Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 368

Search results for: biomedical

368 Estimation of Biomedical Waste Generated in a Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Manoj Jais, Poonam Gupta, Suraiya K. Ansari, Ravinder Kaur

Abstract:

Introduction: As much as the Health Care is necessary for the population, so is the management of the Biomedical waste produced. Biomedical waste is a wide terminology used for the waste material produced during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings and animals, in research or in the production or testing of biological products. Biomedical waste management is a chain of processes from the point of generation of Biomedical waste to its final disposal in the correct and proper way, assigned for that particular type of waste. Any deviation from the said processes leads to improper disposal of Biomedical waste which itself is a major health hazard. Proper segregation of Biomedical waste is the key for Biomedical Waste management. Improper disposal of BMW can cause sharp injuries which may lead to HIV, Hepatitis-B virus, Hepatitis-C virus infections. Therefore, proper disposal of BMW is of upmost importance. Health care establishments segregate the Biomedical waste and dispose it as per the Biomedical waste management rules in India. Objectives: This study was done to observe the current trends of Biomedical waste generated in a tertiary care Hospital in Delhi. Methodology: Biomedical waste management rounds were conducted in the hospital wards. Relevant details were collected and analysed and sites with maximum Biomedical waste generation were identified. All the data was cross checked with the commons collection site. Results: The total amount of waste generated in the hospital during January 2014 till December 2014 was 6,39,547 kg, of which 70.5% was General (non-hazardous) waste and the rest 29.5% was BMW which consisted highly infectious waste (12.2%), disposable plastic waste (16.3%) and sharps (1%). The maximum quantity of Biomedical waste producing sites were Obstetrics and Gynaecology wards with a total Biomedical waste production of 45.8%, followed by Paediatrics, Surgery and Medicine wards with 21.2 %, 4.6% and 4.3% respectively. The maximum average Biomedical waste generated was by Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward with 0.7 kg/bed/day, followed by Paediatrics, Surgery and Medicine wards with 0.29, 0.28 and 0.18 kg/bed/day respectively. Conclusions: Hospitals should pay attention to the sites which produce a large amount of BMW to avoid improper segregation of Biomedical waste. Also, induction and refresher training Program of Biomedical waste management should be conducted to avoid improper management of Biomedical waste. Healthcare workers should be made aware of risks of poor Biomedical waste management.

Keywords: biomedical waste, biomedical waste management, hospital-tertiary care, New Delhi

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367 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

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Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

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366 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi

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Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

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365 A SiGe Low Power RF Front-End Receiver for 5.8GHz Wireless Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyunwon Moon

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It is necessary to realize new biomedical wireless communication systems which send the signals collected from various bio sensors located at human body in order to monitor our health. Also, it should seamlessly connect to the existing wireless communication systems. A 5.8 GHz ISM band low power RF front-end receiver for a biomedical wireless communication system is implemented using a 0.5 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. To achieve low power RF front-end, the current optimization technique for selecting device size is utilized. The implemented low noise amplifier (LNA) shows a power gain of 9.8 dB, a noise figure (NF) of below 1.75 dB, and an IIP3 of higher than 7.5 dBm while current consumption is only 6 mA at supply voltage of 2.5 V. Also, the performance of a down-conversion mixer is measured as a conversion gain of 11 dB and SSB NF of 10 dB.

