Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: thymus

37 Human C-Cbl and Cbl-b Proteins Are More Highly Expressed in the Thymus Compared to the Testis

Authors: Mazo Kone, Rachida Salah, Harir Noria


Background and objectives: c-Cbl and Cbl-b are two members of the Cbl family proteins, with a crucial role of downregulation of tyrosine kinase receptors. They act as E3 ubiquitin ligases and are multivalent adaptor proteins, making them important in maintaining homeostasis in the body. This study investigated the expression level in thymus and testis in normal conditions. Methods: The expression level was assessed by immunochemistry of tissue microarrays of normal thymus and testis biopsies. Results: Cbl-b and c-Cbl proteins were found to be highly expressed in normal testis and thymus, indicated as yellowish brown granules in the cytomembrane and cytoplasm compared to controls. The c-Cbl appears to be more highly expressed than the Cbl-b in the thymus, while c-Cbl appears slightly stronger than Cbl-b in the testis. The thymus was found with a higher grade compared to the testis. Conclusion: In this work we concluded, that in normal condition, thymus tissue expresses more Cbl family proteins(c-Cbl and Cbl-b) than the testis tissue in humans.

Keywords: Human C-Cbl proteins, Human Cbl-b protein, Testis, Thymus

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36 Pathways and Mechanisms of Lymphocytes Emigration from Newborn Thymus

Authors: Olena Grygorieva


Nowadays mechanisms of thymocytes emigration from the thymus to the periphery are investigated actively. We have proposed a hypothesis of thymocytes’ migration from the thymus through lymphatic vessels during periodical short-term local edema. By morphological, hystochemical methods we have examined quantity of lymphocytes, epitelioreticulocytes, mast cells, blood and lymphatic vessels in morpho-functional areas of rats’ thymuses during the first week after birth in 4 hours interval. In newborn and beginning from 8 hour after birth every 12 hours specific density of the thymus, absolute quantity of microcirculatory vessels, especially of lymphatic ones, lymphcyte-epithelial index, quantity of mast cells and their degranulative forms increase. Structure of extracellular matrix, intrathymical microenvironment and lymphocytes’ adhesive properties change. Absolute quantity of small lymphocytes in thymic cortex changes wavy. All these changes are straightly expressed from 0 till 2, from 12 till 16, from 108 till 120 hours of postnatal life. During this periods paravasal lymphatic vessels are stuffed with lymphocytes, i.e. discrete migration of lymphocytes from the thymus occurs. After rapid edema reduction, quantity of lymphatic vessels decrease, they become empty. Therefore, in the thymus of newborn periodical short-term local edema is observed, on its top discrete migration of lymphocytes from the thymus occurs.

Keywords: lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, mast cells, thymus

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35 Insecticidal Effects of Plant Extracts of Thymus daenensis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Authors: Afsoon Danesh Afrooz, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi


This study has been investigated for finding alternative and safe botanical pesticides instead of chemical insecticides. The effects of plant extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Thymus daenensis were tested against adult of Callosobrochus maculatus F. Experiments were carried out at 27±1°C and 60 ± 5% R. H. under dark condition with adopting a complete randomized block design. Three replicates were set up for five concentrations of each plants extract. LC50 values were determined by SPSS 16.0 software. LC50 values indicated that plant extract of Thymus daenensis with 1.708 (µl/l air) against adult was more effective than the plant extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with LC50 12.755 (µl/l air). It was found that plant extract of Thymus daenensis in comparison with extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis could be used as a pesticide for control store pests.

Keywords: callosobruchus maculatus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, insecticidal effects, Thymus daenensis

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34 Gross and Histological Studies on the Thymus of the Grasscutter (Thyronomys swinderianus)

Authors: R. M. Korzerzer, J. O. Hambolu, S. O. Salami, S. B. Oladele


Twelve apparently healthy grasscutters between the ages of three and seven months were used for this study. The animals were purchased from local breeders in Oturkpo, Benue state, Nigeria and transported to the research laboratory in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria by means of constructed cages. The animals were divided into three groups according to their ages and acclimatised. Sacrifice was done using chloroform gaseous inhalation anaesthesia. An incision was made at the neck region and the thymus located and identified by its prominent bilateral nature. Extirpated thymuses from each animal were immediately weighed and fixed in Bouin’s fluid for 48 hours. The tissues were then prepared using standard methods. Haematoxilin and eosin was used for routine histology and Rhodamine B aniline methylene blue was for studying the architecture of the elastic and reticular fibres of the thymus. Grossly, the thymus appeared as a bilateral organ on either side of the thoracic midline. The organ size decreased consistently as the animals advanced in age. Mean ± SEM values for thymic weights were 1.23 ± 0.048 g, 0.53 ± 0.019 g and 0.30 ± 0.042 g at three, five and seven months of age respectively.

