Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3074

Search results for: South Africa

3074 Namibian Inhabitants’ Appeals for Recognition at the United Nations, 1947-1962

Authors: Seane Mabitsela

Abstract:

The Territory of Namibia was entrusted to South Africa as a Mandate under the League of Nations Covenant. After the dissolution of the League of Nations and the commencement of United Nations operations, South Africa's conception of its legal obligations under the mandate varied from those of other members of the United Nations. Because of that, the General Assembly requested the International Court of Justice for an Advisory Opinion on the international obligations of South Africa arising therefrom. The International Court of Justice declared that South West Africa was still a mandatory territory under the Covenant of the League of Nations. It also held that South Africa continued to transmit petitions from inhabitants of the territory, the supervisory functions to be exercised by the United Nations, to which the annual reports and the petitions were to be submitted. Subject to this judgement, the question of South West Africa remained a dispute relating to the mandate brought before the International Court of Justice against South Africa. The International Court of Justice and South Africa dispute reflected the nature of the Namibian inhabitants’ appeal for recognition at the United Nations.

Keywords: International Court of Justice, Namibia, petitions, United Nations

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3073 Trade Liberalisation and South Africa’s CO2 Emissions

Authors: Marcel Kohler

Abstract:

The effect of trade liberalization on environmental conditions has yielded a great deal of debate in the current energy economics literature. Although research on the relationship between income growth and CO2 emissions is not new in South Africa, few studies address the role that South Africa’s foreign trade plays in this context. This paper undertakes to investigate empirically the impact of South Africa’s foreign trade reforms over the last four decades on its energy consumption and CO2 emissions by taking into account not only the direct effect of trade on each, but also its indirect effect through income induced growth. Using co integration techniques we attempt to disentangle the long and short-run relationship between trade openness, income per capita and energy consumption and CO2 emissions in South Africa. The preliminary results of this study find support for a positive bi-directional relationship between output and CO2 emissions, as well as between trade openness and CO2. This evidence confirms the expectation that as the South African economy opens up to foreign trade and experiences growth in per capita income, the countries CO2 emissions will increase.

Keywords: trade openness, CO2 emissions, cointegration, South Africa

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3072 South Africa and U.S. AFRICOM: Reflections on a Lukewarm Relationship

Authors: Theo Neethling

Abstract:

The United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) was established in 2007 as a military and diplomatic entity and is intended to assist African states and military actors to address their security needs. At the same time, AFRICOM is clearly an extension of US strategic interests on the African continent. The challenge for the US Department of Defence is to project AFRICOM as a cooperative and willing partner. This implies a partner that offers needed services and resources, and supports African security and military priorities with no presumption of having a privileged role in defining the African future. However, one of AFRICOM’s main challenges relates to the point that it has not been able to secure a firm partnership with South Africa as a key player on the continent: South Africa has continuously taken a lukewarm, if not cold, approach towards AFRICOM since its formation. The main aim of this article is to examine and discuss South Africa’s political-military relations with AFRICOM and to assess the underlying reasons currently inhibiting AFRICOM from achieving a fully productive relationship with the South African government.

Keywords: AFRICOM, South African foreign policy, US interests, defence capabilities in Africa, US-Africa relations

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3071 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: transport, infrastructure, economic growth, South Africa

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3070 Open Consent And Artificial Intelligence For Health Research in South Africa

Authors: Amy Gooden

Abstract:

Various modes of consent have been utilized in health research, but open consent has not been explored in South Africa’s AI research context. Open consent entails the sharing of data without assurances of privacy and may be seen as an attempt to marry open science with informed consent. Because all potential uses of data are unknown, it has been questioned whether consent can be informed. Instead of trying to adapt existing modes of consent, why not adopt a new perspective? This is what open consent proposes and what this research will explore in AI health research in South Africa.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, consent, health, law, research, South Africa

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3069 Computing Transition Intensity Using Time-Homogeneous Markov Jump Process: Case of South African HIV/AIDS Disposition

Authors: A. Bayaga

Abstract:

This research provides a technical account of estimating Transition Probability using Time-homogeneous Markov Jump Process applying by South African HIV/AIDS data from the Statistics South Africa. It employs Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) model to explore the possible influence of Transition Probability of mortality cases in which case the data was based on actual Statistics South Africa. This was conducted via an integrated demographic and epidemiological model of South African HIV/AIDS epidemic. The model was fitted to age-specific HIV prevalence data and recorded death data using MLE model. Though the previous model results suggest HIV in South Africa has declined and AIDS mortality rates have declined since 2002 – 2013, in contrast, our results differ evidently with the generally accepted HIV models (Spectrum/EPP and ASSA2008) in South Africa. However, there is the need for supplementary research to be conducted to enhance the demographic parameters in the model and as well apply it to each of the nine (9) provinces of South Africa.