Keywords: biomedical, LNA, mixer, receiver, RF front-end, SiGe

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364 The Use of Gelatin in Biomedical Engineering: Halal Perspective

Authors: Syazwani Ramli, Norhidayu Muhamad Zain

Abstract:

Nowadays, the use of gelatin as biomaterials in tissue engineering are evolving especially in skin graft and wound dressing applications. Towards year 2018, Malaysia is in the way of planning to get the halal certification for biomedical device in order to cater the needs of Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia. However, the use of gelatins in tissue engineering are mostly derived from non-halal sources. Currently, gelatin production mostly comes from mammalian gelatin sources. Moreover, within these past years, just a few studies of the uses of gelatin in tissue engineering from halal perspective has been studied. Thus, this paper aims to give overview of the use of gelatin from different sources from halal perspectives. This review also discussing the current status of halal for the emerging biomedical devices. In addition, the different sources of gelatin used in tissue engineering are being identified and provides better alternatives for halal gelatin. Cold- water fish skin gelatin could be an effective alternative to substitute the mammalian sources. Therefore, this review is important because the information about the halal biomedical devices will delighted Muslim consumers and give better insight of halal gelatin in tissue engineering application.

Keywords: biomedical device, gelatin, halal, skin graft, tissue engineering

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363 Biomedical Definition Extraction Using Machine Learning with Synonymous Feature

Authors: Jian Qu, Akira Shimazu

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OOV (Out Of Vocabulary) terms are terms that cannot be found in many dictionaries. Although it is possible to translate such OOV terms, the translations do not provide any real information for a user. We present an OOV term definition extraction method by using information available from the Internet. We use features such as occurrence of the synonyms and location distances. We apply machine learning method to find the correct definitions for OOV terms. We tested our method on both biomedical type and name type OOV terms, our work outperforms existing work with an accuracy of 86.5%.

Keywords: information retrieval, definition retrieval, OOV (out of vocabulary), biomedical information retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
362 Data Mining in Medicine Domain Using Decision Trees and Vector Support Machine

Authors: Djamila Benhaddouche, Abdelkader Benyettou

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In this paper, we used data mining to extract biomedical knowledge. In general, complex biomedical data collected in studies of populations are treated by statistical methods, although they are robust, they are not sufficient in themselves to harness the potential wealth of data. For that you used in step two learning algorithms: the Decision Trees and Support Vector Machine (SVM). These supervised classification methods are used to make the diagnosis of thyroid disease. In this context, we propose to promote the study and use of symbolic data mining techniques.

Keywords: biomedical data, learning, classifier, algorithms decision tree, knowledge extraction

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361 Bridging Biomedical Engineering Bachelor's Degree Programs in Saudi Arabia: A Study Case of Riyadh College of Technology

Authors: Hamad Albadr

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With a rapid influence to sustain the needs for global trends that had arisen for the increasing complexities in health-care provision, the increasing number of health professionals at different levels, and the need to assure more equitable access to health care, the great variation in the levels of initial education for health care professional around the world had been assign bachelor's degree as the minimum point of entry to the health professions. This intent had affected all the health care professions including biomedical engineering. In Saudi Arabia, these challenges add more pressure to retain the global trends for associate degree graduates to upgrade their education to the bachelor's degree or called birding. This paper is to review the reality of biomedical technology programs that offered in Saudi Arabia by Technical Colleges or Community Colleges nationwide and the challenges that face these colleges to run such bridging program to achieve the Bachelor's degree in biomedical engineering and the official requirements by the Ministry of Higher Education and to maintain the international standards. The author will use strategic planning methodology for designing the biomedical engineering bridging of bachelor's program by reviewing the responsibilities of the biomedical engineers in hospitals through their job descriptions to determine the job assessment needs in advance to Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) through Instructional System Design (ISD) approach via five steps: Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, Evaluate (ADDIE).

Keywords: bachelor's degree bridging, biomedical engineering program, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh College of Technology

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360 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

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Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

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359 Mechanical Properties of ECAP-Biomedical Titanium Materials: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

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The wide use of titanium (Ti) materials in medicine gives impetus to a search for development new techniques with elevated properties such as strength, corrosion resistance and Young's modulus close to that of bone tissue. This article presents the most recent state of the art on the use of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique in evolving mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained bio-grade Ti materials. Over past few decades, research activities in this area have grown enormously and have produced interesting results, including achieving the combination of conflicting properties that are desirable for biomedical applications by severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing. A comprehensive review of the most recent work in this area is systematically presented. The challenges in processing ultrafine-grained Ti materials are identified and discussed. An overview of the biomedical Ti alloys processed with ECAP technique is given in this review, along with a summary of their effect on the important mechanical properties that can be achieved by SPD processing. The paper also offers insights in the mechanisms underlying SPD.

