Search results for: forest
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 908

Search results for: forest

908 Community Forest Management Practice in Nepal: Public Understanding of Forest Benefit

Authors: Chandralal Shrestha

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicated the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, forest benefits, lowland, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
907 Community Forestry Programme through the Local Forest Users Group, Nepal

Authors: Daniyal Neupane

Abstract:

Establishment of community forestry in Nepal is a successful step in the conservation of forests. Community forestry programme through the local forest users group has shown its positive impacts in the society. This paper discusses an overview of the present scenario of the community forestry in Nepal. It describes the brief historical background, some important forest legislations, and organization of forest. The paper also describes the internal conflicts between forest users and district forest offices, and possible resolution. It also suggests some of the aspects of community forestry in which the research needs to be focused for the better management of the forests in Nepal.

Keywords: community forest, conservation of forest, local forest users group, better management, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
906 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah, Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: forest fire monitor, humidity, wind direction, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
905 Economic Benefits in Community Based Forest Management from Users Perspective in Community Forestry, Nepal

Authors: Sovit Pujari

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community-based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have a better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in the valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicating the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, low pricing strategy, forest benefits, livelihood opportunities, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
904 Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Stock Potential of Major Forest Types in the Foot Hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

Authors: B. Palanikumaran, N. Kanagaraj, M. Sangareswari, V. Sailaja, Kapil Sihag

Abstract:

The present study aimed to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of major forest types present in the foothills of Nilgiri biosphere reserve. The total biomass carbon stock was estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest as 14.61 t C ha⁻¹ 75.16 t C ha⁻¹ and 187.52 t C ha⁻¹ respectively. The density and basal area were estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest, tropical moist deciduous forest as 173 stems ha⁻¹, 349 stems ha⁻¹, 391 stems ha⁻¹ and 6.21 m² ha⁻¹, 31.09 m² ha⁻¹, 67.34 m² ha⁻¹ respectively. The soil carbon stock of different forest ecosystems was estimated, and the results revealed that tropical moist deciduous forest (71.74 t C ha⁻¹) accounted for more soil carbon stock when compared to tropical dry deciduous forest (31.80 t C ha⁻¹) and tropical thorn forest (3.99 t C ha⁻¹). The tropical moist deciduous forest has the maximum annual leaf litter which was 12.77 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ followed by 6.44 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ litter fall of tropical dry deciduous forest. The tropical thorn forest accounted for 3.42 t ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ leaf litter production. The leaf litter carbon stock of tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest found to be 1.02 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ 2.28 t⁻¹ C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ and 5.42 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ respectively. The results explained that decomposition percent at the soil surface in the following order.tropical dry deciduous forest (77.66 percent) > tropical thorn forest (69.49 percent) > tropical moist deciduous forest (63.17 percent). Decomposition percent at soil subsurface was studied, and the highest decomposition percent was observed in tropical dry deciduous forest (80.52 percent) followed by tropical moist deciduous forest (77.65 percent) and tropical thorn forest (72.10 percent). The decomposition percent was higher at soil subsurface. Among the three forest type, tropical moist deciduous forest accounted for the highest bacterial (59.67 x 105cfu’s g⁻¹ soil), actinomycetes (74.87 x 104cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) and fungal (112.60 x10³cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) population. The overall observation of the study helps to conclude that, the tropical moist deciduous forest has the potential of storing higher carbon content as biomass with the value of 264.68 t C ha⁻¹ and microbial populations.

Keywords: basal area, carbon sequestration, carbon stock, Nilgiri biosphere reserve

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903 Community Activism for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal: Lessons fromTarpakha Community Forest Siranchok, Gorkha

Authors: Prem Bahadur Giri, Trilochana Pokhrel

Abstract:

The nationalization of forest during early 1960s had become a counterproductive for the conservation of forest in Nepal. Realizing this fact, the Government of Nepal initiated a paradigm shift from government-controlled forestry system to people’s direct participation for managing forestry, conceptualizing community forest approach in the early 1980s. The community forestry approach is expected to promote sustainable forest management, restoring degraded forests for enhancing the forest condition on one hand, and on the other, improvement of livelihoods, particularly of low-income people and forest dependent communities, as well as promoting community ownership to forest. As a result, establishment of community forests started and had taken faster momentum in Nepal. Of the total land in Nepal, forest occupies 6.5 million hectares which is around 45 percent of the forest area. Of the total forest area 1.8 million hectarehas been handed-over to community management. A total of 19,361 ‘community forest users groups’ are already created to manage the community forest.Tostreamlinethe governance of community forest, the enactment of ‘Forest Act 1993’ provides a clear legal basis for managing community forest in Nepal. This article is based on an in-depth study taking a case of Tarpakha Community Forest (TCF) located in Siranchok Rural Municipality of Gorkha District in Nepal. It mainly discusses on to extent the TCF able to achieve twin objectives of this community forest for catalyzing socio-economic improvement of the targeted community and conservation of forest. The primary information was generated through in-depth interviews along with group discussion with members, management committee, and other relevant stakeholders. The findings reveal that there is significant improvement of regeneration of forest and also changes in the socio-economic status of local community. However, coordination with local municipality and forest governing entities is still weak.