Keywords: gross, histological, thymus, grasscutter

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33 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Thymus vulgaris L.

Authors: Tsige Reda


Essential oil of Thymus vulgaris was extracted by means of hydro-distillation. This study was done to investigate the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Using disc diffusion assay the antibacterial activity was assessed on one Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria. The percentage oil yield of the essential oil was found to be 0.97 ± 0.08% (w/w) with yellow color. The physicochemical constants of the oil were also noted. The phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenol, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. A total of 18 chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis representing 100% of the total essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, with thymol (31.977%), o-cymene (29.992%), and carvacrol (14.541%). Previous studies have revealed that the thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol components of Thymus vulgaris are responsible for their biological activities. Thymus vulgaris have been used traditionally to treat a wide variety of infections. Based on the extensive use and lack of scientific evidence, a study was embarked upon to determine its bioactivity. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris leaves exhibited higher activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous) than the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and also has good antioxidant activity, and can be used medicinal and therapeutic applications. This activity may be due to the high amount of thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, Thymus vulgaris, essential oil composition, phytochemical screening, physicochemical constants, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity

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32 Effectiveness of the Flavonoids Isolated from Thymus inodorus by Different Solvents against Some Pathogenis Microorganisms

Authors: N. Behidj, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmane, A. Allem


The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the aerial part of a medicinal plant which is Thymus inodorusby the middle agar diffusion method on following microorganisms. We have Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, AspergillusNiger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. During this study, flavonoids extracted by stripping with steam are performed. The yields of flavonoids is 7.242% for the aqueous extract and 28.86% for butanol extract, 29.875% for the extract of ethyl acetate and 22.9% for the extract of di - ethyl. The evaluation of the antibacterial effect shows that the diameter of the zone of inhibition varies from one microorganism to another. The operation values obtained show that the bacterial strain P fluoresces, and 3 yeasts and molds; A. Niger, A. fumigatus and C. albicansare the most resistant. But it is noted that, S. aureus is shown more sensitive to crude extracts, the stock solution and the various dilutions. Finally for the minimum inhibitory concentration is estimated only with the crude extract of Thymus inodorus flavonoid.Indeed, these extracts inhibit the growth of Gram + bacteria at a concentration varying between 0.5% and 1%. While for bacteria to Gram -, it is limited to a concentration of 0.5%.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, organic extracts, aqueous extracts, Thymus numidicus

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31 Hexane Extract of Thymus serpyllum L.: GC-MS Profile, Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Impact on HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma) Cell Line

Authors: Salma Baig, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmad, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Elham Rouhollahi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla


Free radical damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to etiology of many chronic diseases, cancer being one of them. Recent studies have been successful in ROS targeted therapies via antioxidants using mouse models in cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to scrutinize anticancer activity, antioxidant activity of 5 different extracts of Thymus serpyllum in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HepG2, HCT-116, PC3, and A549. Identification of the phytochemicals present in the most active extract of Thymus serpyllum was conducted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Anticancer impact of the extract in terms of IC50 was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the best anticancer activity in HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma Cell Line) with an IC50 value of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml followed by 25 µg/ml in HCT-116 (Colon Cancer Cell Line), 30 µm/ml in MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 35 µg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 57 µg/ml in PC3 (Prostate Cancer Cell Line) and 60 µg/ml in A549 (Lung Carcinoma Cell Line). GC-MS profile of the hexane extract showed the presence of 31 compounds with carvacrol, thymol and thymoquione being the major compounds. Phenolics such as Vitamin E, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and phytol were also identified. Hence, here we present the first report on cytotoxicity of hexane extract of Thymus serpyllum extract in HepG2 cell line with a robust anticancer activity with an IC50 of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml.

Keywords: Thymus serpyllum L., hexane extract, GC-MS profile, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, HepG2 cell line

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30 Dynamics of Antioxidant and Anti-Radical Activity of the Extracts of Certain Plants of Kazakhstan