Keywords: AIDS mortality rates, epidemiological model, time-homogeneous markov jump process, transition probability, statistics South Africa

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3068 Student Attitude towards Entrepreneurship: A South African and Dutch Comparison

Authors: Natanya Meyer, Johann Landsberg

Abstract:

Unemployment among the youth is a significant problem in South Africa. Large corporations and the public sector simply cannot create enough jobs. Too many youths in South Africa currently do not consider entrepreneurship as an option in order to become independent. Unlike the youth of the Netherlands, South African youth prefer to find employment in the public or private sector. The Netherlands has a much lower unemployment rate than South Africa and the Dutch are generally very entrepreneurial. From early on entrepreneurship is considered a desirable career option in the Netherlands. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the perceptions of some Dutch and South African students in terms of unemployment and entrepreneurship. Questionnaires were distributed to students at the North West University's Vaal Triangle campus in Vanderbijlpark in Gauteng, South Africa and the Technical University of Delft in the Netherlands. A descriptive statistical analysis approach was followed and the means for the independent questions were calculated. The results demonstrate that the Dutch students are not as concerned about unemployment after completion of their studies as this is not as significant a problem as it is in South Africa. Both groups had positive responses towards the posed questions, but the South African group felt more strongly about the issues. Both groups of students felt that there was a need for more practical entrepreneurship training. The South African education system should focus on practical entrepreneurship training from a young age.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, entrepreneurship development programmes, entrepreneurship intention, Netherlands, South Africa, unemployment

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3067 Industrial Applications of Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Technology: A Review from South Africa Perspective

Authors: Micheal O. Alabi

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the official industry standard term (ASTM F2792) for all applications of the technology which is also known as 3D printing technology. It is defined as the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, and it is usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. This technology has gained significant interest within the academic, research institute and industry because of its ability to create complex geometries with customizable material properties. Despite the late adoption of the technology, additive manufacturing has been active in South Africa for past 21 years and it is predicted that additive manufacturing technology will play a significant and game-changing role in the fourth industrial revolution and in particular it promises to play an ever-growing role in efforts to re-industrialize the economy of South Africa. At the end of 2006, there are approximately ninety 3D printers in South Africa and in 2015 it was estimated that there are 3500 additive manufacturing systems and 3D printers in circulation in South Africa. A reasonable number of these additive manufacturing machines are in the high end of the market, in science councils and higher education institutions and this shows that the future of additive manufacturing in South Africa is very brighter compared to other African countries. This paper reviews the past and current industrial applications of additive manufacturing in South Africa from the academic research and industry perspective and what are the benefits of this technology to manufacturing companies and industrial sectors in the country.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D printing technology, industrial applications, manufacturing

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3066 Time Series Modelling for Forecasting Wheat Production and Consumption of South Africa in Time of War

Authors: Yiseyon Hosu, Joseph Akande

Abstract:

Wheat is one of the most important staple food grains of human for centuries and is largely consumed in South Africa. It has a special place in the South African economy because of its significance in food security, trade, and industry. This paper modelled and forecast the production and consumption of wheat in South Africa in the time covid-19 and the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war by using annual time series data from 1940–2021 based on the ARIMA models. Both the averaging forecast and selected models forecast indicate that there is the possibility of an increase with respect to production. The minimum and maximum growth in production is projected to be between 3million and 10 million tons, respectively. However, the model also forecast a possibility of depression with respect to consumption in South Africa. Although Covid-19 and the war between Ukraine and Russia, two major producers and exporters of global wheat, are having an effect on the volatility of the prices currently, the wheat production in South African is expected to increase and meat the consumption demand and provided an opportunity for increase export with respect to domestic consumption. The forecasting of production and consumption behaviours of major crops play an important role towards food and nutrition security, these findings can assist policymakers and will provide them with insights into the production and pricing policy of wheat in South Africa.