Keywords: mechanical properties, ECAP, titanium, biomedical applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
358 Secure Bio Semantic Computing Scheme

Authors: Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Phillip C. Y. Sheu, Ryo Fujita, Shigeo Tsujii

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In this paper, the secure BioSemantic Scheme is presented to bridge biological/biomedical research problems and computational solutions via semantic computing. Due to the diversity of problems in various research fields, the semantic capability description language (SCDL) plays and important role as a common language and generic form for problem formalization. SCDL is expected the essential for future semantic and logical computing in Biosemantic field. We show several example to Biomedical problems in this paper. Moreover, in the coming age of cloud computing, the security problem is considered to be crucial issue and we presented a practical scheme to cope with this problem.

Keywords: biomedical applications, private information retrieval (PIR), semantic capability description language (SCDL), semantic computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
357 An Efficient Digital Baseband ASIC for Wireless Biomedical Signals Monitoring

Authors: Kah-Hyong Chang, Xin Liu, Jia Hao Cheong, Saisundar Sankaranarayanan, Dexing Pang, Hongzhao Zheng

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A digital baseband Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is developed for a microchip transponder to transmit signals and temperature levels from biomedical monitoring devices. The transmission protocol is adapted from the ISO/IEC 11784/85 standard. The module has a decimation filter that employs only a single adder-subtractor in its datapath. The filtered output is coded with cyclic redundancy check and transmitted through backscattering Load Shift Keying (LSK) modulation to a reader. Fabricated using the 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the module occupies 0.116 mm² in chip area (digital baseband: 0.060 mm², decimation filter: 0.056 mm²), and consumes a total of less than 0.9 μW of power (digital baseband: 0.75 μW, decimation filter: 0.14 μW).

Keywords: biomedical sensor, decimation filter, radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) baseband, temperature sensor

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356 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Chitosan Based Composite Hydrogels for Biomedical and Non-Biomedical Applications

Authors: K. Uyanga, W. Daoud

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Hydrogels have attracted much academic and industrial attention due to their unique properties and potential biomedical and non-biomedical applications. Limitations on extending their applications have resulted from the synthesis of hydrogels using toxic materials and complex irreproducible processing techniques. In order to promote environmental sustainability, hydrogel efficiency, and wider application, this study focused on the synthesis of composite hydrogels matrices from an edible non-toxic crosslinker-citric acid (CA) using a simple low energy processing method based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CSN) natural polymers. Composite hydrogels were developed by chemical crosslinking. The results demonstrated that CMC:2CSN:CA exhibited good performance properties and super-absorbency 21× its original weight. This makes it promising for biomedical applications such as chronic wound healing and regeneration, next generation skin substitute, in situ bone regeneration and cell delivery. On the other hand, CMC:CSN:CA exhibited durable well-structured internal network with minimum swelling degrees, water absorbency, excellent gel fraction, and infra-red reflectance. These properties make it a suitable composite hydrogel matrix for warming effect and controlled and efficient release of loaded materials. CMC:2CSN:CA and CMC:CSN:CA composite hydrogels developed also exhibited excellent chemical, morphological, and thermal properties.