Keywords: community forest, nepal, socio-economic benefit, sustainable forest management

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
902 The Interrelationship Between Urban Forest ,Forest Policy And Degraded Lands In Nigeria

Authors: Pius Akindele Adeniyi

Abstract:

The World's tropical forests are disappearing at an alarming rate of more than 200,000 ha per year as a result of deforestation due mainly to population pressures, economic growth, poor management and inappropriate policy. A forest policy determines the role of the sector in a nation's economy and it is formulated in accordance with the objectives of the national economic development. Urban forestry as a concept is relatively new in Nigeria when compared to European and American countries. It consists of growing of trees, shrubs and grass along streets, in parks, and around public or private buildings whose management rests in the hands of the public and private owners. Major urban centers in Nigeria are devoid of efficiently planned tree-planting programs. Hence, various factors militating against environmental improvements, such as climate and other agents of degradation, are highlighted for the necessary attention. The paper discusses the need for forest policy formulation and the objectives of forest policy. Elements of forest policy are also discussed and in particular, those peculiar to urbanization and degraded lands are Forest policy and land-use and policy implementation together with some problem issues in forest policy are discussed while recommendations are given on formulation of a forest policy.

Keywords: urban, forest, policy, environment, interaction, degraded

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
901 Insect Outbreaks, Harvesting and Wildfire in Forests: Mathematical Models for Coupling Disturbances

Authors: M. C. A. Leite, B. Chen-Charpentier, F. Agusto

Abstract:

A long-term goal of sustainable forest management is a relatively stable source of wood and a stable forest age-class structure has become the goal of many forest management practices. In the absence of disturbances, this forest management goal could easily be achieved. However, in the face of recurring insect outbreaks and other disruptive processes forest planning becomes more difficult, requiring knowledge of the effects on the forest of a wide variety of environmental factors (e.g., habitat heterogeneity, fire size and frequency, harvesting, insect outbreaks, and age distributions). The association between distinct forest disturbances and the potential effect on forest dynamics is a complex matter, particularly when evaluated over time and at large scale, and is not well understood. However, gaining knowledge in this area is crucial for a sustainable forest management. Mathematical modeling is a tool that can be used to broader the understanding in this area. In this talk we will introduce mathematical models formulation incorporating the effect of insect outbreaks either as a single disturbance in the forest population dynamics or coupled with other disturbances: either wildfire or harvesting. The results and ecological insights will be discussed.

Keywords: age-structured forest population, disturbances interaction, harvesting insects outbreak dynamics, mathematical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
900 Community Activism for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal: Lessons fromTarpakha Community Forest

Authors: Prem Bahadur Giri

Abstract:

The nationalization of forests during the early 1960s had become counterproductive for the conservation of forests in Nepal. Realizing this fact, the Government of Nepal initiated a paradigm shift from a government-controlled forestry system to people’s direct participation in managing forestry, conceptualizing a community forest approach in the early 1980s. The community forestry approach is expected to promote sustainable forest management, restoring degraded forests to enhance the forest condition on the one hand, and on the other, improvement of livelihoods, particularly of low-income people and forest-dependent communities, as well as promoting community ownership of a forest. As a result, the establishment of community forests started and had taken faster momentum in Nepal. Of the total land in Nepal, forest occupies 6.5 million hectares which are around 45 percent of the forest area. Of the total forest area, 1.8 million hectares have been handed over to community management. A total of 19,361 ‘community forest users groups’ are already created to manage the community forest. To streamline the governance of community forests, the enactment of ‘The Forest Act 1993’ provides a clear legal basis for managing community forests in Nepal. This article is based on an in-depth study taking the case of Tarpakha Community Forest (TCF) located in Siranchok Rural Municipality of Gorkha District in Nepal. It mainly discusses the extent to which the TCF is able to achieve the twin objectives of this community forest for catalyzing socio-economic improvement of the targeted community and conservation of the forest. The primary information was generated through in-depth interviews along with group discussions with members, the management committee, and other relevant stakeholders. The findings reveal that there is a significant improvement in the regeneration of the forest and also changes in the socio-economic status of the local community. However, coordination with local municipalities and forest governing entities is still weak.

