 vs 1.41±0.46; p= 0.014, respectively). Conclusion: There are multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among the overweight/obese female adolescent group compared with lean adolescent group in the study. Female adolescent who are overweight and obese have higher relative risks of developing cardiometabolic diseases compared with their lean counterparts in the peri-urban Mthatha, South Africa. School health programme focusing on promoting physical exercise, healthy eating and keeping appropriate weight are needed in the country.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, cardiometabolic risk factors, peri-urban South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
85 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed

Abstract:

An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
84 Technoscience in the Information Society

Authors: A. P. Moiseeva, Z. S. Zavyalova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the Technoscience phenomenon and its role in modern society. It gives a review of the latest research on Technoscience. Based on the works of Paul Forman, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Bruno Latour, Maria Caramez Carlotto and others, the authors consider the concept of Technoscience, its specific character and prospects of its development.

Keywords: Information Society, Technoscience, transdisciplinarity, European Technology Platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
83 A Trapezoidal-Like Integrator for the Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Johnson Oladele Fatokun, I. P. Akpan

Abstract:

In this paper, the one-dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equation is discretized by the method of lines using a second order finite difference approximation to replace the second order spatial derivative. The evolving system of stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) in time is solved numerically by an L-stable trapezoidal-like integrator. Results show accuracy of relative maximum error of order 10-4 in the interval of consideration. The performance of the method as compared to an existing scheme is considered favorable.

Keywords: Partial Differential Equations, Schrodinger’s equation, method of lines (MOL), stiff ODE, trapezoidal-like integrator

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
82 Effects of Age and Energy Expenditure on Obesity Among Adults in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi Samuel Adekoya

Abstract:

The study assessed the independent effects of age and energy expenditure on the risks of obesity among adults (20-64 years). A cross-sectional study with changes in age, changes in work and leisure-time, and physical activities information played roles, with cut-off for energy expenditure and BMI in rural and urban localities. Physical activity information determined the energy expenditure, while the BMI determined the risk of obesity among the subjects. Statistically, age has a strong and direct association with obesity in both rural and urban settings, while energy expenditure was inverse in its association. Findings from the this study showed that in developing societies, age tends to be a risk factor for obesity, whereas energy expenditure is to be protective. Level of education and economic development are also relevant modifiers of the influences exerted by these variables.

Keywords: age, Energy Expenditure, BMI, rural/urban

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81 The Effect of Temperature, Contact Time and Agitation Speed During Pre-Treatment on Elution of Gold

Authors: T. P. Oladele, C. A. Snyders, S. M. Bradshaw, G. Akdogan

Abstract:

The effect of temperature, contact time and agitation during pre-treatment was investigated on the elution of gold from granular activated carbon at fixed caustic-cyanide concentration and elution conditions. It was shown that there are interactions between parameters during pre-treatment. At 80oC, recovery is independent of the contact time while the maximum recovery is obtained in the absence of agitation (0rpm). Increase in agitation speed from 0 rev/min to 1200 rev/min showed a decrease in recovery of approximately 20 percent at 80°C. Recovery with increased time from 15 minutes to 45 minutes is only pronounced at 25°C with approximately 4 percent increase at all agitation speeds. The results from elution recovery are aimed to give insight into the mechanisms of pre-treatment under the combinations of the chosen parameters.

Keywords: Recovery, temperature, Gold, contact time, agitation speed

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80 Gross and Histological Studies on the Thymus of the Grasscutter (Thyronomys swinderianus)

Authors: R. M. Korzerzer, J. O. Hambolu, S. O. Salami, S. B. Oladele

Abstract:

Twelve apparently healthy grasscutters between the ages of three and seven months were used for this study. The animals were purchased from local breeders in Oturkpo, Benue state, Nigeria and transported to the research laboratory in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria by means of constructed cages. The animals were divided into three groups according to their ages and acclimatised. Sacrifice was done using chloroform gaseous inhalation anaesthesia. An incision was made at the neck region and the thymus located and identified by its prominent bilateral nature. Extirpated thymuses from each animal were immediately weighed and fixed in Bouin’s fluid for 48 hours. The tissues were then prepared using standard methods. Haematoxilin and eosin was used for routine histology and Rhodamine B aniline methylene blue was for studying the architecture of the elastic and reticular fibres of the thymus. Grossly, the thymus appeared as a bilateral organ on either side of the thoracic midline. The organ size decreased consistently as the animals advanced in age. Mean ± SEM values for thymic weights were 1.23 ± 0.048 g, 0.53 ± 0.019 g and 0.30 ± 0.042 g at three, five and seven months of age respectively.