Keywords: citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, zinc nitrate hexahydrate

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355 X-Ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging with Improved Sensitivity for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Guohua Cao, Xu Dong

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X-ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging (XFMI) holds great promise as a low-cost molecular imaging modality for biomedical applications with high chemical sensitivity. However, for in vivo biomedical applications, a key technical bottleneck is the relatively low chemical sensitivity of XFMI, especially at a reasonably low radiation dose. In laboratory x-ray source based XFMI, one of the main factors that limits the chemical sensitivity of XFMI is the scattered x-rays. We will present our latest findings on improving the chemical sensitivity of XFMI using excitation beam spectrum optimization. XFMI imaging experiments on two mouse-sized phantoms were conducted at three different excitation beam spectra. Our results show that the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of iodine can be readily increased by five times via excitation spectrum optimization. Findings from this investigation could find use for in vivo pre-clinical small-animal XFMI in the future.

Keywords: molecular imaging, X-ray fluorescence, chemical sensitivity, X-ray scattering

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354 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola

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Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite, biomedical, FTIR, XRD, SEM

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353 Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue

Authors: M. Rezki, A. Belaidi

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This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Keywords: EMG, health platform, conductor’s tram, muscle fatigue

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352 Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)

Authors: Fatima M. Kabbashi, Abdalla M. Abdalla, Hussam K. Hamad, Elias S. Hassan

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This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.

Keywords: renewable energy, biogas, biomedical waste, blood, anaerobic digestion, eco-friendly disposal

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351 Synthesis of Size-Tunable and Stable Iron Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Ambika Selvaraj

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Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO) of < 20nm (superparamagnetic) become promising tool in cancer therapy, and integrated nanodevices for cancer detection and screening. The obstacles include particle heterogeneity and cost. It can be overcome by developing monodispersed nanoparticles in economical approach. We have successfully synthesized < 7 nm IO by low temperature controlled technique, in which Fe0 is sandwiched between stabilizer and Fe2+. Size analysis showed the excellent size control from 31 nm at 33°C to 6.8 nm at 10°C. Resultant monodispersed IO were found to be stable for > 50 reuses, proved its applicability in biomedical applications.

Keywords: low temperature synthesis, hybrid iron nanoparticles, cancer therapy, biomedical applications

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350 Surface Modified Quantum Dots for Nanophotonics, Stereolithography and Hybrid Systems for Biomedical Studies

Authors: Redouane Krini, Lutz Nuhn, Hicham El Mard Cheol Woo Ha, Yoondeok Han, Kwang-Sup Lee, Dong-Yol Yang, Jinsoo Joo, Rudolf Zentel

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To use Quantum Dots (QDs) in the two photon initiated polymerization technique (TPIP) for 3D patternings, QDs were modified on the surface with photosensitive end groups which are able to undergo a photopolymerization. We were able to fabricate fluorescent 3D lattice structures using photopatternable QDs by TPIP for photonic devices such as photonic crystals and metamaterials. The QDs in different diameter have different emission colors and through mixing of RGB QDs white light fluorescent from the polymeric structures has been created. Metamaterials are capable for unique interaction with the electrical and magnetic components of the electromagnetic radiation and for manipulating light it is crucial to have a negative refractive index. In combination with QDs via TPIP technique polymeric structures can be designed with properties which cannot be found in nature. This makes these artificial materials gaining a huge importance for real-life applications in photonic and optoelectronic. Understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is of a huge interest in the biomedical research field. We developed a synthetic strategy of polymer functionalized nanoparticles for biomedical studies to obtain hybrid systems of QDs and copolymers with a strong binding network in an inner shell and which can be modified in the end through their poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized outer shell. These hybrid systems can be used as models for investigation of cell penetration and drug delivery by using measurements combination between CryoTEM and fluorescence studies.