Authors: A. Kazbekova, A. Kudaibergenov, G. Atazhanova, S. Adekenov


In recent years, it achieved some progress such a direction as to study the possibility of correlation between different types of biological activity. In particular, in our work, we consider questions such as: the impact of the qualitative composition of total substances in the example of plant extracts on antioxidant and antiradical activity, the presents of correlation between these types of activity, etc. It is known that there is a relationship between the values of optical density of working solutions of extracts and corresponding bioactivity in vitro, in particular, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we have identified that among some studied species of wormwood (Artemisia viridis Wild, Artemisia jacutica Drob, Artemisia annua L, Artemisia siversiana Wild, Artemisia adamsii Bess, Artemisia tianschanica, Artemisia obtusiloba Ledeb., Artemisia heptopotamica), as well as extracts of Inula caspica, Аjania tenuifolia, Abies sibirica, Galatella songorica, Mentha asiatica and Thymus mugodzharicus it was identified that the highest content of polyphenol compounds is in Thymus mugodzharicus. At the same time, we determined the antioxidant and antiradical activity, which was the highest for the Thymus mugodzharicus. Butylhydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid were used as comparison substances. Also, it was established that antioxidant and anti-radical activities depend on the concentration of the of all investigated samples. Based on obtained data, we believe that the extract of Thymus mugodzharicus can be recommended for further study on the antioxidant and antiradical activity in vivo, as well as the opportunity of this sample to demonstrate hepatoprotective effect. The study was sponsored by SANTO academic program.

Keywords: in vitro, in vivo, antioxidant, hepatoprotective effect

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29 Potential Use of Thymus mastichina L. Extract as a Natural Agent against Cheese Spoilage Microorganisms

Authors: Susana P. Dias, Andrea Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Marta F. Henriques


Thymus mastichina L. is an endogenous medicinal and aromatic plant of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used empirically over the years as a natural preservative in food. Nowadays, the antimicrobial activity of its bioactive compounds, such as essential oils and extracts, has been well recognized. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymus mastichina ethanolic and aqueous extracts on pathogens and spoilage microorganisms present in cheese during ripening. The effect that the extract type and its concentration has on the development of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Yarrowia lipolytica populations during 24 hours, was studied 'in vitro' using appropriate culture media. The results achieved evidenced the antimicrobial activity of T. mastichina extracts against the studied strains, and the concentration of 2 mg/mL (w/v) was selected and used directly on the cheese surface during ripening. In addition to the microbiological evaluation in terms of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts (particularly Y. lipolytica) and molds, the treated cheeses physicochemical evaluation (humidity, aw, pH, colour, and texture) was also performed. The results were compared with cheeses with natamicyn (positive control) and without any treatment (negative control). The physicochemical evaluation showed that the cheeses treated with ethanolic extract of Thymus mastichina, except the fact that they lead to a faster water loss during ripening, did not present considerable differences when compared to controls. The study revealed an evident antimicrobial power of the extracts, although less effective than the one shown by the use of natamycin. For this reason, the improvement of the extraction methods and the adjustment of the extract concentrations will contribute to the use of T. mastichina as a healthier and eco-friendly alternative to natamycin, that is also more attractive from an economic point of view.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, cheese, ethanolic extract, Thymus mastichina

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28 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Thymus lanceolatus Desf. an Endemic Thyme from Algeria

Authors: Ahmed Nouasri, Tahar Dob, Toumi Mohamed, Dahmane Dahmane, Soumioa Krimat, Lynda Lamari, Chabane Chelghom


The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition for the first time, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil (EO) of Thymus lanceolatus Desf., an endemic thyme from Tiaret province of Algeria. The chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from flowering aerial parts has been analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques, the antimicrobial activity was realised by agar disc diffusion method and MIC was determined in solid medium by direct contact. Essential oil of T. lanceolataus has been yielded of 2.336 (w/w) based on dry weight, the analyses cited above, led to the identification of 29 components, which accounted for 97.34% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes was the main fraction (88.31%) dominated by thymol (80.2%) as major component of this oil, followed by carvacrol (6.25%). The oil was found effective against all tested strains especially fungus, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa were low activity observed, in addition Gram (+) bacteria found to be more sensitive to the EO than Gram (-) bacteria. This activity was ranging from12±2.65mm to 60.00±0.00mm Ø, with the lowest MIC value of under 0.06mg/ml to 12.53mg/ml. This results provided the evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents

Keywords: Thymus lanceolatus Desf., essential oil, chemical composition, antimicrobial activities

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27 Larvicidal Activity of Azadirachtin and Essential Oils from Thymus capitatus against Prays oleae Bern (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae)

Authors: Imen Blibech, Mohiedine Ksantini, Mohamed Bouaziz


Prays oleae is a major insect of olive in the Mediterranean Region. In an effort to find effective and affordable ways of controlling this pest, larvicidal activity of essential oils from Tunisian Thymus capitatus were analyzed in comparison to Azadirachtin, a biologically active compound insecticide. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical composition was determined by gas liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The main components of chemical components were oxygenated monoterpenes (60.24%). The most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes were carvacrol (54.11%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were much more abundant and dominated by the o-cymene (16.68%). Both active compounds of Azadirachtin and Thymus capitatus oil extracts exhibited significant larvicidal activity against P. oleae with LC50 values 81.30 ppm and 52.49 ppm respectively. Dose-response relationships were established with almost 100% mortality when using the highest dose 100 ppm of T. capitatus oil extracts and 80 ppm of Azadirachtin. At the lowest dose (10 ppm), T. capitatus oil extracts and Azadirachtin caused 60% and 76% larval mortality in 48 hours respectively. The larval mortality rate greatly decreased with increases of the dilution of both oil extract compounds. Larval development duration appeared to be prolonged to about 12 days for larvae feeding on control diet. The maximum antifeedant activity was shown by both T. capitatus oil extract and Azadirachtin at LC90 values (47.5 and 50.1 ppm respectively). Tunisian T. capitatus oil extract used at low concentrations could be considered as eco-friendly promising insecticide similar to Azadirachtin that has significant potential for the biological control of P. oleae.

