Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: tribology

31 Effect of Print Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of Multi Jet Fusion Additively Manufactured Polyamide-12

Authors: Tyler Palma, Praveen Damasus, Michael Munther, Mehrdad Mohsenizadeh, Keivan Davami

Abstract:

The advancement of additive manufacturing, in both research and commercial realms, is highly dependent upon continuing innovations and creativity in materials and designs. Additive manufacturing shows great promise towards revolutionizing various industries, due largely to the fact that design data can be used to create complex products and components, on demand and from the raw materials, for the end user at the point of use. However, it will be critical that the material properties of additively-made parts for engineering purposes be fully understood. As it is a relatively new additive manufacturing method, the response of properties of Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) produced parts to different printing parameters has not been well studied. In this work, testing of mechanical and tribological properties MJF-printed Polyamide 12 parts was performed to determine whether printing orientation in this method results in significantly different part performances. Material properties were studied at macro- and nanoscales. Tensile tests, in combination with tribology tests including steady-state wear, were performed. Results showed a significant difference in resultant part characteristics based on whether they were printed in a vertical or horizontal orientation. Tensile performance of vertically and horizontally printed samples varied, both in ultimate strength and strain. Tribology tests showed that printing orientation has notable effects on the resulting mechanical and wear properties of tested surfaces, due largely to layer orientation and the presence of unfused fused powder grain inclusions. This research advances the understanding of how print orientation affects the mechanical properties of additively manufactured structures, and also how print orientation can be exploited in future engineering design.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, indentation, nano mechanical characterization, print orientation

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30 Tribological Characterization of ZrN Coatings on Titanium Modified Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani

Abstract:

Tribological characterization of ZrN coatings deposited on titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (alloy D-9) substrates has been investigated. The coatings were deposited in the deposition temperature range 300–873 K, using the pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Scratch adhesion tests were carried out using Rc indenter under various conditions of load. Detailed tribological studies were conducted to understand the friction and wear behaviour of these coatings. For all tribological studies steel and ceramic balls were used as counter face material. 3D-Surface profiles of all wear tracks was carried out using 3D universal profiler.

Keywords: ZrN, Surafce coating, thin film, tribology, friction and wear

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29 The Tribological Behaviors of Vacuum Gas Nitriding Titanium and Steel Substrates at Different Process Temperatures

Authors: Hikmet Cicek

Abstract:

Metal nitrides show excellence tribological properties and they used for especially on machine parts. In this work, the vacuum gas nitriding proses were applied to the titanium, D2 and 52100 steel substrates at three different proses temperatures (500 °C, 600°C and 700 °C). Structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were conducted to determine structural properties. Microhardness test and pin-on-disc wear test were made to observe tribological properties. Coefficient of friction, wear rate and wear traces were examined comparatively. According to the test results, the process temperature very effective parameter for the vacuum gas nitriding method.

Keywords: gas nitriding, tribology, wear, coating

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28 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

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27 Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost

Authors: Antônio P. de Araújo Neto, Ruy D. A. da Silva Neto, Juliana R. de Souza, Salete K. P. de Medeiros, João T. N. de Medeiros

Abstract:

The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%, and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation, normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.

Keywords: microcomposites, microparticles tailings of scheelite, PTFE, tribology

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26 Ways to Prevent Increased Wear of the Drive Box Parts and the Central Drive of the Civil Aviation Turbo Engine Based on Tribology

Authors: Liudmila Shabalinskaya, Victor Golovanov, Liudmila Milinis, Sergey Loponos, Alexander Maslov, D. O. Frolov

Abstract:

The work is devoted to the rapid laboratory diagnosis of the condition of aircraft friction units, based on the application of the nondestructive testing method by analyzing the parameters of wear particles, or tribodiagnostics. The most important task of tribodiagnostics is to develop recommendations for the selection of more advanced designs, materials and lubricants based on data on wear processes for increasing the life and ensuring the safety of the operation of machines and mechanisms. The object of tribodiagnostics in this work are the tooth gears of the central drive and the gearboxes of the gas turbine engine of the civil aviation PS-90A type, in which rolling friction and sliding friction with slip occur. The main criterion for evaluating the technical state of lubricated friction units of a gas turbine engine is the intensity and rate of wear of the friction surfaces of the friction unit parts. When the engine is running, oil samples are taken and the state of the friction surfaces is evaluated according to the parameters of the wear particles contained in the oil sample, which carry important and detailed information about the wear processes in the engine transmission units. The parameters carrying this information include the concentration of wear particles and metals in the oil, the dispersion composition, the shape, the size ratio and the number of particles, the state of their surfaces, the presence in the oil of various mechanical impurities of non-metallic origin. Such a morphological analysis of wear particles has been introduced into the order of monitoring the status and diagnostics of various aircraft engines, including a gas turbine engine, since the type of wear characteristic of the central drive and the drive box is surface fatigue wear and the beginning of its development, accompanied by the formation of microcracks, leads to the formation of spherical, up to 10 μm in size, and in the aftermath of flocculent particles measuring 20-200 μm in size. Tribodiagnostics using the morphological analysis of wear particles includes the following techniques: ferrography, filtering, and computer analysis of the classification and counting of wear particles. Based on the analysis of several series of oil samples taken from the drive box of the engine during their operating time, a study was carried out of the processes of wear kinetics. Based on the results of the study and comparing the series of criteria for tribodiagnostics, wear state ratings and statistics of the results of morphological analysis, norms for the normal operating regime were developed. The study allowed to develop levels of wear state for friction surfaces of gearing and a 10-point rating system for estimating the likelihood of the occurrence of an increased wear mode and, accordingly, prevention of engine failures in flight.

Keywords: aviation, box of drives, morphological analysis, tribodiagnostics, tribology, ferrography, filtering, wear particle

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25 Investigation of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Anti-Corrosive Behavior of Al2O3/Cr2O3 Nanocomposite on Zn Rich Bath

Authors: N. Malatji, A. P. I. Popoola

Abstract:

Zn-Al2O3 and Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings were successfully produced by electrodeposition technique from chloride acidic bath. Particle loading of Al2O3 (50nm) particles were varied from 5-10 g/L and for Cr2O3(100nm) was 10-20 g/L. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) affixed with energy dispersive spectrometry was used to study the surface morphology and content of the nanoparticles incorporated into the coatings. Microhardness, thermal stability, wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings were also evaluated to study the effect of these nanoparticles on these properties. Zn-Al2O3 nanocomposite was found to exhibit good surface properties especially corrosion resistance. On the other side, Cr2O3 incorporation resulted in the improvement of only mechanical properties. Therefore, Zn-Al2O3 proved to be a better coating for most industrial applications where both chemical and mechanical properties are required.

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanocomposite coatings, corrosion, thermal stability, tribology

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24 High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintering of Al/SiC/GNS Nanocomposites and Their Tribological Properties

Authors: Mohammad Islam, Iftikhar Ahmad, Hany S. Abdo, Yasir Khalid

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High-frequency induction heat sintering (HFIHS) is a fast, efficient powder consolidation technique. In this work, aluminum (Al) powder was mixed with silicon carbide (SiC) and/or graphene nanosheets (GNS) in different proportions and compacted using HFIHS process to produce dense nanocomposites. The nanostructures dispersion was assessed via electron microscopy using both SEM and TEM. Tribological behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated at different loads to determine wear rate and coefficient of friction. The scratch profiles were examined under the microscope to correlate wear properties with the microstructure. While the addition of SiC nanoparticles enhances microhardness values, GNS incorporation promotes dry lubricity with strikingly different wear scratch morphologies. Such Al/SiC/GNS material compositions can be explored for use in automotive brake pad and thermal management applications.

