Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 539

Search results for: kinetic

539 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, V. Matei, N. Nicolae

Abstract:

The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.

Keywords: hydrofining, kinetic, modeling, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
538 A Biomimetic Approach for the Multi-Objective Optimization of Kinetic Façade Design

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

A kinetic façade responds to user requirements and environmental conditions.  In designing a kinetic façade, kinetic patterns play a key role in determining its performance. This paper proposes a biomimetic method for the multi-objective optimization for kinetic façade design. The autonomous decentralized control system is combined with flocking algorithm. The flocking agents are autonomously reacting to sensor values and bring about kinetic patterns changing over time. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the potential and limitations of the flocking based decentralized control. As a result, it could show the highest performance balancing multiple objectives such as solar radiation and openness among the comparison group.

Keywords: biomimicry, flocking algorithm, autonomous decentralized control, multi-objective optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
537 Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Abrasive Parameters on Wall Shear Stress and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy

Authors: D. Deepak, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) machining is a relatively new nontraditional machine tool used in machining of fiber reinforced composite. The quality of machined surface depends on jet exit kinetic energy which depends on various operating and material parameters. In the present work the effect abrasive parameters such as its size, concentration and type on jet kinetic energy is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the effect of these parameters on wall shear stress developed inside the nozzle is also investigated. It is found that for the same operating parameters, increase in the abrasive volume fraction (concentration) results in significant decrease in the wall shear stress as well as the jet exit kinetic energy. Increase in the abrasive particle size results in marginal decrease in the jet exit kinetic energy. Numerical simulation also indicates that garnet abrasives produce better jet exit kinetic energy than aluminium oxide and silicon carbide.

Keywords: abrasive water jet machining, jet kinetic energy, operating pressure, wall shear stress, Garnet abrasive

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536 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li

Abstract:

The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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535 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords: erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity

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534 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
533 The Potential of Braking Energy Recuperation in a City Bus Diesel Engine in the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Grzegorz Baranski, Piotr Kacejko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Mariusz Duk

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of a bus-driving scheme. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the mechanical energy recuperation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass. The research results show that fuel economy is impacted by kinetic energy recuperation.

Keywords: heavy duty vehicle, city bus, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy, simulations

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532 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava

Abstract:

The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

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531 Encapsulation of Volatile Citronella Essential oil by Coacervation: Efficiency and Release Kinetic Study

Authors: Rafeqah Raslan, Mastura AbdManaf, Junaidah Jai, Istikamah Subuki, Ana Najwa Mustapa

Abstract:

The volatile citronella essential oil was encapsulated by simple coacervation and complex coacervation using gum Arabic and gelatin as wall material. Glutaraldehyde was used in the methodology as crosslinking agent. The citronella standard calibration graph was developed with R2 equal to 0.9523 for the accurate determination of encapsulation efficiency and release study. The release kinetic was analyzed based on Fick’s law of diffusion for polymeric system and linear graph of log fraction release over log time was constructed to determine the release rate constant, k and diffusion coefficient, n. Both coacervation methods in the present study produce encapsulation efficiency around 94%. The capsules morphology analysis supported the release kinetic mechanisms of produced capsules for both coacervation process.

Keywords: simple coacervation, complex coacervation, encapsulation efficiency, release kinetic study

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530 Kinetic Modeling Study and Scale-Up of Niogas Generation Using Garden Grass and Cattle Dung as Feedstock

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

In this study we investigate the use of a laboratory batch digester to derive kinetic parameters for anaerobic digestion of garden grass and cattle dung. Laboratory experimental data from a 5 liter batch digester operating at mesophilic temperature of 32 C is used to derive parameters for Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. These fitted kinetics are further used to predict the scale-up parameters of a batch digester using DynoChem modeling and scale-up software. The scale-up model results are compared with performance data from 20 liter, 50 liter, and 200 liter batch digesters. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model shows to be a very good and easy to use model for kinetic parameter fitting on DynoChem and can accurately predict scale-up performance of 20 liter and 50 liter batch reactor based on parameters fitted on a 5 liter batch reactor.

Keywords: Biogas, kinetics, DynoChem Scale-up, Michaelis-Menten

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529 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono

Abstract:

The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, lead, mangrove propagule

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528 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick

Abstract:

Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

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527 View Synthesis of Kinetic Depth Imagery for 3D Security X-Ray Imaging

Authors: O. Abusaeeda, J. P. O. Evans, D. Downes

Abstract:

We demonstrate the synthesis of intermediary views within a sequence of X-ray images that exhibit depth from motion or kinetic depth effect in a visual display. Each synthetic image replaces the requirement for a linear X-ray detector array during the image acquisition process. Scale invariant feature transform, SIFT, in combination with epipolar morphing is employed to produce synthetic imagery. Comparison between synthetic and ground truth images is reported to quantify the performance of the approach. Our work is a key aspect in the development of a 3D imaging modality for the screening of luggage at airport checkpoints. This programme of research is in collaboration with the UK Home Office and the US Dept. of Homeland Security.