Keywords: Thymus capitatus, chemical composition, azadirachtin, larvicidal effects, antifeedant activity, Prays oleae

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26 Do Immune Organ Weights Indicate Immunomodulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Authors: H. Al-Khalifa, A. Al-Nasser


The main immune organs in poultry are the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. During an immune response, mature lymphocytes and other immune cells interact with antigens in these tissues. Consequently, the mass of these organs can in some cases indicate immune status. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed on immune tissue weights. Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed flaxseed at 15%, the control diet did not contain any flaxseed. Results showed that dietary supplementation with flaxseed did not affect the weights of the spleens of broiler chickens. However, it significantly lowered bursa weights (p<0.01), compared to the control diet. In addition, the bursae were thinner in appearance compared with bursii from chickens fed the control diets.

Keywords: bursa of fabricius, flaxseed, spleen, thymus

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25 Potential Application of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Essential Oil as Antibacterial Drug in Aromatherapy

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed Amine, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


The Lamiaceae family is widely spread in Algeria. Due to the application of Thymus species growing wild in Algeria as a culinary herb and in folk medicine, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate antimicrobial activities of their essential oils and relate them with their chemical composition, for further application in food and pharmaceutical industries as natural valuable products. The extraction of the Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) was obtained by steam distillation. Chemical composition of the TVEO was determined by Gas Chromatography. A total of thirteen compounds were identified. Carvacrol (83.8%) was the major component, followed by cymene (8.15%) and terpinene (4.96%). Antibacterial action of the TVEO against 23 clinically isolated bacterial strains was determined by using agar disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different doses. By disc diffusion method, TVEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria more than gram-negative strains and antibiotic discs. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 25 to 60 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilisand E. coli. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial effect was observed in the vapour phase at lower doses. S. aureus and B. subtilis were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. There is growing evidence that TVEO in vapour phase are effective antiseptic systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment of human infections oras air decontaminants in hospital. TVEO has considerable antibacterial activity deserving further investigation for clinical applications. Also whilst the mode of action remains mainly undetermined, this experimental approach will need to continue.

Keywords: antimicrobial drugs, carvacrol, disc diffusion, Thymus vulgaris, vapour diffusion

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24 Development of Antimicrobial Properties Nutraceuticals: Gummy Candies with Addition of Bovine Colostrum, Essential Oils and Probiotics

Authors: E. Bartkiene, M. Ruzauskas, V. Lele, P. Zavistanaviciute, J. Bernatoniene, V. Jakstas, L. Ivanauskas, D. Zadeike, D. Klupsaite, P. Viskelis, J. Bendoraitiene, V. Navikaite-Snipaitiene, G. Juodeikiene


In this study, antimicrobial nutraceuticals; gummy candies (GC) from bovine colostrum (BC), essential oils (EOs), probiotic lactic acid bacteria (PLAB), and their combinations, were developed. For antimicrobial GC preparation, heteropolysaccharide (agar) was used. The antimicrobial properties of EOs (Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus reticulata L., Citrus paradisi L.), BC, L. paracasei LUHS244, L. plantarum LUHS135, and their combinations against pathogenic bacteria strains (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were evaluated. The highest antimicrobial properties by EO’s (Eugenia caryophyllata and Thymus vulgaris) were established. The optimal ingredients composition for antimicrobial GC preparation was established, which incorporate the BC fermented with L. paracasei LUHS244 in combination with Thymus vulgaris or Eugenia caryophyllata. These ingredients showed high inhibition properties of all tested pathogenic strains (except Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Antimicrobial GC formula consisting of thyme EO (up to 0.2%) and fermented BC (up to 3%), and for taste masking, mandarin or grapefruit EOs (up to 0.2%) was used. Developed GC high overall acceptability and antimicrobial properties, thus, antimicrobial GC could be a preferred form of nutraceuticals. This study was fulfilled with the support of the LSMU-KTU joint project.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bovine colostrum, essential oil, gummy candy, probiotic

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23 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Clinical Pathogen and Candida Species