Keywords: aluminum nanocomposites, silicon carbide, graphene nanosheets, tribology

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23 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

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This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

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22 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola

Abstract:

Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: sintering, high entropy alloy, microhardness, tribology

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21 Tribological Characterization of Composites Based on Epoxy Resin Filled with Tailings of Scheelite

Authors: Clarissa D. M. O. Guimaraes, Mariza C. M. Fernandes, Francisco R. V. Diaz, Juliana R. Souza

Abstract:

The use of mineral fillers in the preparation of organic matrix composites can be an efficient alternative in minimizing the environmental damage generated in passive mineral beneficiation processes. In addition, it may represent a new material option for wind, construction, and aeronautical industries, for example. In this sense, epoxy resin composites with Tailings of Scheelite (TS) were developed. The composites were manufactured with 5%, 10% and 20% of TS in volume percentage, homogenized by mechanical mixing and molded in a silicon mold. In order to make the tribological evaluation, pin on disk tests were performed to analyze coefficient of friction and wear. The wear mechanisms were identified by SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. The coefficient of friction had a tendency to decrease with increasing amount of filler. The wear tends to increase with increasing amount of filler, although it exhibits a similar wear behavior. The results suggest characteristics that are potential used in many tribological applications.

Keywords: composites, mineral filler, tailings of scheelite, tribology

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20 The Effect of Bearing Surface Finish on the Engine's Lubrication System Performance

Authors: Kudakwashe Diana Nyamugure

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Engine design has evolved to suit new industry standards of smaller compact designs that operate at high temperatures and even higher stress loads. Research has proven that the interaction of the bearing surface and the lubrication film is affected by the bearing's surface texture, geometry, and dimensional tolerances. The challenge now for the automotive manufacturing industry is to understand which processes can be applied on bearing surfaces to reduce the 65% energy loss in engines, 15% of which is caused by friction. This paper will discuss a post grinding process known as microfinishing which optimises the characteristics of a manufactured surface such as roughness, profile, and waviness. Microfinishing is becoming an increasing trend within the automotive industry and has so far been applied on high performance and mass production crank or cam bearing surfaces in bid of friction reduction and extended engine service life. In the near future, microfinishing will be applied to more engine components because of the stringent environmental regulations demands on fuel consumption, reliability, power, and service life of engine components.

Keywords: bearings, tribology, friction reduction, energy efficiency

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19 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari

Abstract:

Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

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18 Study of Behavior Tribological Cutting Tools Based on Coating

Authors: A. Achour L. Chekour, A. Mekroud

Abstract:

Tribology, the science of lubrication, friction and wear, plays an important role in science "crossroads" initiated by the recent developments in the industry. Its multidisciplinary nature reinforces its scientific interest. It covers all the sciences that deal with the contact between two solids loaded and relative motion. It is thus one of the many intersections more clearly established disciplines such as solid mechanics and the fluids, rheological, thermal, materials science and chemistry. As for his experimental approach, it is based on the physical and processing signals and images. The optimization of operating conditions by cutting tool must contribute significantly to the development and productivity of advanced automation of machining techniques because their implementation requires sufficient knowledge of how the process and in particular the evolution of tool wear. In addition, technological advances have developed the use of very hard materials, refractory difficult machinability, requiring highly resistant materials tools. In this study, we present the behavior wear a machining tool during the roughing operation according to the cutting parameters. The interpretation of the experimental results is based mainly on observations and analyzes of sharp edges e tool using the latest techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical rugosimetry laser beam.

Keywords: friction, wear, tool, cutting

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17 Development and Characterization of Bio-Tribological, Nano- Multilayer Coatings for Medical Tools Application

Authors: L. Major, J. M. Lackner, M. Dyner, B. Major

Abstract:

Development of new generation bio- tribological, multilayer coatings, opens an avenue for fabrication of future high- tech functional surfaces. In the presented work, nano- composite, Cr/CrN+[Cr/ a-C:H implanted by metallic nanocrystals] multilayer coatings have been developed for surface protection of medical tools. Thin films were fabricated by a hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Complex microstructure analysis of nano- multilayer coatings, subjected to mechanical and biological tests, were performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microstructure characterization revealed the layered arrangement of Cr23C6 nanoparticles in multilayer structure. Influence of deposition conditions on bio- tribological properties of the coatings were studied. The bio-tests were used as a screening tool for the analyzed nano- multilayer coatings before they could be deposited on medical tools. Bio- medical tests were done using fibroblasts. The mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by means of a ball-on-disc mechanical test. The microhardness was done using Berkovich indenter. The scratch adhesion test was done using Rockwell indenter. From the bio- tribological point of view, the optimal properties had the C106_1 material.