Keywords: X-ray, kinetic depth, KDE, view synthesis

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526 Shape-Changing Structure: A Prototype for the Study of a Dynamic and Modular Structure

Authors: Annarita Zarrillo

Abstract:

This research is part of adaptive architecture, reflecting the evolution that the world of architectural design is going through. Today's architecture is no longer seen as a static system but, conversely, as a dynamic system that changes in response to the environment and the needs of users. One of the major forms of adaptivity is represented by kinetic structures. This study aims to underline the importance of experimentation on physical scale models for the study of dynamic structures and to present the case study of a modular kinetic structure designed through the use of parametric design software and created as a prototype in the laboratories of the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen.

Keywords: adaptive architecture, architectural application, kinetic structures, modular prototype

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525 Kinetic Study of 1-Butene Isomerization over Hydrotalcite Catalyst

Authors: Sirada Sripinun

Abstract:

This work studied the isomerization of 1-butene over hydrotalcite catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), reaction temperature, and feed concentration. No catalyst deactivation was observed over the reaction time of 16 hours. Two major reaction products were trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene. The reaction temperature played an important role on the reaction selectivity. At high operating temperatures, the selectivity of trans-2-butene was higher than the selectivity of cis-2-butene while it was opposite at a lower reaction temperature. In the range of operating conditions, the maximum conversion of 1-butene was found at 74% when T = 673 K and GHSV = 4 m3/h/kg-cat with trans- and cis-2-butene selectivities of 54% and 46% respectively. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the reaction were determined.

Keywords: hydrotalcite, isomerization, kinetic, 1-butene

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524 Kinetic Model to Interpret Whistler Waves in Multicomponent Non-Maxwellian Space Plasmas

Authors: Warda Nasir, M. N. S. Qureshi

Abstract:

Whistler waves are right handed circularly polarized waves and are frequently observed in space plasmas. The Low frequency branch of the Whistler waves having frequencies nearly around 100 Hz, known as Lion roars, are frequently observed in magnetosheath. Another feature of the magnetosheath is the observations of flat top electron distributions with single as well as two electron populations. In the past, lion roars were studied by employing kinetic model using classical bi-Maxwellian distribution function, however, could not be justified both on quantitatively as well as qualitatively grounds. We studied Whistler waves by employing kinetic model using non-Maxwellian distribution function such as the generalized (r,q) distribution function which is the generalized form of kappa and Maxwellian distribution functions by employing kinetic theory with single or two electron populations. We compare our results with the Cluster observations and found good quantitative and qualitative agreement between them. At times when lion roars are observed (not observed) in the data and bi-Maxwellian could not provide the sufficient growth (damping) rates, we showed that when generalized (r,q) distribution function is employed, the resulted growth (damping) rates exactly match the observations.

Keywords: kinetic model, whistler waves, non-maxwellian distribution function, space plasmas

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523 Gas-Solid Nitrocarburizing of Steels: Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Validation

Authors: L. Torchane

Abstract:

This study is devoted to defining the optimal conditions for the nitriding of pure iron at atmospheric pressure by using NH3-Ar-C3H8 gas mixtures. After studying the mechanisms of phase formation and mass transfer at the gas-solid interface, a mathematical model is developed in order to predict the nitrogen transfer rate in the solid, the ε-carbonitride layer growth rate and the nitrogen and carbon concentration profiles. In order to validate the model and to show its possibilities, it is compared with thermogravimetric experiments, analyses and metallurgical observations (X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis). Results obtained allow us to demonstrate the sound correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.

Keywords: gaseous nitrocarburizing, kinetic model, diffusion, layer growth kinetic

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522 The Experimental and Modeling Adsorption Properties of Sr2+ on Raw and Purified Bentonite

Authors: A. A. Khodadadi, S. C. Ravaj, B. D. Tavildari, M. B. Abdolahi

Abstract:

The adsorption properties of local bentonite (Semnan Iran) and purified prepared from this bentonite towards Sr2+ adsorption, were investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of equilibration time, adsorption isotherms, kinetic adsorption, solution pH, and presence of EDTA and NaCl on these properties was studied and discussed. Kinetic data were found to be well fitted with a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Sr2+ is preferably adsorbed by bentonite and purified bentonite. The D-R isotherm model has the best fit with experimental data than other adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption of Sr2+ representing the highest negative charge density on the surface of the adsorbent was seen at pH 12. Presence of EDTA and NaCl decreased the amount of Sr2+ adsorption.