Keywords: biomedical study models, lithography, photo induced polymerization, quantum dots

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349 Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Sagar R. Patil, Dinesh R. Gawade, Sudhir N. Divekar

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One of the medical devices we found when we visit a hospital care unit such device is ‘patient monitoring system’. This device (patient monitoring system) informs doctors and nurses about the patient’s physiological signals. However, this device (patient monitoring system) does not have a remote monitoring capability, which is necessitates constant onsite attendance by support personnel (doctors and nurses). Thus, we have developed a Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System using some biomedical sensors and Android OS, which is a portable patient monitoring. This device(Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System) monitors the biomedical signals of patients in real time and sends them to remote stations (doctors and nurse’s android Smartphone and web) for display and with alerts when necessary. Wireless Patient Monitoring System different from conventional device (Patient Monitoring system) in two aspects: First its wireless communication capability allows physiological signals to be monitored remotely and second, it is portable so patients can move while there biomedical signals are being monitor. Wireless Patient Monitoring is also notable because of its implementation. We are integrated four sensors such as pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) in this device (Wireless Patient Monitoring System) and Monitoring and communication applications are implemented on the Android OS using threads, which facilitate the stable and timely manipulation of signals and the appropriate sharing of resources. The biomedical data will be display on android smart phone as well as on web Using web server and database system we can share these physiological signals with remote place medical personnel’s or with any where in the world medical personnel’s. We verified that the multitasking implementation used in the system was suitable for patient monitoring and for other Healthcare applications.

Keywords: patient monitoring, wireless patient monitoring, bio-medical signals, physiological signals, embedded system, Android OS, healthcare, pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG)

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348 Significance of Square Non-Spiral Microcoils for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Himanshu Chandrakar, Krishnapriya S., Rama Komaragiri, Suja K. J.

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Micro coils are significant components for micro magnetic sensors and actuators especially in biomedical devices. Non-spiral planar microcoils of square, hexagonal and octagonal shapes are introduced for the first time in this paper. Comparison between different planar spiral and non-spiral coils are also discussed. The fabrication advantages and low power dissipation of non-spiral structures make them a strong alternative for conventional spiral planar coils. Series resistance of non-spiral coil is lesser than that of spiral coils though magnetic field is slightly lesser for non-spiral coils. Comparison of different planar microcoils shows that the proposed square non-spiral coil gives better performance than other structures.

Keywords: non-spiral planar microcoil, power dissipation, series resistance, spiral

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347 Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Lanthanide Nanoparticles for NIR Luminescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Syue-Liang Lin, C. Allen Chang

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Luminescence imaging is an important technique used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic applications in recent years. Concurrently, the development of NIR luminescence probes / imaging contrast agents has helped the understanding of the structural and functional properties of cells and animals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, but the therapeutic efficacy of general PDT for deeper tumor was limited by the penetration of excitation source. The tumor targeting biomedical nanomaterials [email protected] (upconversion nanoparticle conjugated with photosensitizer) for photodynamic therapy and near-infrared imaging of cancer will be developed in our study. Synthesis and characterization of biomedical nanomaterials were completed in this studies. The spectrum of UCNP was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). TEM and XRD analyses indicated that these nanoparticles are about 20~50 nm with hexagonal phase. NaYF₄:Ln³⁺ (Ln= Yb, Nd, Er) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with core / shell structure, synthesized by thermal decomposition method in 300°C, have the ability to emit visible light (upconversion: 540 nm, 660 nm) and near-infrared with longer wavelength (downconversion: NIR: 980 nm, 1525 nm) by absorbing 800 nm NIR laser. The information obtained from these studies would be very useful for applications of these nanomaterials for bio-luminescence imaging and photodynamic therapy of deep tumor tissue in the future.

Keywords: Near Infrared (NIR), lanthanide, core-shell structure, upconversion, theranostics

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346 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee

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Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

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345 A Comparative Study of Approaches in User-Centred Health Information Retrieval

Authors: Harsh Thakkar, Ganesh Iyer

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In this paper, we survey various user-centered or context-based biomedical health information retrieval systems. We present and discuss the performance of systems submitted in CLEF eHealth 2014 Task 3 for this purpose. We classify and focus on comparing the two most prevalent retrieval models in biomedical information retrieval namely: Language Model (LM) and Vector Space Model (VSM). We also report on the effectiveness of using external medical resources and ontologies like MeSH, Metamap, UMLS, etc. We observed that the LM based retrieval systems outperform VSM based systems on various fronts. From the results we conclude that the state-of-art system scores for MAP was 0.4146, [email protected] was 0.7560 and [email protected] was 0.7445, respectively. All of these score were reported by systems built on language modeling approaches.