Keywords: bio- tribological coatings, cell- material interaction, hybrid PLD, tribology

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16 Filler Elastomers Abrasion at Steady State: Optimal Use Conditions

Authors: Djeridi Rachid, Ould Ouali Mohand

Abstract:

The search of a mechanism for the elastomer abrasive wear study is an open issue. The practice difficulties are complex due to the complexity of deformation mechanism, to the complex mechanism of the material tearing and to the marked interactions between the tribological parameters. In this work, we present an experimental technique to study the elastomers abrasive wear. The interaction 'elastomer/indenter' implicate dependant ant temporary of different tribological parameters. Consequently, the phenomenon that governs this interaction is not easy to explain. An optimal elastomers compounding and an adequate utilization conditions of these materials that define its resistance at the abrasion is discussed. The results are confronted to theoretical models: the weight loss variation in function of blade angle or in function of cycle number is in agreement with rupture models and with the mechanism of fissures propagation during the material tearing in abrasive wear of filler elastomers. The weight loss in function of the sliding velocity shows the existence of a critical velocity that corresponds to the maximal wear. The adding of silica or black carbon influences in a different manner on wear abrasive behavior of filler elastomers.

Keywords: abrasion wear, filler elastomer, tribology, hyperelastic

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15 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: Md. Salim Kaiser

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m-4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads, the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads

Keywords: wear, friction, gravimetric analysis, aluminium-silicon alloys, SEM, EDX

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14 Tribological Properties of Different Mass Ratio High Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed Al₂O₃-TiO₂ Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Mehmet Fahri Sarac, Gokcen Akgun

Abstract:

Ti–6Al–4V alloys are widely used in biomedical industries because of its attractive mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, they have poor wear resistance. High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings were investigated as a way to improve the wear resistance of this alloy. In this paper, different mass ratio of Al₂O₃-TiO₂ powders (60/40, 87/13 and 97/3) was employed to enhance the tribological properties of Ti–6Al–4V. The tribological behavior was investigated by wear tests using ball-on-disc and pin-on-disc tribometer. The microstructures of the contact surfaces were determined by a scanning electron microscopy before and after the test to study the wear mechanism. Uncoated and coated surfaces after wear test are also subjected to micro-hardness tests. The tribological test results showed that the microhardness, friction and wear resistance of coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys increases by increasing TiO₂ content in the powder composite when other experimental conditions were constant. Finally, Al₂O₃-TiO₂ powder composites for the investigated conditions, both coating samples had satisfactory values of friction and wear resistance, and they could be suitable candidates for Ti–6Al–4V material.

Keywords: HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel), Al₂O₃-TiO₂, Ti-6Al-4V, tribology

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13 High-Temperature Tribological Characterization of Nano-Sized Silicon Nitride + 5% Boron Nitride Ceramic Composite

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani

Abstract:

Tribological studies on nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN were carried out in dry air at high temperatures to clarify the lack of consensus in the bibliographic data concerning the Tribological behavior of Si3N4 ceramics and effect of doped hexagonal boron nitride on coefficient of friction and wear coefficient at different loads and elevated temperatures. The composites were prepared via high energy mechanical milling and subsequent spark plasma sintering using Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering additives. After sintering, the average crystalline size of Si3N4 was observed to be 50 nm. Tribological tests were performed with temperature and Friction coefficients 0.16 to 1.183 and 0.54 to 0.71 were observed for Nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN composite under normal load of 10N-70 N and over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC respectively. Specific wear coefficients from 1.33x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 4.42x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 were observed for Nano-sized Si3N4 + 5% BN composite against Si3N4 ball as tribo-pair counterpart over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC while as under normal load of 10N to70N Specific wear coefficients of 6.91x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 1.70x 10-4 were observed. The addition of BN to the Si3N4 composite resulted in a slight reduction of the friction coefficient and lower values of wear coefficient.