Keywords: bentonite, purified bentonite, Sr2+, equilibrium isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
521 Kinetic Façade Design Using 3D Scanning to Convert Physical Models into Digital Models

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

In designing a kinetic façade, it is hard for the designer to make digital models due to its complex geometry with motion. This paper aims to present a methodology of converting a point cloud of a physical model into a single digital model with a certain topology and motion. The method uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor, and color markers were defined and applied to three paper folding-inspired designs. Although the resulted digital model cannot represent the whole folding range of the physical model, the method supports the designer to conduct a performance-oriented design process with the rough physical model in the reduced folding range.

Keywords: design media, kinetic facades, tangible user interface, 3D scanning

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520 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi

Abstract:

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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519 Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of ZnSe Homoepitaxial Growth and Characterization

Authors: Hamid Khachab, Yamani Abdelkafi, Mouna Barhmi

Abstract:

The epitaxial growth has great important in the fabricate of the new semi-conductors devices and upgrading many factors, such as the quality of crystallization and efficiency with their deferent types and the most effective epitaxial technique is the molecular beam epitaxial. The MBE growth modeling allows to confirm the experiments results out by atomic beam and to analyze the microscopic phenomena. In of our work, we determined the growth processes specially the ZnSe epitaxial technique by Kinetic Monte Carlo method and we also give observations that are made in real time at the growth temperature using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and photoemission current.

Keywords: molecular beam epitaxy, II-VI, morpholy, photoemission, RHEED, simulation, kinetic Monte Carlo, ZnSe

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518 Pyrolysis of Dursunbey Lignite and Pyrolysis Kinetics

Authors: H. Sütçü, C. Efe

Abstract:

In this study, pyrolysis characteristics of Dursunbey-Balıkesir lignite and its pyrolysis kinetics are examined. The pyrolysis experiments carried out at three different heating rates are performed by using thermogravimetric method. Kinetic parameters are calculated by Coats & Redfern kinetic model and the degree of pyrolysis process is determined for each of the heating rate.

Keywords: lignite, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, kinetics

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517 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), localization, turbulence, turbulent spectrum

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516 A Comparison of Kinetic and Mechanical Properties between Graphene Oxide (GO) and Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)-Epoxy Nanocomposites

Authors: Marina Borgert Moraes, Gilmar Patrocinio Thim

Abstract:

It is still unknown how the presence of nanoparticles such as graphene oxide (GO) or carbon nanotubes (CNT) influence the curing process and the final mechanical properties as well. In this work, kinetic and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed, where the kinetic process was followed by DSC and the mechanical properties by DMA as well as mechanical tests. Initially, CNT was annealed at high temperature (1800 °C) under vacuum atmosphere, followed by a chemical treatment using acids and ethylenediamine. GO was synthesized through chemical route, washed clean, dried and ground to #200. The presence of functional groups on CNT and GO surface was confirmed by XPS spectra and FT-IR. Then, nanoparticles and acetone were mixed by sonication in order to obtain the composites. DSC analyses were performed on samples with different curing cycles (1h 80 °C + 2h 120 °C; 3h 80 °C + 2h 120 °C; 5h 80 °C) and samples with different times at constant temperature (120 °C). Mechanical tests were performed according to ASTM D638 and D790. Results showed that the kinetic process and the mechanical strength are very dependent on the presence of graphene and functionalized-CNT in the nanocomposites, and the GO reinforced samples had a slightly bigger improvement compared to functionalized CNT.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, epoxy resin, graphene oxide, nanocomposite

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515 Establishment of Kinetic Zone Diagrams via Simulated Linear Sweep Voltammograms for Soluble-Insoluble Systems

Authors: Imene Atek, Abed M. Affoune, Hubert Girault, Pekka Peljo

Abstract:

Due to the need for a rigorous mathematical model that can help to estimate kinetic properties for soluble-insoluble systems, through voltammetric experiments, a Nicholson Semi Analytical Approach was used in this work for modeling and prediction of theoretical linear sweep voltammetry responses for reversible, quasi reversible or irreversible electron transfer reactions. The redox system of interest is a one-step metal electrodeposition process. A rigorous analysis of simulated linear scan voltammetric responses following variation of dimensionless factors, the rate constant and charge transfer coefficients in a broad range was studied and presented in the form of the so called kinetic zones diagrams. These kinetic diagrams were divided into three kinetics zones. Interpreting these zones leads to empirical mathematical models which can allow the experimenter to determine electrodeposition reactions kinetics whatever the degree of reversibility. The validity of the obtained results was tested and an excellent experiment–theory agreement has been showed.