Keywords: clinical document retrieval, concept-based information retrieval, query expansion, language models, vector space models

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344 Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Processed Biodegradable Zn-Based Alloy for Biomedical Application

Authors: Maruf Yinka Kolawole, Jacob Olayiwola Aweda, Farasat Iqbal, Asif Ali, Sulaiman Abdulkareem

Abstract:

Zinc is a non-ferrous metal with potential application in orthopaedic implant materials. However, its poor mechanical properties were major challenge to its application. Therefore, this paper studies the mechanical properties of biodegradable Zn-based alloy for biomedical application. Pure zinc powder with varying (0, 1, 2, 3 & 6) wt% of magnesium powders were ball milled using ball-to-powder ratio (B:P) of 10:1 at 350 rpm for 4 hours. The resulting milled powders were compacted and sintered at 300 MPa and 350 °C respectively. Microstructural, phase and mechanical properties analyses were performed following American standard of testing and measurement. The results show that magnesium has influence on the mechanical properties of zinc. The compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus of 210 ± 8.878 MPa, 76 ± 5.707 HV and 45 ± 11.616 GPa respectively as obtained in Zn-2Mg alloy were optimum and meet the minimum requirement of biodegradable metal for orthopaedics application. These results indicate an increase of 111, 93 and 93% in compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus respectively as compared to pure zinc. The increase in mechanical properties was adduced to effectiveness of compaction pressure and intermetallic phase formation within the matrix resulting in high dislocation density for improving strength. The study concluded that, Zn-2Mg alloy with optimum mechanical properties can therefore be considered a potential candidate for orthopaedic application.

Keywords: Biodegradable metal, Biomedical application, Mechanical properties, Powder Metallurgy, Zinc

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343 Check Red Blood Cells Concentrations of a Blood Sample by Using Photoconductive Antenna

Authors: Ahmed Banda, Alaa Maghrabi, Aiman Fakieh

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Terahertz (THz) range lies in the area between 0.1 to 10 THz. The process of generating and detecting THz can be done through different techniques. One of the most familiar techniques is done through a photoconductive antenna (PCA). The process of generating THz radiation at PCA includes applying a laser pump in femtosecond and DC voltage difference. However, photocurrent is generated at PCA, which its value is affected by different parameters (e.g., dielectric properties, DC voltage difference and incident power of laser pump). THz radiation is used for biomedical applications. However, different biomedical fields need new technologies to meet patients’ needs (e.g. blood-related conditions). In this work, a novel method to check the red blood cells (RBCs) concentration of a blood sample using PCA is presented. RBCs constitute 44% of total blood volume. RBCs contain Hemoglobin that transfers oxygen from lungs to body organs. Then it returns to the lungs carrying carbon dioxide, which the body then gets rid of in the process of exhalation. The configuration has been simulated and optimized using COMSOL Multiphysics. The differentiation of RBCs concentration affects its dielectric properties (e.g., the relative permittivity of RBCs in the blood sample). However, the effects of four blood samples (with different concentrations of RBCs) on photocurrent value have been tested. Photocurrent peak value and RBCs concentration are inversely proportional to each other due to the change of dielectric properties of RBCs. It was noticed that photocurrent peak value has dropped from 162.99 nA to 108.66 nA when RBCs concentration has risen from 0% to 100% of a blood sample. The optimization of this method helps to launch new products for diagnosing blood-related conditions (e.g., anemia and leukemia). The resultant electric field from DC components can not be used to count the RBCs of the blood sample.