Keywords: ceramics, tribology, friction and wear, solid lubrication

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12 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

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11 Investigation of the Possibility of Using Carbon Onion Nanolubrication with DLC Cutting Tool to Reduce the Machining Power Consumption

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

Due to rapid consumption of world's fossil fuel resources and impracticality of large-scale application and production of renewable energy, the significance of energy efficiency improvement of current available energy modes has been widely realized by both industry and academia. In the CNC machining field, the key solution for this issue is by increasing the effectiveness of the existing lubrication systems as it could reduce the power required to overcome the friction component in machining process. For more improvement, introducing the nanolubrication could produce much less power consumption as the rolling action of billions units of nanoparticle in the tool chip interface could reduce the cutting forces significantly. In this research, the possibility of using carbon onion nanolubrication with DLC cutting tool is investigated to reduce the machining power consumption. Carbon onion nanolubrication has been successfully developed with high tribology performance and mixed with ordinary mineral oil. The proper sonification method is used to provide a way to mix and suspend the particles thoroughly and efficiently. Furthermore, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) cutting tool is used and expected to play significant role in reducing friction and cutting forces and increasing abrasion resistance. The results showed significant reduction of the cutting force and the working power compared with the other conditions of using carbon black and normal lubrication systems.

Keywords: carbon onion, nanolubrication, machining power consumption, DLC cutting tool

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10 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions

Authors: S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Ramji

Abstract:

Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.

Keywords: solid lubricant, graphite, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nano–particles

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9 Tribological Response of Self-Mated Zircaloy-4 under Varying Conditions

Authors: Bharat Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Vijay Chaudhry

Abstract:

Zirconium alloys are widely used for the core components of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) or Canada deuterium (CANDU) reactor due to their low neutron absorption cross-section and excellent mechanical properties. The components made of Zirconium alloys are subjected to flow-induced vibrations, resulting in fretting wear at the interface of; pressure tubes and bearing pads, pressure tubes and calandria tubes, and calandria tubes and Liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) nozzles. There is a need to explore the tribological response under such conditions. Present work simulates the contact between calandria tube and LISS nozzle of PHWR/CANDU reactor as cylinder-on-cylinder contact configuration. Reciprocating tribo-tests were conducted on Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under the self-mated condition at varying amplitude, frequency, and sliding time. To understand the active wear mechanism, worn surfaces were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The change in amplitude severely affects the wear than other factors. The wear mechanism transits from adhesion to abrasion with increasing test amplitude. The dominant wear mechanisms are micro-cutting and micro-plowing followed by delamination in some areas. However, the coefficient of friction has indifferent behaviors.

Keywords: zircaloy-4, tribology, calandria tube, LISS nozzle, PHWR

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8 Production of Metal Matrix Composites with Diamond for Abrasive Cutting Resistance by Gas Infiltration Casting