Authors: Marwan Khalil Qader, Arshad Mohammad Abdullah


Antimicrobial resistance is a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Seven plant extracts (Plantago mediastepposa, Quercusc infectoria, Punic granatum, Thymus lcotschyana, Ginger officeinals, Rhus angustifolia and Cinnamon) were collected from different regions of Kurdistan region of Iraq. These plants’ extracts were dissolved in absolute ethanol and distillate water, after which they were assayed in vitro as an antimicrobial activity against Candida tropicalis, Candida albicanus, Candida dublinensis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata also against 2 Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia). The antimicrobial activity was determined in ethanol extracts and distilled water extracts of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria showed the maximum activity against all species of Candida fungus. The minimum inhibition zone of the Punic granatum ethanol extracts was 0.2 mg/ml for all microorganisms tested. Klebsilla pneumonia was the most sensitive bacterial strain to Quercusc infectoria and Rhus angustifolia ethanol extracts. Among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested with MIC of 0.2 mg/ml, the minimum inhibition zone of Ginger officeinals D. W. extracts was 0.2 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia. The most sensitive bacterial strain to Thymus lcotschyana and Plantago mediastepposa D.W. extracts was S. aureus and E. coli.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, pathogenic bacteria, plant extracts, chemical systems engineering

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22 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Properties of Half-Sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium(II), Rhodium(II) and Iridium(III)

Authors: A. Gilewska, J. Masternak, K. Kazimierczuk, L. Turlej, J. Wietrzyk, B. Barszcz


Platinum-based drugs are now widely used as chemotherapeutic agents. However the platinum complexes show the toxic side-effects: i) the development of platinum resistance; ii) the occurrence of severe side effects, such as nephro-, neuro- and ototoxicity; iii) the high toxicity towards human fibroblast. Therefore the development of new anticancer drugs containing different transition-metal ions, for example, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium is a valid strategy in cancer treatment. In this paper, we reported the synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and biological properties of complexes of ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium containing N,N-chelating ligand (2,2’-bisimidazole). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes exhibit a typical pseudotetrahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which the aromatic arene ring forms the seat of the piano-stool, while the bidentate 2,2’-bisimidazole (ligand) and the one chlorido ligand form the three legs of the stool. The spectroscopy data (IR, UV-Vis) and elemental analysis correlate very well with molecular structures. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was carried out on human cancer cell lines: LoVo (colorectal adenoma), MV-4-11 (myelomonocytic leukaemia), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and normal healthy mouse fibroblast BALB/3T3 cell lines. To predict a binding mode, a potential interaction of metal complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and protein (BSA) has been explored using UV absorption and circular dichroism (CD). It is interesting to note that the investigated complexes show no cytotoxic effect towards the normal BALB/3T3 cell line, compared to cisplatin, which IC₅₀ values was determined as 2.20 µM. Importantly, Ru(II) displayed the highest activity against HL-60 (IC₅₀ 4.35 µM). The biological studies (UV-Vis and circular dichroism) suggest that arene-complexes could interact with calf thymus DNA probably via an outside binding mode and interact with protein (BSA).

Keywords: ruthenium(II) complex, rhodium(III) complex, iridium(III) complex, biological activity

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21 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Carbamate, Carvacrol

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20 Effectiveness of Essential Oils as Inhibitors of Quorum Sensing Activity Using Biomonitor Strain Chromobacterium Violaceum

Authors: Ivana Cabarkapa, Zorica Tomicic, Olivera Duragic


Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the major challenges facing humanity in the last decades. Increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens indicates the need for the development of alternative antibacterial drugs and new treatment strategies. One of the innovative emerging treatments in overcoming multidrug-resistant pathogens certainly represents the inhibition anti-quorum sensing system. For most of the food-borne pathogens, the expression of the virulence depends on their capability communication with other members of the population by means of quorum sensing (QS). QS represents a specific way of bacterial intercellular communication, which enabled owing to their ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation. QS mechanisms are responsible for controls the pathogenesis, virulence luminescence, motility, sporulation and biofilm formation of many organisms by regulating gene expression. Therefore, research in this field is being an attractive target for the development of new natural antibacterial agents. Anti-QS compounds are known to have the ability to prohibit bacterial pathogenicity. Considering the importance of quorum sensing during bacterial pathogenesis, this research has been focused on evaluation anti - QS properties of four essential oils (EOs) Origanum heracleoticum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgare, and Thymus serpyllum, using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Tests conducted on Luria Bertani agar supplemented with N hexanol DL homoserine lacton (HHL) 10µl/50ml of agar. The anti-QS potential of the EOs was assayed in a range of concentrations of 200 – 0.39 µl/ml using the disc diffusion method. EOs of Th. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were exhibited anti-QS activity indicated by a non- pigmented ring with a dilution-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum in which they exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 6.25 µl/ml for both tested EOs. EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare were displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by the outer non-pigmented ring, in a concentration-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare in which exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 1.56 and 3.25 µl/ml, respectively. Considering that, the main constituents of the tested EOs represented by monoterpenes (carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene), anti - QS properties of tested EOs can be mainly attributed to their activity. In particular, from the scientific literature, carvacrol and thymol show a sub-inhibitory effect against foodborne pathogens. Previous studies indicated that sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol reduced the mobility of bacteria due to the ability of interference using QS mechanism between the bacterial cells, and thereby reducing the ability of biofilm formation The precise mechanism by which carvacrol inhibits biofilm formation is still not fully understood. Our results indicated that EOs displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by an outer non- pigmented ring with visually detectable inhibition of violacein. Preliminary results suggest that EOs represent a promising alternative for effective control of the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens.