Keywords: gross, histological, thymus, grasscutter

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79 Incidence of Disasters and Coping Mechanism among Farming Households in South West Nigeria

Authors: Fawehinmi Olabisi Alaba, O. R. Adeniyi

Abstract:

Farming households faces lots of disaster which contribute to endemic poverty. Anticipated increases in extreme weather events will exacerbate this. Primary data was administered to farming household using multi-stage random sampling technique. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the respondents (69.9%) are male, have mean household size, years of formal education and age of 5±1.14, 6±3.41, and 51.06±10.43 respectively. The major (48.9%) type of disaster experienced is flooding. Major coping mechanism adopted is sourcing for support from family and friends. Age, education, experience, access to extension agent, and mitigation control method contribute significantly to vulnerability to disaster. The major adaptation method (62.3%) is construction of drainage. The study revealed that the coping mechanisms employed may become less effective as increasingly fragile livelihood systems struggle to withstand disaster shocks. Thus there is need for training of the farmers on measures to adapt to mitigate the shock from disasters.

Keywords: Adaptation, Vulnerability, disasters, Flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
78 Using Discriminant Analysis to Forecast Crime Rate in Nigeria

Authors: M. O. Olayiwola, O. P. Popoola, O. A. Alawode, A. M. Oladele

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This research work is based on using discriminant analysis to forecast crime rate in Nigeria between 1996 and 2008. The work is interested in how gender (male and female) relates to offences committed against the government, against other properties, disturbance in public places, murder/robbery offences and other offences. The data used was collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). SPSS, the statistical package was used to analyse the data. Time plot was plotted on all the 29 offences gotten from the raw data. Eigenvalues and Multivariate tests, Wilks’ Lambda, standardized canonical discriminant function coefficients and the predicted classifications were estimated. The research shows that the distribution of the scores from each function is standardized to have a mean O and a standard deviation of 1. The magnitudes of the coefficients indicate how strongly the discriminating variable affects the score. In the predicted group membership, 172 cases that were predicted to commit crime against Government group, 66 were correctly predicted and 106 were incorrectly predicted. After going through the predicted classifications, we found out that most groups numbers that were correctly predicted were less than those that were incorrectly predicted.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, canonical correlation, and Wilks’ Lambda

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77 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz

Abstract:

The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: Groundwater, activated carbon, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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76 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide

Abstract:

This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: Biomedical, Composites, reinforcement, Mechanical Properties, polyester, cow bone

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75 Influence of Leadership Tenure and Succession on Institutional Goal Attainment in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (2006-2015)

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele, Ismial A. Raji, Blessing Egbezieme Oladejo

Abstract:

The study investigated the influence of leadership succession and tenure on goal attainment in the University of Ibadan. Leadership styles, tenure politics, organization succession, leadership succession, goal attainment in terms of research, teaching and public services were considered. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was 250 consisting 90 academic staff, 100 Senior Non-Teaching Staff and 60 Junior Non-Teaching Staff. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. The instrument reliability coefficient was 0.88. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. The result revealed that a significant relationship exist between leadership succession, tenure and goal attainment (r= .648, 0.466 and 0.479p< .0.5) Also, There was no statistical significant interaction between the effects of leadership tenure and leadership succession on goal attainment, F (38, 131) = 1.356, p = .104. The main influence of the independent variables on goal attainment were significant at F (24, 131) = 1.682, p=.034 and F (26, 131) = 2.182, p=.002. The study concluded that leadership succession and tenure are key factors for goal attainment in the University of Ibadan. The study recommended that an effective leadership succession and tenure processes should be maintained and sustained by higher institutions of learning.