Authors: Haydar S. Al Shabbani, M. Marshall, R. Goodall

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been explored for many applications for many decades. Recently, this includes investigations for thermal applications associated with electronics, such as in heat sinks. Here, to promote thermal conductivity, composites of a metal matrix with diamond particles are used. However, this class of composites has not yet been extensively examined for mechanical and tribological behavior, especially for applications that require extreme mechanical and tribological strength, such as the resistance to abrasive cutting. Therefore, this research seeks to develop a composite material with metal matrix and diamond particles which resist abrasive and cutting forces. The development progresses through a series of steps, exploring methods to process the material, understanding the mechanics of abrasive behavior and optimizing the composite structure to resist abrasive cutting. In processing, infiltration casting under gas pressure has been applied to molten aluminum to obtain a significant penetration of the metal into a preform of diamond particles. Different diamond particle sizes were used with different surface modifications (coated/uncoated), and to compare resulting composites with the same particle sizes. Al-1 wt.% Mg as a matrix alloy was utilised to investigate the possible effect of Mg on bonding phases during the infiltration process. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials produced have been characterised. These tests showed that the surface modification of the diamond particles with a reactive material (Ti-coating) has an important role for enhancing the bonding between the aluminium matrix and diamond reinforcement as apparent under SEM observation. The effect of this improved bond is seen in the cutting resistance of the material.

Keywords: aluminium, composites, diamond, Ti-coated, tribology

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7 Performance Evaluation of Solid Lubricant Characteristics at Different Sliding Conditions

Authors: Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala, Rakesh Kumar Gunda

Abstract:

In modern industry, mechanical parts are subjected to friction and wear, leading to heat generation, which affects the reliability, life and power consumption of machinery. To overcome the tribological losses due to friction and wear, a significant portion of lubricant with high viscous properties allows very smooth relative motion between two sliding surfaces. Advancement in modern tribology has facilitated the use of applying solid lubricants in various industrial applications. Solid lubricant additives with high viscous thin film formation between the sliding surfaces can adequately wet and adhere to a work surface. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the tribological studies of various solid lubricants like MoS¬2, graphite, and boric acid at different sliding conditions. The base oil used in this study was SAE 40 oil with a viscosity of 220 cSt at 400C. The tribological properties were measured on pin-on-disc tribometer. An experimental set-up has been developed for effective supply of solid lubricants to the pin-disc interface zone. The results obtained from the experiments show that the friction coefficient increases with increase in applied load for all the considered environments. The tribological properties with MoS2 solid lubricant exhibit larger load carrying capacity than that of graphite and boric acid. The present research work also contributes to the understanding of the behavior of film thickness distribution of solid lubricant using potential contact technique under different sliding conditions. The results presented in this research work are expected to form a scientific basis for selecting the best solid lubricant in various industrial applications for possible minimization of friction and wear.

Keywords: friction, wear, temperature, solid lubricant

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6 Self-Assembly of [email protected] Core-Shell-Like Nanocomposite Film via Solid-State Dewetting: Toward Superior Wear and Corrosion Resistance

Authors: Ping Ren, Mao Wen, Kan Zhang, Weitao Zheng

Abstract:

The improvement of comprehensive properties including hardness, toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance in the transition metal carbides/nitrides TMCN films, especially avoiding the trade-off between hardness and toughness, is strongly required to adapt to various applications. Although incorporating ductile metal DM phase into the TMCN via thermally-induced phase separation has been emerged as an effective approach to toughen TMCN-based films, the DM is just limited to some soft ductile metal (i.e. Cu, Ag, Au immiscibility with the TMCN. Moreover, hardness is highly sensitive to soft DM content and can be significantly worsened. Hence, a novel preparation method should be attempted to broaden the DM selection and assemble much more ordered nanocomposite structure for improving the comprehensive properties. Here, we provide a new strategy, by activating solid-state dewetting during layered deposition, to accomplish the self-assembly of ordered [email protected] core-shell-like nanocomposite film consisting of TaC nanocrystalline encapsulated with thin pseudocrystal Ta tissue. That results in the superhard (~45.1 GPa) dominated by Orowan strengthening mechanism and high toughness attributed to indenter-induced phase transformation from the pseudocrystal to body-centered cubic Ta, together with the drastically enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, very thin pseudocrystal Ta encapsulated layer (~1.5 nm) in the [email protected] core-shell-like structure helps for promoting the formation of lubricious TaOₓ Magnéli phase during sliding, thereby further dropping the coefficient of friction. Apparently, solid-state dewetting may provide a new route to construct ordered TMC(N)@TM core-shell-like nanocomposite capable of combining superhard, high toughness, low friction, superior wear with corrosion resistance.