Keywords: anti-quorum sensing activity, Chromobacterium violaceum, essential oils, violacein

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19 Electrochemiluminescent Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Tetrachloro-1,4- Benzoquinone Using DNA Sensor

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Xue Sun


DNA damage induced by tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), a reactive metabolite of pentachloro-phenol (PCP), was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) in this work. DNA modified films were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polycationic poly(diallyldimethyl- ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged ds-DNA on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The DNA intercalator [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine, dppz0dipyrido [3, 2-a: 2′,3′-c] phenazine) was chosen as an electrochemical probe to detect DNA damage. After the sensor was incubated in 0.1 M pH 7.3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30min, the intact PDDA/DNA film produced a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal. However, after the sensor was incubated in 100 μM TCBQ or a mixed solution of 100 μM TCBQ and 2 mM H2O2, ECL signal decreased significantly. During the incubation of DNA in TCBQ or TCBQ-H2O2 solution, the double-helix of DNA was damaged, which resulted in the decrease of Ru-dppz bound to DNA. Additionally, the results were verified independently by fluorescence experiments. This paper provides a sensitive method to directly screen DNA damage induced by chemicals in the environment.

Keywords: DNA damage, detection, electrochemiluminescence, sensor

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18 Determination of Aflatoxins in Edible-Medicinal Plant Samples by HPLC with Fluorescence Detector and KOBRA-Cell

Authors: Isil Gazioglu, Abdulselam Ertas


Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. AFs can be absorbed through the skin. Potent carcinogens like AFs should be completely absent from cosmetics, this can be achieved by careful quality control of the raw plant materials. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins have been established in many countries, and reliable testing methodology is needed to implement and enforce the regulatory limits. In this study, ten medicinal plant samples (Bundelia tournefortti, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cardaria draba, Malva neglecta, Malvella sharardiana, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis libanotica, Stakys thirkei, Thymus nummularius) were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing an HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with Kobra-Cell and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all medicinal plant samples. The results revealed that five (50%) of samples were contaminated with AFs. The association between particular samples and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples.

Keywords: aflatoxin B1, HPLC-FLD, KOBRA-Cell, mycotoxin

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17 Current Approach in Biodosimetry: Electrochemical Detection of DNA Damage

Authors: Marcela Jelicova, Anna Lierova, Zuzana Sinkorova, Radovan Metelka


At present, electrochemical methods are used in various research fields, especially for analysis of biological molecules. The fact offers the possibility of using the detection of oxidative damage induced indirectly by γ rays in DNA in biodosimentry. The main goal of our study is to optimize the detection of 8-hydroxyguanine by differential pulse voltammetry. The level of this stable and specific indicator of DNA damage could be determined in DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes, plasma or urine of irradiated individuals. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxy-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were utilized for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of 8-hydroxyguanine. Electrochemical oxidation of 8-hydroxoguanine monitored by differential pulse voltammetry was found pH-dependent and the most intensive signal was recorded at pH 7. After recalculating the current density, several times higher sensitivity was attained in comparison with already published results, which were obtained using screen-printed carbon electrodes with unmodified carbon ink. Subsequently, the modified electrochemical technique was used for the detection of 8-hydroxoguanine in calf thymus DNA samples irradiated by 60Co gamma source in the dose range from 0.5 to 20 Gy using by various types of sample pretreatment and measurement conditions. This method could serve for fast retrospective quantification of absorbed dose in cases of accidental exposure to ionizing radiation and may play an important role in biodosimetry.