Keywords: Style, succession, leadership tenure, institutional goal

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
74 Absorption Control of Organic Solar Cells under LED Light for High Efficiency Indoor Power System

Authors: Premkumar Vincent, Hyeok Kim, Jin-Hyuk Bae

Abstract:

Organic solar cells have high potential which enables these to absorb much weaker light than 1-sun in indoor environment. They also have several practical advantages, such as flexibility, cost-advantage, and semi-transparency that can have superiority in indoor solar energy harvesting. We investigate organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) for indoor application while Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were run to find the optimized structure. This may provide the highest short-circuit current density to acquire high efficiency under indoor illumination.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Organic Solar Cells, indoor solar cells, indoor light harvesting, P3HT:ICBA

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
73 Thermosalient Effect of an Organic Aminonitrile and its Derivatives

Authors: Lukman O. Alimi, Vincent J. Smith, Leonard J. Barbour

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The thermosalient effect is an extremely rare propensity of certain crystalline solids for self-actuation by elastic deformation or a ballistic event1. Thermosalient compounds, colloquially known as ‘jumping crystals’ are promising materials for fabrication of actuators that are also being considered as materials for clean energy conversion because of their capabilities to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion directly. Herein, an organic aminonitrile and its derivatives have been probed by a combination of structural, microscopic and thermoanalytical techniques. Crystals of these compounds were analysed by means of single crystal XRD and hotstage microscopy in the temperature range of 100 to 298 K and found to exhibit the thermosalient effect. We also carried out differential scanning calorimetric analysis at the temperature corresponding to that at which the crystal jumps as observed under a hotstage microscope.

Keywords: aminonitrile, jumping crystal, self actuation, thermosalient effect

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72 Investigation of the Influence of Student’s Characteristics on Mathematics Achievement in Junior Secondary School in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

This current study investigated students’ characteristics as factors that influence Mathematics Achievement of junior secondary school students. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was one hundred and twenty-three (123) JSS students of secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government in Oyo State. A Mathematics achievement test and three questionnaires on student’s self-efficacy belief, attitude, and learning style were the instruments used. Prior to the administration of the constructed mathematics achievement test, 100-item mathematics was subjected to the expert review, and items analysis was carried out. Fifty items were retained. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficients of the instruments were 0.71, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively. Collected data were analysed using the frequency count, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Path Analysis in Amos SPSS Version 20. Students characteristics: gender, age, self-efficacy, attitude and learning style had positive direct effects on students’ achievement in Mathematics as indicated by their respective beta weights (β = 0.36, 0.203, 0.92, 0.079, 0.69 p < 0.05). Consequently, the study concluded that student’s characteristics (Age, gender, and learning style) explained a significant part of the variability in students’ achievement in Mathematics.

Keywords: ibadan, junior secondary school, mathematics achievement, students’ characteristics

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71 Symbiotic Organism Search (SOS) for Solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Authors: Vincent F. Yu, A. A. N. Perwira Redi, Eki Ruskartina, Budi Santosa

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This paper introduces symbiotic organism search (SOS) for solving capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). SOS is a new approach in metaheuristics fields and never been used to solve discrete problems. A sophisticated decoding method to deal with a discrete problem setting in CVRP is applied using the basic symbiotic organism search (SOS) framework. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated on a set of benchmark instances and compared results with best known solution. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can produce good solution as a preliminary testing. These results indicated that the proposed SOS can be applied as an alternative to solve the capacitated vehicle routing problem.

Keywords: metaheuristic, symbiotic organism search, capacitated vehicle routing problem

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70 Constrained RGBD SLAM with a Prior Knowledge of the Environment

Authors: Kathia Melbouci, Sylvie Naudet Collette, Vincent Gay-Bellile, Omar Ait-Aider, Michel Dhome

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In this paper, we handle the problem of real time localization and mapping in indoor environment assisted by a partial prior 3D model, using an RGBD sensor. The proposed solution relies on a feature-based RGBD SLAM algorithm to localize the camera and update the 3D map of the scene. To improve the accuracy and the robustness of the localization, we propose to combine in a local bundle adjustment process, geometric information provided by a prior coarse 3D model of the scene (e.g. generated from the 2D floor plan of the building) along with RGBD data from a Kinect camera. The proposed approach is evaluated on a public benchmark dataset as well as on real scene acquired by a Kinect sensor.