Keywords: ARIMA, food security, price volatility, staple food, South Africa

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3065 A Legal Opinion on Mitigation and Adaptation on Air Pollution Strategies for Local Governments in South Africa

Authors: Marjone Van Der Bank, C. M. Van Der Bank

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the foundation and evolution of environmental related problems in local governments with specific reference on air pollution in South Africa. Local government has a direct mandate in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereafter, the Constitution). This mandate to protect, fulfil, respect and promote the Bill of Rights by local governments in respect of the powers and functions creates confusion around the role of where a local government fits in, in addressing the problem of climate change in South Africa. A reflection of the evolving legislations, developments, and processes regarding climate change that shaped local government dispensation in South Africa is addressed by the notion of developmental local governments. This paper seeks to examine the advances for mitigation and adaptation regulation of air pollution and application in South Africa. This study involves a qualitative approach that will involve South African national legislation as well as an interpretation of international strategies. A literature review study was conducted to undertake the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands, as well as the relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act. It then proceeds to outline the responsibilities of local governments in South Africa to mitigate and adapt to air pollution strategies.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, disaster, local governments and mitigation

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3064 A Usability Framework to Influence the Intention to Use Mobile Fitness Applications in South Africa

Authors: Bulelani Ngamntwini, Liezel Cilliers

Abstract:

South Africa has one of the highest prevalence of obese people on the African continent. Forty-six percent of the adults in South Africa are physically inactive. Fitness applications can be used to increase physical inactivity. However, the uptake of mobile fitness applications in South Africa has been found to be poor due to usability challenges with the technology. The study developed a usability framework to influence the intention to use mobile fitness applications in South Africa. The study made use of a positivistic approach to collect data. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 377 respondents that have used mobile fitness applications in the past. A response rate of 80.90% was recorded. To analyse the data, the Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships between the various hypotheses. There are four usability factors, efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, which contribute to the intention of users to make use of mobile fitness applications. The study, therefore, recommends that for a mobile fitness application to be successful, these four factors must be considered and incorporated by developers when designing the applications.

Keywords: obese, overweight, physical inactivity, mobile fitness application, usability factors

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3063 The Transfer of Low-Cost Housing in South Africa: Problems and Impediments

Authors: Gert Van Schalkwyk, Chris Cloete

Abstract:

South Africa is experiencing a massive housing backlog in urban low-cost housing. A backlog in the transfer of low-cost housing units is exacerbated by various impediments and delays that exist in the current legal framework. Structured interviews were conducted with forty-five practicing conveyancers and fifteen deeds office examiners at the Deeds Office in Pretoria, South Africa. One of the largest, the Deeds Office in Pretoria implements a uniform registration process and can be regarded as representative of other deeds offices in South Africa. It was established that a low percentage of low-cost properties are freely transferable. The main economic impediments are the absence of financing and the affordability or payment of rates and taxes to local government. Encroachment of buildings on neighboring stands caused by the enlargement of existing small units on small stands also causes long-term unresolved legal disputes. In addition, as the transfer of properties is dependent on the proper functioning of administrative functions of various government departments, the adverse service delivery of government departments hampers transfer. Addressing the identified problems will contribute to a more sustainable process for the transfer of low-cost housing units in South Africa.

Keywords: conveyancing, low-cost housing, South Africa, tenure, titling, transfer

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3062 Restoring Urban South Africa through a Sustainable Green Infrastructure Approach

Authors: Z. Goosen, E. J. Cilliers

Abstract:

Referring to the entire green network within urban environments, at all spatial scales, green infrastructure is considered as an important constituent of sustainable development within urban areas through planning for a healthy environment and simultaneously improving quality of life for the people. Green infrastructure has made its appearance internationally in terms of the infrastructural urban environment focussing on ecological systems and sustaining society while building with nature. Within South Africa, the terminology of green infrastructure has, however, not continuously been entertained, mainly due to more pressing realities and challenges faced within urban areas of South Africa that include but are not limited to basic service provision, financial constraints and a lack of guiding policies and frameworks. But the notion of green infrastructure planning has changes, creating a newfound movement within urban areas of South Africa encouraging green infrastructure for urban resilience. Although green infrastructure is not an entirely new concept within the local context of South Africa, the benefits thereof constantly needs to be identified in order to measure the value of green infrastructure. Consequently challenges faces within urban areas of South Africa, in terms of human and nature, could be restored through focussing on a sustainable green infrastructure approach. This study does not focus on the pressing challenges and realities faced within urban areas of South Africa but rather aims solely on improving a green infrastructure approach within urban areas of South Africa. At the outset, the study will commence by introducing the concept of a green infrastructure approach by means of a local and international comparison. This will ensure an improved conceptual understanding of green infrastructure within a local South African context. The green infrastructure concept will be elaborated on through the inclusion of South African case study evaluations. The selected case studies will illustrate existing green infrastructure implementation within South Africa along with the benefits provided through the implementation thereof in terms of human (the people) and nature (the natural environment). As green infrastructure within South Africa continues to remain a fairly new concept with moderate levels of implementation thereof, room for improving on the approach in terms of implementation and maintenance exist. For this reason, the study will conclude with alternative green infrastructure suggestions and approaches to possibly be enforced within South Africa, led by international best practices.