Keywords: biodosimetry, electrochemical detection, voltametry, 8-hydroxyguanine

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16 Elimination of Mixed-Culture Biofilms Using Biological Agents

Authors: Anita Vidacs, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Judit Krisch


The attachment of microorganisms to different surfaces and the development of biofilms can lead to outbreaks of food-borne diseases and economic losses due to perished food. In food processing environments, bacterial communities are generally formed by mixed cultures of different species. Plants are sources of several antimicrobial substances that may be potential candidates for the development of new disinfectants. We aimed to investigate cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Essential oils and their major components (cinnamaldehyde, terpinene-4-ol, and thymol) on four-species biofilms of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, and S. aureus. Experiments had three parts: (i) determination of minimum bactericide concentration and the killing time with microdilution methods; (ii) elimination of the four-species 24– and 168-hours old biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene, tile and wood surfaces; and (iii) comparing the disinfectant effect with industrial used per-acetic based sanitizer (HC-DPE). E. coli and P. putida were more resistant to investigated essential oils and their main components in biofilm, than L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. These Gram-negative bacteria were detected on the surfaces, where the natural based disinfectant had not total biofilm elimination effect. Most promoted solutions were the cinnamon essential oil and the terpinene-4-ol that could eradicate the biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene and even from tile, too. They have a better disinfectant effect than HC-DPE. These natural agents can be used as alternative solutions in the battle against bacterial biofilms.

Keywords: biofilm, essential oils, surfaces, terpinene-4-ol

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15 Dietary Effect of Selenium-Enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E and Rhodobacter capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler

Authors: Abdul G. Miah, Hirotada Tsujii, Ummay Salma, Iwao Takeda


The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS), Vitamin E (Vit E) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC) on broiler's immunity, cholesterol concentration and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups, such as i) Control; ii) Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS); iii) Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC); iv) Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E) and v) Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E). The broilers were offered ad libitum specific diets and clean drinking water. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) specially, in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet compared to the broilers fed control diet. At the end of the 6-wk feeding period, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, and improved the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat. The highest (p<0.05) number of leukocytes was observed in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than that of the broilers fed control diet. Spleen, bursa and thymus weight were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than the control diet. Compared to the control diet, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) increased foot web index. Moreover, there was no mortality in all groups of broilers during the experimental period. Therefore, the study may conclude that there are dual benefits of Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplementation in broiler diet improved immunity and meat quality for health conscious consumers.

Keywords: hypocholesterolemia, immunity of broiler, rhodobacter capsulatus, selenium-enriched radish sprouts, vitamin E

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14 Effect of Oxytocin on Cytosolic Calcium Concentration of Alpha and Beta Cells in Pancreas

Authors: Rauza Sukma Rita, Katsuya Dezaki, Yuko Maejima, Toshihiko Yada


Oxytocin is a nine-amino acid peptide synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin promotes contraction of the uterus during birth and milk ejection during breast feeding. Although oxytocin receptors are found predominantly in the breasts and uterus of females, many tissues and organs express oxytocin receptors, including the pituitary, heart, kidney, thymus, vascular endothelium, adipocytes, osteoblasts, adrenal gland, pancreatic islets, and many cell lines. On the other hand, in pancreatic islets, oxytocin receptors are expressed in both α-cells and β-cells with stronger expression in α- cells. However, to our knowledge there are no reports yet about the effect of oxytocin on cytosolic calcium reaction on α and β-cell. This study aims to investigate the effect of oxytocin on α-cells and β-cells and its oscillation pattern. Islet of Langerhans from wild type mice were isolated by collagenase digestion. Isolated and dissociated single cells either α-cells or β-cells on coverslips were mounted in an open chamber and superfused in HKRB. Cytosolic concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single cells were measured by fura-2 microfluorimetry. After measurement of [Ca2+]i, α-cells were identified by subsequent immunocytochemical staining using an anti-glucagon antiserum. In β-cells, the [Ca2+]i increase in response to oxytocin was observed only under 8.3 mM glucose condition, whereas in α-cells, [Ca2+]i an increase induced by oxytocin was observed in both 2.8 mM and 8.3 mM glucose. The oscillation incidence was induced more frequently in β-cells compared to α-cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that oxytocin directly interacts with both α-cells and β-cells and induces increase of [Ca2+]i and its specific patterns.

Keywords: α-cells, β-cells, cytosolic calcium concentration, oscillation, oxytocin

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13 Effect of Dietary Graded Levels of L-Theanine on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Broilers

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Sun Chao


L-theanine is water soluble non-proteinous amino acid found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of L-theanine as an additive in animals especially broilers are scanty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different dietary levels of L-theanine on growth performance, meat quality, growth, immune response and blood chemistry in broilers. A total of 400 day-old chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D) using a complete randomized design. Treatments were as follows: A; control (basal diet), B; basal diet+100 mg L-theanine / kg diet, C; basal diet+ 200 mg L-theanine / kg diet, and D; basal diet+ 300 mg L-theanine / kg diet. Results revealed that intermediate level of L-theanine (200 mg/ kg diet, group C) showed better results in terms of BWG, FC, and FCR compared with control and other L-theanine levels. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight was higher in all L-theanine levels as compared to that of the control group. The heaviest (P > 0.05) spleen and bursa were found in group C (200 mg L-theanine / kg diet). Analysis of meat colors according to yellowness (b*), redness (a*), and lightness (L*) showed significantly higher values of a* and b* in L-theanine groups. Supplementing broiler diet with L-theanine minimized (P=0.02) total cholesterol contents in serum. Further analysis revealed , lower mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus and IFN- γ and IL-2 in spleen was observed in L-theanine group It is concluded that supplementation of L-theanine at 200mg/kg diet showed better results in terms of performance and it could be utilized as a natural feed additive alternative to antibiotics to improve overall performance of broilers. Increasing the levels up to 300 mg L-theanine /kg diet may has deleterious effects on performance and other health aspects.