Keywords: slam, global localization, bundle adjustment

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69 Modeling of Diurnal Pattern of Air Temperature in a Tropical Environment: Ile-Ife and Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: M. O. Adeniyi, Rufus Temidayo Akinnubi

Abstract:

Existing diurnal air temperature models simulate night time air temperature over Nigeria with high biases. An improved parameterization is presented for modeling the diurnal pattern of air temperature (Ta) which is applicable in the calculation of turbulent heat fluxes in Global climate models, based on Nigeria Micrometeorological Experimental site (NIMEX) surface layer observations. Five diurnal Ta models for estimating hourly Ta from daily maximum, daily minimum, and daily mean air temperature were validated using root-mean-square error (RMSE), Mean Error Bias (MBE) and scatter graphs. The original Fourier series model showed better performance for unstable air temperature parameterizations while the stable Ta was strongly overestimated with a large error. The model was improved with the inclusion of the atmospheric cooling rate that accounts for the temperature inversion that occurs during the nocturnal boundary layer condition. The MBE and RMSE estimated by the modified Fourier series model reduced by 4.45 oC and 3.12 oC during the transitional period from dry to wet stable atmospheric conditions. The modified Fourier series model gave good estimation of the diurnal weather patterns of Ta when compared with other existing models for a tropical environment.

Keywords: Air Temperature, Surface Energy Balance, mean bias error, Fourier series analysis

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68 Secured Cancer Care and Cloud Services in Internet of Things /Wireless Sensor Network Based Medical Systems

Authors: Adeniyi Onasanya, Maher Elshakankiri

Abstract:

In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has constituted a driving force of modern technological advancement, and it has become increasingly common as its impacts are seen in a variety of application domains, including healthcare. IoT is characterized by the interconnectivity of smart sensors, objects, devices, data, and applications. With the unprecedented use of IoT in industrial, commercial and domestic, it becomes very imperative to harness the benefits and functionalities associated with the IoT technology in (re)assessing the provision and positioning of healthcare to ensure efficient and improved healthcare delivery. In this research, we are focusing on two important services in healthcare systems, which are cancer care services and business analytics/cloud services. These services incorporate the implementation of an IoT that provides solution and framework for analyzing health data gathered from IoT through various sensor networks and other smart devices in order to improve healthcare delivery and to help health care providers in their decision-making process for enhanced and efficient cancer treatment. In addition, we discuss the wireless sensor network (WSN), WSN routing and data transmission in the healthcare environment. Finally, some operational challenges and security issues with IoT-based healthcare system are discussed.

Keywords: Business analytics, Cloud Services, IoT, smart health care system, (wireless) sensor network, cancer care services

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67 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy

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A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Porous Media, compressible flow

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66 Modernization of Garri-Frying Technologies with Respect to Women Anthromophic Quality in Nigeria

Authors: Adegbite Bashiru Adeniyi, Olaniyi Akeem Olawale, Ayobamidele Sinatu Juliet

Abstract:

The study was carried out in the 6 South Western states of Nigeria to analyze socio-economic characteristic of garri processors and their anthropometric qualities with respect to modern technologies used in garri processing. About 20 respondents were randomly selected from each of the 6 workstations purposively considered for the study due to their daily processing activities already attracted high patronage of customers. These include Oguntolu village (Ogun State), Igoba-Akure (Ondo State), Imo-Ilesa (Osun State), Odo Oba-Ileri (Oyo State), Irasa village (Ekiti State) and Epe in Lagos state. Interview schedule was conducted for 120 respondents to elicit information. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. It was observed from the findings that respondents were in their most productive age range (36-45 years) except Ogun state where majority (45%) were relatively older than 45 years. A fewer processors were much younger than 26 years old. It furthers revealed that not less than 55% have body weight greater than 50.0 kilogram, also not less than 70% were taller than 1.5 meter. So also, the hand length and hand thickness of the majority were long and bulky which are considered suitable for operating some modern and improved technologies in garri-frying process. This information could be used by various technological developers to enhance production of modern equipment and tools for a greater efficiency.