Keywords: biomedical applications, photoconductive antenna, photocurrent, red blood cells, THz radiation

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342 Optimized Hydrophobically Modified Chitosan Cryogels for Strength and Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Courtney Evans, Yuto Morimitsu, Tsubasa Hisadome, Futo Inomoto, Masahiro Yoshida, Takayuki Takei

Abstract:

Hydrogels are useful biomaterials due to their highly biocompatible nature and their ability to absorbs large quantities of liquid and mimic soft tissue. They are often used as therapeutic drug delivery systems. However, it is sometimes difficult to sustain controlled release when using hydrophobic medicines as hydrogels are frequently hydrophilic. As such, this research shows the success of chitosan hydrogels modified through hydrophobic interaction. This was done through the imide bonding of the alkyl groups in fatty aldehydes and the amino groups in chitosan followed by reductive animation. Resulting cryogels could be optimized for strength as well as sorption and desorption (of a hydrophobic dye used to mimic hydrophobic medicine) by varying the alkyl chain length and the substitution degree of the fatty aldehyde. Optimized cryogels showed potential as biomedical materials, particularly as drug delivery systems.

Keywords: biomedical material, chitosan, drug carrier, hydrophobic modification

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341 Design of Bacterial Pathogens Identification System Based on Scattering of Laser Beam Light and Classification of Binned Plots

Authors: Mubashir Hussain, Mu Lv, Xiaohan Dong, Zhiyang Li, Bin Liu, Nongyue He

Abstract:

Detection and classification of microbes have a vast range of applications in biomedical engineering especially in detection, characterization, and quantification of bacterial contaminants. For identification of pathogens, different techniques are emerging in the field of biomedical engineering. Latest technology uses light scattering, capable of identifying different pathogens without any need for biochemical processing. Bacterial Pathogens Identification System (BPIS) which uses a laser beam, passes through the sample and light scatters off. An assembly of photodetectors surrounded by the sample at different angles to detect the scattering of light. The algorithm of the system consists of two parts: (a) Library files, and (b) Comparator. Library files contain data of known species of bacterial microbes in the form of binned plots, while comparator compares data of unknown sample with library files. Using collected data of unknown bacterial species, highest voltage values stored in the form of peaks and arranged in 3D histograms to find the frequency of occurrence. Resulting data compared with library files of known bacterial species. If sample data matching with any library file of known bacterial species, sample identified as a matched microbe. An experiment performed to identify three different bacteria particles: Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. By applying algorithm using library files of given samples, results were compromising. This system is potentially applicable to several biomedical areas, especially those related to cell morphology.

Keywords: microbial identification, laser scattering, peak identification, binned plots classification

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340 Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program

Authors: Mikhail Bouniaev

Abstract:

The paper reviews design and implementation of a Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following a four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate a strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.

Keywords: active learning, assessment, calculus, cognitive demand, mathematics, stage-by-stage development of mental action theory

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339 Electrospinning of Nanofibrous Meshes and Surface-Modification for Biomedical Application

Authors: Hyuk Sang Yoo, Young Ju Son, Wei Mao, Myung Gu Kang, Sol Lee

Abstract:

Biomedical applications of electrospun nanofibrous meshes have been received tremendous attentions because of their unique structures and versatilities as biomaterials. Incorporation of growth factors in fibrous meshes can be performed by surface-modification and encapsulation. Those growth factors stimulate differentiation and proliferation of specific types of cells and thus lead tissue regenerations of specific cell types. Topographical cues of electrospun nanofibrous meshes also increase differentiation of specific cell types according to alignments of fibrous structures. Wound healing treatments of diabetic ulcers were performed using nanofibrous meshes encapsulating multiple growth factors. Aligned nanofibrous meshes and those with random configuration were compared for differentiating mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells. Thus, nanofibrous meshes can be applied to drug delivery carriers and matrix for promoting cellular proliferation.

Keywords: nanofiber, tissue, mesh, drug

Procedia PDF Downloads 234