Keywords: blood chemistry, broilers growth, L-theanine, meat quality

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12 Inhibition Effect of Natural Junipers Extract towards Steel Corrosion in HCl Solution

Authors: L. Bammou, M. Belkhaouda R. Salghi, L. Bazzi, B. Hammouti


Steel and steel-based alloys of different grades steel are extensively used in numerous applications where acid solutions are widely applied such as industrial acid pickling, industrial acid cleaning and oil-well acidizing. The use of chemical inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for the protection against corrosion in acidic media. Most of the excellent acid inhibitors are organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. The use of non-toxic inhibitors called green or eco-friendly environmental inhibitors is one of the solutions possible to prevent the corrosion of the material. These advantages have incited us to draw a large part of program of our laboratory to examine natural substances as corrosion inhibitors such as: prickly pear seed oil, Argan oil, Argan extract, Fennel oil, Rosemary oil, Thymus oil, Lavender oil, Jojoba oil, Pennyroyal Mint oil, and Artemisia. In the present work, we investigate the corrosion inhibition of steel in 1 M HCl by junipers extract using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The result obtained of junipers extract (JE) shows excellent inhibition properties for the corrosion of C38 steel in 1M HCl at 298K, and the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing of the JE concentration. The inhibitor efficiencies determined by weight loss, Tafel polarisation and EIS methods are in reasonable agreement. Based on the polarisation results, the investigated junipers extract can be classified as mixed inhibitor. The calculated structural parameters show increase of the obtained Rct values and decrease of the capacitance, Cdl, with JE concentration increase. It is suggested to attribute this to the increase of the thickness of the adsorption layer at steel surface. The adsorption model obeys to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process is a spontaneous and exothermic process.

Keywords: corrosion inhibition, steel, friendly inhibitors, Tafel polarisation

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11 Antibiotic Resistance and Susceptibility of Bacteria Strains Isolated from Sheep Milk

Authors: Fatima Bouazza, Rachida Hassikou, Lamiae Amallah, Jihane Ennadir, Khadija Khedid


This study evaluated the in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium. Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. The AMC, CTX, FOX, NA, CN, CIP, and OFX were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to TIC, and 80% to TE. The K. oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX, and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to OX, TE, PT, E, and P. The M. pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal had lower OX, TE, PT, E, and P resistance. M. pulegium yielded 3.2% essential oil compared to 1.85% for T. satureioides. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. T. satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values. The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants, essential oils, enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, sheep milk

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10 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Plant by-Product Extracts

Authors: Cristian Moisa, Andreea Lupitu, Adriana Csakvari, Dana G. Radu, Leonard Marian Olariu, Georgeta Pop, Dorina Chambre, Lucian Copolovici, Dana Copolovici


Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a promising, accessible, eco-friendly, and safe process with significant applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical sciences, and farming. The aim of our study was to obtain silver nanoparticles, using plant wastes extracts resulted in the essential oils extraction process: Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia L., and in hemp processing for seed and fibre, Cannabis sativa. Firstly, we obtained aqueous extracts of thyme, oregano, lavender, and hemp (two monoicous and one dioicous varieties), all harvested in western part of Romania. Then, we determined the chemical composition of the extracts by liquid-chromatography coupled with diode array and mass spectrometer detectors. The compounds identified in the extracts were in agreement with earlier published data, and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays confirmed their antioxidant activity due to their total polyphenolic content evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Then, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully biosynthesised, as was demonstrated by UV-VIS, FT-IR spectroscopies, and SEM, by reacting AgNO₃ solution and plant extracts. AgNPs were spherical in shape, with less than 30 nm in diameter, and had a good bactericidal activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens).

Keywords: plant wastes extracts, chemical composition, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer, HPLC-MS, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, silver nanoparticles

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9 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Hamada A. Ahmed, Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha


The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: herbal additives, basil, chamomile, broiler, growth performance, antioxidant

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8 Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.

Keywords: MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticle, α-hydroxy carboxylic acid, comparative fluorescence, magnetism study, DNA interaction, nuclease activity

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