Keywords: modernization, Proficiency, agro-business, anthromorphic

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65 Molding Properties of Cobalt-Chrome-Based Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Ehsan Gholami, Vincent Demers

Abstract:

Low-pressure powder injection molding is an emerging technology for cost-effectively producing complex shape metallic parts with the proper dimensional tolerances, either in high or in low production volumes. In this study, the molding properties of cobalt-chrome-based feedstocks were evaluated for use in a low-pressure powder injection molding process. The rheological properties of feedstock formulations were obtained by mixing metallic powder with a proprietary wax-based binder system. Rheological parameters such as reference viscosity, shear rate sensitivity index, and activation energy for viscous flow, were extracted from the viscosity profiles and introduced into the Weir model to calculate the moldability index. Feedstocks were experimentally injected into a spiral mold cavity to validate the injection performance calculated with the model.

Keywords: viscosity, Feedstock, binder, powder injection molding, moldability

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64 Nontraditional Online Student Perceptions of Student Success Conditions

Authors: Carrie Prendergast, Lisa Bortman

Abstract:

The focus of this presentation will be on non-traditional (adult) students as they seek their Bachelors’ degrees online. This presentation will specifically examine nontraditional online student perceptions of Tinto’s success conditions: expectations, support, assessment, and engagement. Expectations include those of the student, the faculty and the institution. Support includes academic, social, and financial support. Feedback and assessment encompasses feedback in the classroom, upon entry, and on an institutional level. The fourth success condition is involvement or engagement of students with their peers and faculty in both academic and social contexts. This program will review and discuss a rich, detailed description of the lived experience of the nontraditional online student to add to the paucity of research on this understudied population and guide higher education professionals in supporting this growing population of students.

Keywords: Online Education, Student success, adult students, vincent tinto

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63 Anatomical Studies on the Spleen and Mesenteric Lymph Node of the Grasscutter

Authors: R. M. Korzerzer, J. O. Hambolu, S. O. Salami, S. B. Oladele

Abstract:

The grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) has become an important source of protein and income to rural dwellers in most West African countries including Nigeria. Twelve apparently healthy grasscutters consisting of six males and six females between the ages of three and seven months were obtained from rural dwellers in Benue state and used for this study. The animals were transported by means of constructed cages to the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and sacrificed using chloroform inhalation gaseous anaesthesia by suffocation. The spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were extirpated and the tissues prepared using standard methods, haematoxilin and eosin stain was used for routine histology, while Rhodamine B-aniline-methylene blue stain was used for staining reticular and elastic fibres. The spleen was dark red in colour and roughly triangular in outline, and was observed to increase consistently with age, maximum values were recorded at seven months of age in both males and females. Mean ± SEM values for splenic weights were 0.67 ± 0.09 g, 1.65 ± 0.35 g and 2.31 ± 0.06 g at three, five and seven months of age, respectively. The percentage ratio of splenic weight to body weight was 0.1%. Histologically, the germinal centres revealed three zones; the germinal centre, cortical layer and the marginal zone. The mesenteric lymph nodes were constantly bean shaped and appeared as opaque white masses which resemble fat but were distinguished from fat by their pearly glossy nature. The mean ± SEM values for mesenteric lymph node weights were 0.056 ± 0.005 g, 0.143 ± 0.034 g and 0.1600 ± 0.023 g at three, five and seven months of age, respectively.