Keywords: community forest, socio-economic benefit, sustainable forest management, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
899 Assessment of Non-Timber Forest Products from Community Managed Forest of Thenzawl Forest Division, Mizoram, Northeast India

Authors: K. Lalhmingsangi, U. K. Sahoo

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products represent one of the key sources of income and subsistence to the fringe communities living in rural areas. A study was conducted for the assessment of NTFP within the community forest of five villages under Thenzawl forest division. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), questionnaire, field exercise, discussion and interview with the first hand NTFP exploiter and sellers was adopted for the field study. Fuel wood, medicinal plants, fodder, wild vegetables, fruits, broom grass, thatch grass, bamboo pole and cane species are the main NTFP harvested from the community forest. Among all the NTFPs, the highest percentage of household involvement was found in fuel wood, i.e. 53% of household and least in medicinal plants 5%. They harvest for their own consumption as well as for selling to the market to meet their needs. Edible food and fruits are sold to the market and it was estimated that 300 (Rs/hh/yr) was earned by each household through the selling of this NTFP from the community forest alone. No marketing channels are linked with fuelwood, medicinal plants and fodder since they harvest only for their own consumption.

Keywords: community forest, subsistence, non-timber forest products, Thenzawl Forest Division

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
898 Design an Architectural Model for Deploying Wireless Sensor Network to Prevent Forest Fire

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey

Abstract:

The fires have become the most serious disasters to forest resources and the human environment. In recent years, due to climate change, human activities and other factors the frequency of forest fires has increased considerably. The monitoring and prevention of forest fires have now become a global concern for forest fire prevention organizations. Currently, the methods for forest fire prevention largely consist of patrols, observation from watch towers. Thus, software like deployment of the wireless sensor network to prevent forest fire is being developed to get a better estimate of the temperature and humidity prospects. Now days, wireless sensor networks are beginning to be deployed at an accelerated pace. It is not unrealistic to expect that in coming years the world will be covered with wireless sensor networks. This new technology has lots of unlimited potentials and can be used for numerous application areas including environmental, medical, military, transportation, entertainment, crisis management, homeland defense, and smart spaces.

Keywords: deployment, sensors, wireless sensor networks, forest fires

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
897 Extraction of Forest Plantation Resources in Selected Forest of San Manuel, Pangasinan, Philippines Using LiDAR Data for Forest Status Assessment

Authors: Mark Joseph Quinto, Roan Beronilla, Guiller Damian, Eliza Camaso, Ronaldo Alberto

Abstract:

Forest inventories are essential to assess the composition, structure and distribution of forest vegetation that can be used as baseline information for management decisions. Classical forest inventory is labor intensive and time-consuming and sometimes even dangerous. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in forest inventory would improve and overcome these restrictions. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of using LiDAR derived data in extracting high accuracy forest biophysical parameters and as a non-destructive method for forest status analysis of San Manual, Pangasinan. Forest resources extraction was carried out using LAS tools, GIS, Envi and .bat scripts with the available LiDAR data. The process includes the generation of derivatives such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM) and Canopy Cover Model (CCM) in .bat scripts followed by the generation of 17 composite bands to be used in the extraction of forest classification covers using ENVI 4.8 and GIS software. The Diameter in Breast Height (DBH), Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock (CS) were estimated for each classified forest cover and Tree Count Extraction was carried out using GIS. Subsequently, field validation was conducted for accuracy assessment. Results showed that the forest of San Manuel has 73% Forest Cover, which is relatively much higher as compared to the 10% canopy cover requirement. On the extracted canopy height, 80% of the tree’s height ranges from 12 m to 17 m. CS of the three forest covers based on the AGB were: 20819.59 kg/20x20 m for closed broadleaf, 8609.82 kg/20x20 m for broadleaf plantation and 15545.57 kg/20x20m for open broadleaf. Average tree counts for the tree forest plantation was 413 trees/ha. As such, the forest of San Manuel has high percent forest cover and high CS.