Keywords: electrodeposition, kinetics diagrams, modeling, voltammetry

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514 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva

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The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: activation energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters, waste

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513 Validation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation on Apple-Carrot Juice Treated with Manothermosonication by Kinetic Models

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng

Abstract:

Several models such as Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear, and Log-logistic models have been proposed in order to describe non-linear inactivation kinetics and used to fit non-linear inactivation data of several microorganisms for inactivation by heat, high pressure processing or pulsed electric field. First-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) have often been used in order to identify microbial inactivation by non-thermal processing methods such as ultrasound. Most ultrasonic inactivation studies employed first-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) in order to describe the reduction on microbial survival count. This study was conducted to analyze the E. coli O157:H7 inactivation data by using five microbial survival models (First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic). First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic kinetic models were used for fitting inactivation curves of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The residual sum of squares and the total sum of squares criteria were used to evaluate the models. The statistical indices of the kinetic models were used to fit inactivation data for E. coli O157:H7 by MTS at three temperatures (40, 50, and 60 0C) and three pressures (100, 200, and 300 kPa). Based on the statistical indices and visual observations, the Weibull and Biphasic models were best fitting of the data for MTS treatment as shown by high R2 values. The non-linear kinetic models, including the Modified Gompertz, First-order, and Log-logistic models did not provide any better fit to data from MTS compared the Weibull and Biphasic models. It was observed that the data found in this study did not follow the first-order kinetics. It is possibly because of the cells which are sensitive to ultrasound treatment were inactivated first, resulting in a fast inactivation period, while those resistant to ultrasound were killed slowly. The Weibull and biphasic models were found as more flexible in order to determine the survival curves of E. coli O157:H7 treated by MTS on apple-carrot juice.

Keywords: Weibull, Biphasic, MTS, kinetic models, E.coli O157:H7

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512 Removal of Nickel and Zinc Ions from Aqueous Solution by Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Functionalized Glycine

Authors: M. Rajabi, O. Moradi

Abstract:

In this study, removal of Nickel and Zinc by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces was examined. Amino group was added to surface of graphene oxide to produced functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin. Effect of contact time and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions were studied. Results showed that with increase of initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity was increased. After 50 min has not a large change at adsorption capacity therefore, 50 min was selected as optimaze time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy spectra used for the analysis confirmed the successful fictionalization of the Graphene oxide surface. Adsorption experiments of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces fixed at 298 K and pH=6. The Pseudo Firs-order and the Pseudo Second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for adsorption process and results showed that the kinetic parameters best fits with to type (I) of pseudo-second-order model because presented low X2 values and also high R2 values.

Keywords: graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic, graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic

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511 Estimation of Bio-Kinetic Coefficients for Treatment of Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, J. Adeyemo

Abstract:

Anaerobic modeling is a useful tool to describe and simulate the condition and behaviour of anaerobic treatment units for better effluent quality and biogas generation. The present investigation deals with the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with varying organic loads. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of the influent and effluent of the bioreactor were determined at various retention times to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The bio-kinetic coefficients in the modified Stover–Kincannon kinetic and methane generation models were determined to study the performance of anaerobic digestion process. At steady-state, the determination of the kinetic coefficient (K), the endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), the maximum growth rate of microorganisms (µmax), the growth yield coefficient (Y), ultimate methane yield (Bo), maximum utilization rate constant Umax and the saturation constant (KB) in the model were calculated to be 0.046 g/g COD, 0.083 (dˉ¹), 0.117 (d-¹), 0.357 g/g, 0.516 (L CH4/gCODadded), 18.51 (g/L/day) and 13.64 (g/L/day) respectively. The outcome of this study will help in simulation of anaerobic model to predict usable methane and good effluent quality during the treatment of industrial wastewater. Thus, this will protect the environment, conserve natural resources, saves time and reduce cost incur by the industries for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater. It will also contribute to a sustainable long-term clean development mechanism for the optimization of the methane produced from anaerobic degradation of waste in a close system.

Keywords: brewery wastewater, methane generation model, environment, anaerobic modeling

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510 The High Efficiency of Cationic Azo Dye Removal Using Raw, Purified and Pillared Clay from Algerian Clay

Authors: Amina Ramdani, Abdelkader Kadeche, Zoubida Taleb, Safia Taleb

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The aim of this present study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a dye, Malachite green, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, purified and Cr-pillared). Various parameters influencing the dye adsorption process ie contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Cr pillared clay has been obtained with a better surface character than purified and natural clay. An increase in basal spacing from 12.45 Å (Mont-Na) to 22.88 Å (Mont-PLCr), surface area from 67 m2 /g (Mont-Na) to 102 m2 /g (Mont-PLCr). The experimental results show that the dye adsorption kinetic were fast: 5 min for Cr-pillared clay mineral, and 30 min for raw and purified clay mineral (RC and Mont-Na). The removal efficiency on Mont-PLCr (98.64%) is greater than that of Mont-Na (86.20%) and RC (82.09%). The acidity and basicity of the medium considerably affect the adsorption of the dye. It attained its maximum at pH 4.8. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to fit well the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model.

Keywords: Dye removal, pillared clay, isotherm, kinetic

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