Keywords: green infrastructure, international best practices, sustainability, urban South Africa

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3061 Energy Trends in Rural South Africa: A Case Study of the Mnweni Rural Community in the Province of Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: Noel Chellan

Abstract:

Energy is the life-blood of development. All human societies have been and still are dependent on energy – some societies more than others. With regard to energy in South Africa, previous policies of the apartheid regime neglected the energy needs of poor black communities in general – and rural communities in particular. Since South Africa’s first democratic elections in 1994 – whilst millions of South African households have received electricity from the national electricity grid, there are still many rural communities that are still experiencing challenges in relation to both electricity deprivation as well as provision. This paper looks at the energy-mix of the Mnweni rural community in South Africa and argues that understanding energy is key to understanding the nature and forms of development of any community or country, for that matter. The paper engages with the energy trends in the rural community of Mnweni from the days of apartheid until 2021. It also looks at agricultural practises from an energy perspective. Such an energy perspective will enable one to assess the pace and scale of development in rural Mnweni.

Keywords: rural, energy, development, apartheid

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3060 Genetic Testing And Research In South Africa: The Sharing Of Data Across Borders

Authors: Amy Gooden, Meshandren Naidoo

Abstract:

Genetic research is not confined to a particular jurisdiction. Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) as an example, this research assesses the status of data sharing into and out of South Africa (SA). While SA laws cover the sending of genetic data out of SA, prohibiting such transfer unless a legal ground exists, the position where genetic data comes into the country depends on the laws of the country from where it is sent – making the legal position less clear.

Keywords: cross-border, data, genetic testing, law, regulation, research, sharing, South Africa

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3059 Efficient Sources and Methods of Extracting Water for Irrigation

Authors: Anthony Iyenjamu, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

Due to the increasing water scarcity in South Africa, the prime focus of irrigation in South Africa shifts to creating feasible water sources and the efficient use of these sources. These irrigation systems in South Africa are implemented because of low and erratic rainfall and high evaporative demand. Irrigation contributes significantly to crop production in South Africa, as the mean annual precipitation for the country is usually less than 500mm. This is considered to be the minimum required for rain fed cropping. Even though the rainfall is low, a lot of the water in various areas in South Africa is lost due to runoff into storm water systems that run to the rivers and eventually into the sea. This study reviews the irrigation systems in South Africa which can be vastly improved by creating irrigation dams. A method of which may seem costly at first but rewarding with time. The study investigates the process of creating dam capacity capable of sustaining a suitable area size of land to be irrigated and thus diverting all runoff into these dams. This type of infrastructure method vastly improves various sectors in our irrigation systems. Extensive research is carried out in the surrounding area in which the dam should be constructed. Rainfall patterns and rainfall data is used for calculations of which period the dam will be at its optimum using rainfall. The size of the area irrigated was used to calculate the size of the irrigation dam to be constructed. The location of the dam must be situated as close to the river as possible to minimize the excessive use of pipelines to the dam. This study also investigated all existing resources to alleviate the cost. It was found that irrigation dams could solve the erratic distribution of rainfall in South Africa for irrigation purposes.