Keywords: carbon stock, forest inventory, LiDAR, tree count

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
896 PRISM: An Analytical Tool for Forest Plan Development

Authors: Dung Nguyen, Yu Wei, Eric Henderson

Abstract:

Analytical tools have been used for decades to assist in the development of forest plans. In 2016, a new decision support system, PRISM, was jointly developed by United States Forest Service (USFS) Northern Region and Colorado State University to support the forest planning process. Prism has a friendly user interface with functionality for database management, model development, data visualization, and sensitivity analysis. The software is tailored for USFS planning, but it is flexible enough to support planning efforts by other forestland owners and managers. Here, the core capability of PRISM and its applications in developing plans for several United States national forests are presented. The strengths of PRISM are also discussed to show its potential of being a preferable tool for managers and experts in the domain of forest management and planning.

Keywords: decision support, forest management, forest plan, graphical user interface, software

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
895 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: mountain, ecosystems, conservation, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 558
894 Low Pricing Strategy of Forest Products in Community Forestry Program: Subsidy to the Forest Users or Loss of Economy?

Authors: Laxuman Thakuri

Abstract:

Community-based forest management is often glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries like Nepal. It is also believed that the transfer of forest management authorities to local communities is decisive to take efficient decisions, maximize the forest benefits and improve the people’s livelihood. The community forestry of Nepal also aims to maximize the forest benefits; share them among the user households and improve their livelihood. However, how the local communities fix the price of forest products and local pricing made by the forest user groups affects to equitable forest benefits-sharing among the user households and their livelihood improvement objectives, the answer is largely silent among the researchers and policy-makers alike. This study examines local pricing system of forest products in the lowland community forestry and its effects on equitable benefit-sharing and livelihood improvement objectives. The study discovered that forest user groups fixed the price of forest products based on three criteria: i) costs incur in harvesting, ii) office operation costs, and iii) livelihood improvement costs through community development and income generating activities. Since user households have heterogeneous socio-economic conditions, the forest user groups have been applied low pricing strategy even for high-value forest products that the access of socio-economically worse-off households can be increased. However, the results of forest products distribution showed that as a result of low pricing strategy the access of socio-economically better-off households has been increasing at higher rate than worse-off and an inequality situation has been created. Similarly, the low pricing strategy is also found defective to livelihood improvement objectives. The study suggests for revising the forest products pricing system in community forest management and reforming the community forestry policy as well.

Keywords: community forestry, forest products pricing, equitable benefit-sharing, livelihood improvement, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
893 Characteristics of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Relation to Age and Typhoon Disturbance

Authors: Teng-Chiu Lin, Pei-Jen Lee Shaner, Shin-Yu Lin

Abstract:

Both forest age and physical damages due to weather events such as tropical cyclones can influence forest characteristics and subsequently its capacity to sequester carbon. Detangling these influences is therefore a pressing issue under climate change. In this study, we compared the compositional and structural characteristics of three forests in Taiwan differing in age and severity of typhoon disturbances. We found that the two forests (one old-growth forest and one secondary forest) experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances had shorter stature, higher wood density, higher tree species diversity, and lower typhoon-induced tree mortality than the other secondary forest experiencing less severe typhoon disturbances. On the other hand, the old-growth forest had a larger amount of woody debris than the two secondary forests, suggesting a dominant role of forest age on woody debris accumulation. Of the three forests, only the two experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances formed new gaps following two 2015 typhoons, and between these two forests, the secondary forest gained more gaps than the old-growth forest. Consider that older forests generally have more gaps due to a higher background tree mortality, our findings suggest that the age effects on gap dynamics may be reversed by typhoon disturbances. This study demonstrated the effects of typhoons on forest characteristics, some of which could negate the age effects and rejuvenate older forests. If cyclone disturbances were to intensity under climate change, the capacity of older forests to sequester carbon may be reduced.

Keywords: typhoon, canpy gap, coarse woody debris, forest stature, forest age

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
892 Geographic Information System Applications in Prioritizing Karlahi Forest Reserve Area for Conservation

Authors: Samuel Hyellamada Jerry

Abstract:

This study focused on assessing conservation priorities within the Karlahi Forest Reserve of Fufore Local Government in Adamawa State. The main objective was to identify specific areas within the forest reserve that require immediate conservation attention. The research employed remote sensing and GIS techniques to achieve this goal. By overlaying the IDRIS Silva module results, a spatial distribution map was generated, highlighting the cumulative priority areas within and outside the forest. Among the total vegetated area of 26.38 km² in the Karlahi Forest Reserve, the analysis revealed that 16.16 km² were classified as high-priority conservation zones. Additionally, 4.59 km² and 5.63 km² were identified as medium and low-priority areas, respectively. In light of these findings, it is recommended that conservation efforts incorporate detailed land cover information and regular assessments of species diversity. Furthermore, strict adherence to national and state policies regarding forest reserves and parks is crucial for effective conservation management.