Keywords: grasscutter, anatomical, spleen, mesenteric lymph node

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62 Meat Products Demand in Oyo West Local Government: An Application of Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS)

Authors: B. A. Adeniyi, S. A. Daud, O. Amao

Abstract:

The study investigates consumer demand for meat products in Oyo West Local Government using linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA/AIDS). Questions that were addressed by the study include: first, what is the type and quantity of meat products available to the household and their demand pattern? Second is the investigation of the factors that affect meat products demand pattern and proportion of income that is spent on them. For the above purpose cross-sectional data were collected from 156 households of the study area and analyzed to reveal the functional relationship between meat products consumption and some socio-economic variables of the household. Results indicated that per capita meat consumption increased as household income and education increased but decreased with age. It was also found that male tend to consume more meat products than their female counterparts and that increase in household size will first increased per caput meat consumption but later decreased it. Price also tends to greatly influence the demand pattern of meat products. The results of elasticity computed from the results of regression analysis revealed that own price elasticity for all meat products were negative which indicated that they were normal products while cross and expenditure elasticity were positive which further confirmed that meat products were normal and substitute products. This study therefore concludes that the relevance of these variables imposed a great challenge to the policy makers and the government, in the sense that more cost effective methods of meat production technology have to be devised in other to make consumption of meat products more affordable.

Keywords: Animal Production, Technology, consumption, Meat Products

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61 Conservation Status of a Lowland Tropical Forest in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Lucky Dartsa Wakawa, Friday Nwabueze Ogana, Temitope Elizabeth Adeniyi

Abstract:

Timely and reliable information on the status of a forest is essential for assessing the extent of regeneration and degradation. However, when such information is lacking effective forest management practices becomes impossible. Therefore, this study assessed the tree species composition, richness, diversity, structure of Oluwa forest reserve with the view of ascertaining it conservation status. A systematic line transect was used in the laying of eight (8) temporary sample plots (TSPs) of size 50m x 50m. Trees with Dbh ≥ 10cm in the selected plots were enumerated, identified and measured. The results indicate that 535 individual trees were enumerated cutting across 26 families and 58 species. The family Sterculiaceae recorded the highest number of species (10) and occurrence (112) representing 17.2% and 20.93% respectively. Celtis zenkeri is the species with the highest number of occurrence of tree per hectare and importance value index (IVI) of 59 and 53.81 respectively. The reserve has the Margalef's index of species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity Index (H') and Pielou's Species Evenness Index (EH) of 9.07, 3.43 and 0.84 respectively. The forest has a mean Dbh (cm), mean height (m), total basal area/ha (m2) and total volume/ha (m3) of 24.7, 16.9, 36.63 and 602.09 respectively. The important tropical tree species identified includes Diospyros crassiflora Milicia excels, Mansonia altisima, Triplochiton scleroxylon. Despite the level of exploitation in the forest, the forest seems to be resilience. Given the right attention, it could regenerate and replenish to save some of the original species composition of the reserve.

Keywords: Forest conservation, Forest Structure, South-West Nigeria, Lowland tropical forest

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60 Validation of SWAT Model for Prediction of Water Yield and Water Balance: Case Study of Upstream Catchment of Jebba Dam in Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi G. Adeogun, Bolaji F. Sule, Adebayo W. Salami, Michael O. Daramola

Abstract:

Estimation of water yield and water balance in a river catchment is critical to the sustainable management of water resources at watershed level in any country. Therefore, in the present study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied as a tool to predict water balance and water yield of a catchment area in Nigeria. The catchment area, which was 12,992km2, is located upstream Jebba hydropower dam in North central part of Nigeria. In this study, data on the observed flow were collected and compared with simulated flow using SWAT. The correlation between the two data sets was evaluated using statistical measures, such as, Nasch-Sucliffe Efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The model output shows a good agreement between the observed flow and simulated flow as indicated by NSE and R2, which were greater than 0.7 for both calibration and validation period. A total of 42,733 mm of water was predicted by the calibrated model as the water yield potential of the basin for a simulation period 1985 to 2010. This interesting performance obtained with SWAT model suggests that SWAT model could be a promising tool to predict water balance and water yield in sustainable management of water resources. In addition, SWAT could be applied to other water resources in other basins in Nigeria as a decision support tool for sustainable water management in Nigeria.

Keywords: Modeling, GIS, Sensitivity Analysis, SWAT, water yield, watershed level

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