Keywords: irrigation, rainfed, rain harvesting, reservoir

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3058 Evaluation of South African Plants with Acaricide Activity against Ticks

Authors: G. Fouché, J. N. Eloff, K. Wellington

Abstract:

Acaricides are commonly used to control ticks but are toxic, harmful to the environment and too expensive to resource-limited farmers. Traditionally, many communities in South Africa rely on a wide range of indigenous practices to keep their livestock healthy. One of these health care practices includes the use of medicinal plants and this offers an alternative to conventional medicine. An investigation was conducted at the CSIR in South Africa, and selected indigenous plants used in communities were scientifically evaluated for the management of ticks in animals. 17 plants were selected from 239 plants used traditionally in South Africa. Two different organic extracts were prepared from the 17 samples, resulting in 34 plant samples. These were tested for efficacy against two tick species, namely Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The plant extracts were also screened against Vero cells and most were found to have low cytotoxicity. This study has shown that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against ticks that are non-toxic and environmentally benign.

Keywords: South Africa, ticks, plant extracts, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

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3057 China's Health Diplomacy in Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health diplomacy in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and foreign relations and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, china’s health diplomacy, COVID-19, bilateral relations

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3056 Interrogating the Theoretical Basis of the Freedom Charter in South Africa

Authors: Sibonginkosi Mazibuko

Abstract:

The “adoption” of the Freedom Charter in 1955 at Kliptown south of Johannesburg, South Africa represented a desire to create a society that is based on common citizenship, and democracy. The architects of the Charter had a vision of a society that lived in peace with itself. Today, the Charter is still promoted as the best thing that ever happened to a society ravaged by racism, dispossession, oppression and exploitation – a society divided in all aspects of its life. This paper moves from the understanding that land is fundamental to all life. It interrogates the Charter’s claim on land. At a time when the colonised world sought to free themselves from the chains of colonialism and Africans throughout the continent demanded Africa for the Africans, the Freedom Charter claimed South Africa for all who lived in it. To the extent that this paper problematizes the philosophical underpinnings of the Charter, it uses the methodology of dialectic materialism to understand the theoretical basis of the Freedom Charter. The paper argues that the understanding, desire and the vision of the Freedom Charter were, as they are today, irreconcilable. To that effect and in pursuit of narrow class interests, the Charter justified land dispossession and unsustainable living conditions for the dispossessed majority. The paper then concludes that, by misrepresenting the critically fundamental land question, the Charter tried to reconcile the dispossessed with their dispossession and thus reflected coloniality and whiteness long before colonialism and settler-colonialism came to an end in South Africa.

Keywords: colonialism, contradictions, freedom charter, South Africa

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3055 Major Factors That Enhance Economic Growth in South Africa: A Re-Examination Using a Vector Error Correction Mechanism

Authors: Temitope L. A. Leshoro

Abstract:

This study explored several variables that enhance economic growth in South Africa, based on different growth theories while using the vector error correction model (VECM) technique. The impacts and contributions of each of these variables on GDP in South Africa were investigated. The motivation for this study was as a result of the weak economic growth that the country has been experiencing lately, as well as the continuous increase in unemployment rate and deteriorating health care system. Annual data spanning over the period 1974 to 2013 was employed. The results showed that the major determinants of GDP are trade openness, government spending, and health indicator; as these variables are not only economically significant but also statistically significant in explaining the changes in GDP in South Africa. Policy recommendations for economic growth enhancement are suggested based on the findings of this study.

Keywords: economic growth, GDP, investment, health indicator, VECM

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3054 The Legal Regulation of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing In South Africa

Authors: Amy Gooden

Abstract:

Despite its prevalence, direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) remains under-investigated in South Africa (SA), and the issue of regulation is yet to be examined. Therefore, this research maps the current legal landscape relating to DTC-GT in SA through a legal analysis of the extant law relevant to the industry and the issues associated therewith – with the intention of determining if and how DTC-GT is legally governed. This research analyses: whether consumers are legally permitted to collect their saliva; whether DTC-GT are medical devices; licensing, registering, and advertising; importing and exporting; and genetic research conducted by companies.

Keywords: direct-to-consumer genetic testing, genetic testing, health, law, regulation, South Africa

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3053 Second Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging: The Case of Hluvukani Village in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

Abstract:

This is a work in progress project focused on exploring the complexities surrounding the second generation Mozambican migrant youth’s experiences to construct their identity and develop a sense of belonging in post-apartheid, Bushbuckridge in South Africa. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. Bushbuckridge as a destination for Mozambican migrants is crucial to their search for social freedom and space to “belong to.” The action of deliberately seeking freedom is known as an act of agency. Four major objectives govern the paper. The first objective observes how second-generation Mozambican migrant youth living in South Africa negotiate and construct their own identities. Secondly, it explores second-generation Mozambican migrant youth narratives regarding their sense of belonging in South Africa. Thirdly, the study intends to understand how social processes of identity and belonging influence second-generation Mozambican migrant youth experiences and future aspirations in South Africa. The last objective examines how Sen’s Capability approach is relevant in understanding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth identity and belonging in South Africa. This is a single case study informed by data from semi-structured interviews and narratives with youth between the ages of 18 and 34 who are born and raised in South Africa to at least one former Mozambican refugee parent living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Crenshaw’s Intersectionality and Sen’s Capability approaches, this study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how both approaches can be operationalized towards understanding complex experiences and capabilities of the disadvantaged group simultaneously. The subject of second-generation migrants is often under-researched in South African migration; thus, their perspectives have been marginalized in Social Science research.

Keywords: second-generation, Mozambican, migrant, youth, bushbuckridge

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3052 Protest Poetry in South Africa: A Study of Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s Sounds of a Cowhide Drum

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

Abstract:

This paper examines protest as a literary mechanism against the unpopular political policy of the white minority regime in South Africa. It examines some of Mtshali’s poems as examples of protest poetry, showing how he deploys his artistic acumen in the popular struggle of the oppressed South Africans against the aberrations and obnoxious apartheid policy.

Keywords: protest poetry, poems, minority, oppression

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3051 The Effect of Oil Price Uncertainty on Food Price in South Africa

Authors: Goodness C. Aye

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of the volatility of oil prices on food price in South Africa using monthly data covering the period 2002:01 to 2014:09. Food price is measured by the South African consumer price index for food while oil price is proxied by the Brent crude oil. The study employs the GARCH-in-mean VAR model, which allows the investigation of the effect of a negative and positive shock in oil price volatility on food price. The model also allows the oil price uncertainty to be measured as the conditional standard deviation of a one-step-ahead forecast error of the change in oil price. The results show that oil price uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on food price in South Africa. The responses of food price to a positive and negative oil price shocks is asymmetric.

Keywords: oil price volatility, food price, bivariate, GARCH-in-mean VAR, asymmetric

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3050 Forensic Investigation: Money-laundering During Lockdown In South Africa

Authors: Mokopane Charles Marakalala

Abstract:

Research shows that money-laundering has grown exponentially in South Africa during the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the South African Banking Risk Information Centre (SABRIC), fraudulent online banking and transactions resulted in a sharp increase in cybercrime since the beginning of the lockdown, resulting in a huge loss to the banking industry in South Africa. While the Financial Intelligence Centre Act, 38 of 2001, regulate financial transactions, it is evident that criminals are making use of technology to their advantage. Money-laundering ranks among the major crimes, not only in South Africa but world-wide. A convenience sample of banking employees and investigating officers from the South African police and private investigators employed by the four major banks in South Africa were interviewed using various platforms since lockdown prevented face-to-face interviews. A non-probability sampling (purposive sampling) was used in selecting these participants. These included telephone calls and virtual interviews. The results indicate that there is a relationship between remote online banking and the increase in money-laundering as the system allows transactions to take place with limited verification processes. This paper highlights the significance of considering the development of prevention mechanisms, capacity development, and strategies for both financial institutions as well as law enforcement agencies in South Africa to reduce crime such as money-laundering. The researcher recommends that strategies to increase awareness for bank staff must be harnessed through the provision of requisite training and to be provided adequate training.

Keywords: cybercrime, forensic investigation, fraud, lockdown, money-laundering

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3049 The Right to Engage in Collective Bargaining in South Africa: An Exploratory Analysis

Authors: Koboro J. Selala

Abstract:

Whilst the system of collective bargaining is well-researched in South Africa, recent studies reveal that this is an area of law and practice that is poorly understood. Despite the growing attention being paid by most scholars to the role of collective bargaining in the labour relations system, only a handful of the studies have considered collective bargaining as a mechanism of dispute resolution. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the current understanding of the right to engage in collective bargaining in South Africa to assess the extent to which collective bargaining is used to resolve labour disputes. The overall objective is to offer a deeper understanding of the role of collective bargaining in dispute resolution process within the South African constitutional labour law context. To this end, the paper examines the applicable legal framework of collective bargaining to address two fundamental questions that are critical to the proper understanding of the functioning of the South African collective labour dispute resolution system. The first concerns the extent to which the current South African legislative framework supports the fundamental labour rights entrenched in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The second addresses the role of trade unions in collective dispute resolution processes and the extent to which they can best utilize collective bargaining to resolve labour disputes. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the findings to stimulate further research and to enhance the constitutional development of collective labour rights in South Africa.