Keywords: priority, Karlahi, forest, reserve, IDRISI Silva, species diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
891 Community Forest Management and Ecological and Economic Sustainability: A Two-Way Street

Authors: Sony Baral, Harald Vacik

Abstract:

This study analyzes the sustainability of community forest management in two community forests in Terai and Hills of Nepal, representing four forest types: 1) Shorearobusta, 2) Terai hardwood, 3) Schima-Castanopsis, and 4) other Hills. The sustainability goals for this region include maintaining and enhancing the forest stocks. Considering this, we analysed changes in species composition, stand density, growing stock volume, and growth-to-removal ratio at 3-5 year intervals from 2005-2016 within 109 permanent forest plots (57 in the Terai and 52 in the Hills). To complement inventory data, forest users, forest committee members, and forest officials were consulted. The results indicate that the relative representation of economically valuable tree species has increased. Based on trends in stand density, both forests are being sustainably managed. Pole-sized trees dominated the diameter distribution, however, with a limited number of mature trees and declined regeneration. The forests were over-harvested until 2013 but under-harvested in the recent period in the Hills. In contrast, both forest types were under-harvested throughout the inventory period in the Terai. We found that the ecological dimension of sustainable forest management is strongly achieved while the economic dimension is lacking behind the current potential. Thus, we conclude that maintaining a large number of trees in the forest does not necessarily ensure both ecological and economical sustainability. Instead, priority should be given on a rational estimation of the annual harvest rates to enhance forest resource conditions together with regular benefits to the local communities.

Keywords: community forests, diversity, growing stock, forest management, sustainability, nepal

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890 Local Pricing Strategy Should Be the Entry Point of Equitable Benefit Sharing and Poverty Reduction in Community Based Forest Management: Some Evidences from Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Dhruba Khatri

Abstract:

Despite the short history of community based forest management, the community forestry program of Nepal has produced substantial positive effects to organize the local people at a local level institution called Community Forest User Group and manage the local forest resources in the line of poverty reduction since its inception in 1970s. Moreover, each CFUG has collected a community fund from the sale of forest products and non-forestry sources as well and the fund has played a vital role to improve the livelihood of user households living in and around the forests. The specific study sites were selected based on the criteria of i) community forests having dominancy of Sal forests, and ii) forests having 3-5 years experience of community forest management. The price rates of forest products fixed by the CFUGs and the distribution records were collected from the respective community forests. Nonetheless, the relation between pricing strategy and community fund collection revealed that the small change in price of forest products could greatly affect in community fund collection and carry out of forest management, community development, and income generation activities in the line of poverty reduction at local level.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, equitable, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
889 Forest Polices and Management in Nigeria: Are Households Willing to Pay for Forest Management?

Authors: A. O. Arowolo, M. U. Agbonlahor, P. A. Okuneye, A. E. Obayelu

Abstract:

Nigeria is rich with abundant resources with an immense contribution of the forest resource to her economic development and to the livelihood of the rural populace over the years. However, this important resource has continued to shrink because it is not sustainably used, managed or conserved. The loss of forest cover has far reaching consequences on regional, national and global economy as well as the environment. This paper reviewed the Nigeria forest management policies, the challenges and willingness to pay (WTP) for management of the community forests in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data for the empirical investigation were obtained using a cross-section survey of 160 rural households by multistage sampling technique. The WTP was assessed by the Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation. One major findings is that, the Nigerian forest reserves is established in order to conserve and manage forest resources but has since been neglected while the management plans are either non-existent or abandoned. Also, the free areas termed the community forests where people have unrestricted access to exploit are fast diminishing in both contents and scale. The mean WTP for sustainable management of community forests in the study area was positive with a value of ₦389.04/month. The study recommends policy measures aimed at participatory forest management plan which will include the rural communities in the management of community forests. This will help ensure sustainable management of forest resources as well as improve the welfare of the rural households.