Keywords: corrosion, nanocomposite film, solid-state dewetting, tribology

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5 Wear Progress and -Mechanisms in Torpedo Ladles in Steel Industry

Authors: Mattahias Maj, Fabio Tatzgern, Karl Adam, Damir Kahrimanovic, Markus Varga

Abstract:

Torpedo ladles are necessary transport carriages in steel production to move the molten crude iron from the blast furnace to the steel refining plant. This requires the ladles to be high temperature resistant and insulate well to preserve the temperature and hold the risk of solidification at bay. Therefore, the involved refractories lining the inside of the torpedo ladles are chosen mostly according to their thermal properties, although wear of the materials by the liquid iron is also of major importance. In this work, we combined investigations of the thermal behaviour with wear studies of the lining over the whole lifetime of a torpedo ladle. Additional numerical simulations enabled a detailed model of the mechanical loads and temperature propagation at the various stations (heating, filling, emptying, cooling). The core of the investigation were detailed 3D measurements of the ladle’s cavity and thereby quantitative information of the wear progress at different time intervals during the lifetime of the ladles. The measurements allowed for a separation of different wear zones according to severity, namely the “splash zone” where the melt directly hits the ladle, the “melt zone” where during transport always liquid melt is present, and the “slag zone”, where the slag floats on the melt causing the most severe wear loss. Numerical simulations of the filling process were taken to calculate stress levels and temperature gradients, which led to the different onset of wear on those zones. Thermal imaging and punctual temperature measurements allowed for a study of the thermal consequences entailed by the wear onset. Additional “classical” damage analysis of the worn refractories complete the investigation. Thereby the wear mechanisms leading to the substantial wear loss were disclosed.

Keywords: high temperature, tribology, liquid-solid interaction, refractories, thermography

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4 Design and Development of Engine Valve Train Wear Test Rig for the Assessment of Valve Train Tribochemistry

Authors: V. Manjunath, C. V. Chandrashekara

Abstract:

Ecosystem authority calls for the use of lubricants with less effect on the nature in terms of exhaust emission, while engine user demands more mileage per liter of fuel without any compromise on engine durability. From this viewpoint, engine manufacturers require the optimum combination of materials and lubricant additive package to minimize friction and wear in the engine components like piston, crankshaft and valve train etc. The demands are placed for requirements to operate at higher speeds, loads, temperature and for extended replacement intervals of engine oil. Besides, it is necessary to accurately predict the lubricant life or the replacement interval to prevent lubrication and valve-train components failure. Experimental tribology evaluation of new engine oils requires large amount of time and energy. Hence low cost bench test is necessary for industries and original equipment manufacturing companies (OEM) to study the performance of lubricants. The present work outlines the procedure for the design and development of a valve train wear rig (MCR) to simulate the ASTMD-6891 and to develop new engine test for Indian automobile sector to evaluate lubricants for Indian automobile market. In order to improve the lubrication between cam and follower of internal combustion engine, the influence of materials or oils viscosity and additives on the friction and wear characteristics are examined with test rig by increasing the contact load at two different revolution speed. From the experimentation following results are made obvious. Temperature, Torque, speed and wear plots are used to validate the data obtained from the newly developed multi-cam cam rig (MCR) with follower against a cast iron camshaft. Camshaft lobe wear is measured at seven different locations on cam profile. Tribofilm formed using 5W-30 oil is evaluated and correlated with the standard test results.