Keywords: collective bargaining, constitution, freedom of association, labour relations act

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3048 Migration and Mobility of South African Teachers: A Case Study

Authors: Rian de Villiers

Abstract:

Human mobility is one of the most significant development, foreign policy and domestic issues in the world today. Teacher loss due to migration is a global phenomenon that is impacting both developed and developing nations the world over. The purpose of this study was to find out how many newly qualified South African teachers were planning to teach in a foreign country; what were the prospective migrant teachers’ motives for migration; what destination countries were the most popular and why; and what were the prospective migrant teachers’ information needs before leaving South Africa. A group of final-year Bachelor of Education student teachers from a single university responded to a questionnaire on intra-and intercontinental migration. The responses were analysed quantitatively and/or qualitatively. The findings showed that 79% of the students indicated that they would be teaching in South Africa, 9% were planning to teach in another country, while 8% were undecided. More than a third of the students (38%) said that they would like to teach in another country in five years time. Just more than a quarter of the students (27%) preferred Australia as a destination, followed by the United Kingdom (16%), Korea (16%) and the USA (14%). The student teachers’ most important motive to teach in a foreign country was the opportunity to travel (27%), followed by earning a higher salary (26%) and professional development (23%). The student teachers indicated that their most important migration needs before leaving South Africa were information about health care, accommodation and banking assistance. Huge loss of teachers to host countries has a serious, negative impact upon the education system of most developing and/or source countries, including South Africa. Several steps and strategies to resolve teacher loss in South Africa are discussed.

Keywords: migration, academic mobility, teachers, teacher students, South Africa

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3047 Cross-Border Data Transfers To And From South Africa

Authors: Amy Gooden, Meshandren Naidoo

Abstract:

Genetic research and transfers of big data are not confined to a particular jurisdiction, but there is a lack of clarity regarding the legal requirements for importing and exporting such data. Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) as an example, this research assesses the status of data sharing into and out of South Africa (SA). While SA laws cover the sending of genetic data out of SA, prohibiting such transfer unless a legal ground exists, the position where genetic data comes into the country depends on the laws of the country from where it is sent – making the legal position less clear.

Keywords: cross-border, data, genetic testing, law, regulation, research, sharing, South Africa

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3046 Literature Analysis of Nutrition in South Africa and How SA Harvest Aims to Improve Nutrition

Authors: Ali Conn, Kimberly Allen

Abstract:

Food and nutrition play a significant role in humans. It helps them function, grow, and develop into better individuals. However, as essential as food may seem to most people, it is not the case for everyone. South Africans, for example, have been suffering from hunger and poverty for the longest time now. With the spread of the COVID-19 virus, their situations have become worse. Millions of children and their families do not have access to food, hence no proper nutrition. They could barely make ends meet, so they make sure to make the most of what little they have for their household. Fortunately, organizations like SA Harvest aim to end hunger in South Africa. However, they still need to know more about how they can help South Africans with their current diet. Currently, most of the diets are composed of maize and rice. They do not have much to spend on fruits, so these commodities are seen as a luxury. With the help of organizations like SA Harvest, South Africans will be educated and more aware of what they need to eat.

Keywords: nutrition, public health, SA Harvest, food

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3045 Living outside the fence: Opportunities for Neighbouring Communities to Supply Products and Services to the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa

Authors: Andrew Rylance, Anna Spenceley

Abstract:

An evaluation was undertaken to understand opportunities for stimulating local enterprise development within the tourism supply chain, linked to a private game reserve in South Africa, the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, which neighbors the Kruger National Park. The study focused on understanding the market demand for local products and services from commercial lodges, and the current local supply from enterprises and entrepreneurs in local communities. This article quantifies the value of current procurement spend by lodges on local products and services and estimates their potential future expenditure. The study matches these responses with the availability of products and services in the neighboring communities. It also provides insights into relationships between private lodges, game reserves and local communities in South Africa. It concurs with previous research on tourism supply chains in rural South Africa, and also makes recommendations for the development of local businesses with higher technical capacity development.

Keywords: tourism, communities, business development, South Africa, Sabi Sand Game Reserve, market study, supply study

Procedia PDF Downloads 456