Keywords: forests, management, WTP, Nigeria

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888 The Implementation of Sovereignty over Natural Resources Principle: Case Study Indonesian Forest

Authors: Sri Wartini

Abstract:

Based on the sovereignty over natural resources principle, the Indonesian government has an authority to exploit the natural resources within a national jurisdiction of Indonesia. The forest is one of the natural resources which is very valuable for Indonesia. It becomes the source of raw material for many industrial activities, such as pharmaceutical industry, pulp industry, and household furniture industry. Hence, it contributes to the economic development of Indonesia. However, the exploitation of the forest may cause negative impacts, such as environmental pollution and environmental degradation. The implementation of the sovereignty over natural resources principle in Indonesia may jeopardize the forest and affect the sustainability of the forest if there is no appropriate policy of the government to exploit the forest in a sustainable manner. The exploitation of the forest in Indonesia, in some extent, has caused serious impact to environment and biodiversity. Hence, in order to sustain and to maintain the forest as the valuable resources to the future generation, the government of Indonesia has already adopted many programmes and action plans. The aim of the research is to undertake a critical examination of the issues relating to the the implementation of sovereignty over natural resources to the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia. It is a normative research and the methodology employed in this research is library research. While the approaches employed in the research are conceptual approach., statutory approach, and comparative approach. The research finds that the implementation of sovereignty over natural resources principle in the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia is limited by other principles of international environmental law, such as sustainable development principle, intergenerational principle and common concern principle which have been adopted in the government policy and various regulations regarding the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia.

Keywords: Environmental damage, negative impacts, pollution, the sovereignty over natural resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
887 Trees in Different Vegetation Types of Mt. Hamiguitan Range, Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Janece Jean A. Polizon, Victor B. Amoroso

Abstract:

Mt. Hamiguitan Range in Davao Oriental, Mindanao Island, Philippines is the only protected area with pygmy forest and a priority site for protection and conservation. This range harbors different vegetation types such as agroecosystem, dipterocarp forest, montane forest and mossy forest. This study was conducted to determine the diversity of trees and shrubs in different vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan Range. Transect walk and 16 sampling plots of 20 x 20 m were established in the different vegetation types. Specimens collected were classified and identified using the Flora Malesiana and type images. Assessment of status was determined based on International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). There were 223 species of trees, 141 genera and 71 families. Of the vegetation types, the pygmy forest obtained a comparatively high diversity value of H=1.348 followed by montane forest with H=1.284. The high species importance value (SIV) of Diospyros philippinensis for trees indicates that these species have an important role in regulating the stability of the ecosystem. The tree profile of the pygmy forest is different due to the ultramafic substrate causing the dwarfness of the trees. These forest types should be given high priority for protection and conservation.

Keywords: diversity, Mt Hamiguitan, vegetation, trees, shrubs

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
886 Estimating Tree Height and Forest Classification from Multi Temporal Risat-1 HH and HV Polarized Satellite Aperture Radar Interferometric Phase Data

Authors: Saurav Kumar Suman, P. Karthigayani

Abstract:

In this paper the height of the tree is estimated and forest types is classified from the multi temporal RISAT-1 Horizontal-Horizontal (HH) and Horizontal-Vertical (HV) Polarised Satellite Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The novelty of the proposed project is combined use of the Back-scattering Coefficients (Sigma Naught) and the Coherence. It uses Water Cloud Model (WCM). The approaches use two main steps. (a) Extraction of the different forest parameter data from the Product.xml, BAND-META file and from Grid-xxx.txt file come with the HH & HV polarized data from the ISRO (Indian Space Research Centre). These file contains the required parameter during height estimation. (b) Calculation of the Vegetation and Ground Backscattering, Coherence and other Forest Parameters. (c) Classification of Forest Types using the ENVI 5.0 Tool and ROI (Region of Interest) calculation.

Keywords: RISAT-1, classification, forest, SAR data

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
885 Forest Harvesting Policies and Practices in Tropical Forest of Terengganu, Malaysia: Industry Experiences

Authors: Mohd Zaki Hamzah, Roslan Rani, Ahmad Bazli Razali, Satiful Bahri Mamat, Abdul Hadi Ripin, Mohd Harun Esa

Abstract:

Ever since 1901, forest management and silviculture practices in Malaysia have been frequently reviewed and updated to take into account changes in forest conditions, markets, timber demand/supply and technical advances that can be achieved in industrial processes, logging and forest harvesting, and currently, the forest management system practiced in Peninsular Malaysia is the Selective Management System (SMS) which was introduced in 1978. This system requires the selection of management regime (felling) based on Pre-Felling Forest Inventory (Pre-F) data to ensure economical harvesting and also ensuring adequate standing stands for subsequent rounds of felling, while maintaining ecological balance and environmental quality. SMS regulates forest harvesting through area and volume controls, with the cutting cycle 30 years. Most of the forest management units (FMU) (in Peninsular Malaysia) implementing SMS have been certified by Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and/or Program for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), and one such FMU belongs to Kumpulan Pengurusan Kayu Kayan Terengganu (KPKKT). KPKKT, a timber management subsidiary of Golden Pharos Berhad (GPB), adopts the SMS to manage its 108,900 ha of timber concessionary areas in its role as logs’ supplier for the consumption of three subsidiaries of GPB. KPKKT is also responsible for the sustainable development and management of its concession in accordance with the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) standards to ensure that it addresses the loss of forest cover and forest degradation, forest-based economic, social and environmental benefits, and ecologically protecting forests while mobilising financial resources for the implementation of sustainable forest management planning, harvesting, monitoring and the marketing of products. This paper will detail out the management and harvesting guidelines imposed by the controlling government agency, and harvesting processes taken by KPKKT to comply with guidelines and eventually supplying timber to the relevant subsidiaries (downstream mills under GPB).

Keywords: sustainable forest management, silviculture, reduce impact logging, forest certification

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884 Economic Valuation of Forest Landscape Function Using a Conditional Logit Model

Authors: A. J. Julius, E. Imoagene, O. A. Ganiyu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to estimate the economic value of the services and functions rendered by the forest landscape using a conditional logit model. For this study, attributes and levels of forest landscape were chosen; specifically, attributes include topographical forest type, forest type, forest density, recreational factor (side trip, accessibility of valley), and willingness to participate (WTP). Based on these factors, 48 choices sets with balanced and orthogonal form using statistical analysis system (SAS) 9.1 was adopted. The efficiency of the questionnaire was 6.02 (D-Error. 0.1), and choice set and socio-economic variables were analyzed. To reduce the cognitive load of respondents, the 48 choice sets were divided into 4 types in the questionnaire, so that respondents could respond to 12 choice sets, respectively. The study populations were citizens from seven metropolitan cities including Ibadan, Ilorin, Osogbo, etc. and annual WTP per household was asked by using the interview questionnaire, a total of 267 copies were recovered. As a result, Oshogbo had 0.45, and the statistical similarities could not be found except for urban forests, forest density, recreational factor, and level of WTP. Average annual WTP per household for forest landscape was 104,758 Naira (Nigerian currency) based on the outcome from this model, total economic value of the services and functions enjoyed from Nigerian forest landscape has reached approximately 1.6 trillion Naira.

Keywords: economic valuation, urban cities, services, forest landscape, logit model, nigeria

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883 Silviculture for Climate Change: Future Scenarios for Nigeria Forests

Authors: Azeez O. Ganiyu

Abstract:

Climate change is expected to lead to substantial changes in rainfall patterns in southwest Nigeria, and this may have substantial consequence for forest management and for conservation outcomes throughout the region. We examine three different forest types across an environmental spectrum from semi-arid to humid subtropical and consider their response to water shortages and other environmental stresses; we also explore the potential consequence for conservation and timber production by considering impacts on forest structure and limiting stand density. Analysis of a series of scenarios provides the basis for a critique of existing management practices and suggests practical alternatives to develop resilient forests with minimal diminution of production and environmental services. We specifically discuss practical silviculture interventions that are feasible at the landscape-scale, that are economically viable, and that have the potential to enhance resilience of forest stands. We also discuss incentives to encourage adoption of these approaches by private forest owners. We draw on these case studies in southwestern Nigeria to offer generic principle to assist forest researchers and managers faced with similar challenges elsewhere.

Keywords: climate change, forest, future, silviculture, Nigeria

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882 Norms and Laws: Fate of Community Forestry in Jharkhand

Authors: Pawas Suren

Abstract:

The conflict between livelihood and forest protection has been a perpetual phenomenon in India. In the era of climate change, the problem is expected to aggravate the declining trend of dense forest in the country, creating impediments in the climate change adaptation by the forest dependent communities. In order to access the complexity of the problem, Hazarinagh and Chatra districts of Jharkhand were selected as a case study. To identify norms practiced by the communities to manage community forestry, the ethnographic study was designed to understand the values, traditions, and cultures of forest dependent communities, most of whom were tribal. It was observed that internalization of efficient forest norms is reflected in the pride and honor of such behavior while violators are sanctioned through guilt and shame. The study analyzes the effect of norms being practiced in the management and ecology of community forestry as common property resource. The light of the findings led towards the gaps in the prevalent forest laws to address efficient allocation of property rights. The conclusion embarks on reconsidering accepted factors of forest degradation in India.