Keywords: ASTMD-6891, multi-cam rig (MCR), 5W-30, cam-profile

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3 Multiaxial Fatigue in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts with Asperities and Slip

Authors: Carl-Magnus Everitt, Bo Alfredsson

Abstract:

Contact mechanics and tribology have been combined with fundamental fatigue and fracture mechanics to form the asperity mechanism which supplies an explanation for the surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue damage, called pitting or spalling. The cracks causing the pits initiates at one surface point and thereafter they slowly grow into the material before chipping of a material piece to form the pit. In the current study, the lubrication aspects on fatigue initiation are simulated by passing a single asperity through a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubricated, TEHL, contact. The physics of the lubricant was described with Reynolds equation and the lubricants pressure-viscosity relation was modeled by Roelands equation, formulated to include temperature dependence. A pressure dependent shear limit was incorporated. To capture the full phenomena of the sliding contact the temperature field was resolved through the incorporation of the energy flow. The heat was mainly generated due to shearing of the lubricant and from dry friction where metal contact occurred. The heat was then transported, and conducted, away by the solids and the lubricant. The fatigue damage caused by the asperities was evaluated through Findley’s fatigue criterion. The results show that asperities, in the size of surface roughness found in applications, may cause surface initiated fatigue damage and crack initiation. The simulations also show that the asperities broke through the lubricant in the inlet, causing metal to metal contact with high friction. When the asperities thereafter moved through the contact, the sliding provided the asperities with lubricant releasing the metal contact. The release of metal contact was possible due to the high viscosity the lubricant obtained from the high pressure. The metal contact in the inlet caused higher friction which increased the risk of fatigue damage. Since the metal contact occurred in the inlet it increased the fatigue risk more for asperities subjected to negative slip than positive slip. Therefore the fatigue evaluations showed that the asperities subjected to negative slip yielded higher fatigue stresses than the asperities subjected to positive slip of equal magnitude. This is one explanation for why pitting is more common in the dedendum than the addendum on pinion gear teeth. The simulations produced further validation for the asperity mechanism by showing that asperities cause surface initiated fatigue and crack initiation.

Keywords: fatigue, rolling, sliding, thermal elastohydrodynamic

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2 Simple and Effective Method of Lubrication and Wear Protection

Authors: Buddha Ratna Shrestha, Jimmy Faivre, Xavier Banquy

Abstract:

By precisely controlling the molecular interactions between anti-wear macromolecules and bottle-brush lubricating molecules in the solution state, we obtained a fluid with excellent lubricating and wear protection capabilities. The reason for this synergistic behavior relies on the subtle interaction forces between the fluid components which allow the confined macromolecules to sustain high loads under shear without rupture. Our results provide rational guides to design such fluids for virtually any type of surfaces. The lowest friction coefficient and the maximum pressure that it can sustain is 5*10-3 and 2.5 MPa which is close to the physiological pressure. Lubricating and protecting surfaces against wear using liquid lubricants is a great technological challenge. Until now, wear protection was usually imparted by surface coatings involving complex chemical modifications of the surface while lubrication was provided by a lubricating fluid. Hence, we here research for a simple, effective and applicable solution to the above problem using surface force apparatus (SFA). SFA is a powerful technique with sub-angstrom resolution in distance and 10 nN/m resolution in interaction force while performing friction experiment. Thus, SFA is used to have the direct insight into interaction force, material and friction at interface. Also, we always know the exact contact area. From our experiments, we found that by precisely controlling the molecular interactions between anti-wear macromolecules and lubricating molecules, we obtained a fluid with excellent lubricating and wear protection capabilities. The reason for this synergistic behavior relies on the subtle interaction forces between the fluid components which allow the confined macromolecules to sustain high loads under shear without rupture. The lowest friction coefficient and the maximum pressure that it can sustain in our system is 5*10-3 and 2.5 GPA which is well above the physiological pressure. Our results provide rational guides to design such fluids for virtually any type of surfaces. Most importantly this process is simple, effective and applicable method of lubrication and protection as until now wear protection was usually imparted by surface coatings involving complex chemical modifications of the surface. Currently, the frictional data that are obtained while sliding the flat mica surfaces are compared and confirmed that a particular mixture of solution was found to surpass all other combination. So, further we would like to confirm that the lubricating and antiwear protection remains the same by performing the friction experiments in synthetic cartilages.

Keywords: bottle brush polymer, hyaluronic acid, lubrication, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 195