Keywords: climate change, common property resource, community forestry, norms

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881 Assessment of Forest Resource Exploitation in the Rural Communities of District Jhelum

Authors: Rubab Zafar Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt

Abstract:

Forest resources are deteriorating and experiencing decline around the globe due to unsustainable use and over exploitation. The present study was an attempt to determine the relationship between human activities, forest resource utilization, extraction methods and practices of forest resource exploitation in the district Jhelum of Pakistan. For this purpose, primary sources of data were used which were collected from 8 villages through structured questionnaire and tabulated in Microsoft Excel 365 and SPSS 22 was used for multiple linear regression analysis. The results revealed that farming, wood cutting, animal husbandry and agro-forestry were the major occupations in the study area. Most commonly used resources included timber 26%, fuelwood 25% and fodder 19%. Methods used for resource extraction included gathering 49%, plucking 34% trapping 11% and cutting 6%. Population growth, increased demand of fuelwood and land conversion were the main reasons behind forest degradation. Results for multiple linear regression revealed that Forest based activities, sources of energy production, methods used for wood harvesting and resource extraction and use of fuelwood for energy production contributed significantly towards extensive forest resource exploitation with p value <0.5 within the study area. The study suggests that effective measures should be taken by forest department to control the unsustainable use of forest resources by stringent management interventions and awareness campaigns in Jhelum district.

Keywords: forest resource, biodiversity, expliotation, human activities

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880 Strategic Policy Formulation to Ensure the Atlantic Forest Regeneration

Authors: Ramon F. B. da Silva, Mateus Batistella, Emilio Moran

Abstract:

Although the existence of two Forest Transition (FT) pathways, the economic development and the forest scarcity, there are many contexts that shape the model of FT observed in each particular region. This means that local conditions, such as relief, soil quality, historic land use/cover, public policies, the engagement of society in compliance with legal regulations, and the action of enforcement agencies, represent dimensions which combined, creates contexts that enable forest regeneration. From this perspective we can understand the regeneration process of native vegetation cover in the Paraíba Valley (Forest Atlantic biome), ongoing since the 1960s. This research analyzed public information, land use/cover maps, environmental public policies, and interviewed 17 stakeholders from the Federal and State agencies, municipal environmental and agricultural departments, civil society, farmers, aiming comprehend the contexts behind the forest regeneration in the Paraíba Valley, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The first policy to protect forest vegetation was the Forest Code n0 4771 of 1965, but this legislation did not promote the increase of forest, just the control of deforestation, not enough to the Atlantic Forest biome that reached its highest pick of degradation in 1985 (8% of Atlantic Forest remnants). We concluded that the Brazilian environmental legislation acted in a strategic way to promote the increase of forest cover (102% of regeneration between 1985 and 2011) from 1993 when the Federal Decree n0 750 declared the initial and advanced stages of secondary succession protected against any kind of exploitation or degradation ensuring the forest regeneration process. The strategic policy formulation was also observed in the Sao Paulo State law n0 6171 of 1988 that prohibited the use of fire to manage agricultural landscape, triggering a process of forest regeneration in formerly pasture areas.

Keywords: forest transition, land abandonment, law enforcement, rural economic crisis

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879 A Case Study: Community Forestry in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges

Authors: Bhmika Raiu

Abstract:

The community forestry programme in Nepal officially started in the late 1970s. Since then concerning movement has been evolving to involve local communities in the management and utilization of forests. The policy of the government was originally intended to meet the basic forest products required by the communities through active participation in forest development and management. Later, it was expanded to include the mobilization and empowerment of the members of community forest user groups in the development of their local communities. It was observed that the trend of forest degradation has decreased since the handing over of national forests to local communities, but a number of unintended social anomalies have also cropped up. Such anomalies essentially constitute of the inequity and unfairness in the local and national level and in terms of long-term sustainability of forest resources. This paper provides an overview of various issues of community forestry, especially focusing on the major achievements made in community forestry. It calls for rethinking the community forestry programme in order to face the present day challenges of linking community forestry with livelihood promotion, good governance, and sustainable forest management. It also lays out strategies for reforms in community forestry.

Keywords: community forest, livelihood promotion, challenges, achievements

Procedia PDF Downloads 347