Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: polyester

121 Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

Authors: Merve Küçük, M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu

Abstract:

Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution resulted in a narrow size distribution at submicron levels. The deposit of ZnO on polyester fabrics yielded a homogeneous spread of spherical particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also affirmed the presence of ZnO particles on the polyester fabrics.

Keywords: dip coating, polyester fabrics, sol gel, zinc oxide

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120 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester Fabrics

Authors: K. Haggag, M. Salama, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Polyester fabrics were sanitized by exposing them to vaporized water under the influence of conventional heating or microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide was added the humid sanitizing environment as a disinfectant. The said sanitization process was found to be effective towards two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli ATCC 2666 (G –ve) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (G +ve). The effect of the sanitization process on some of the inherent properties of polyester fabrics was monitored.

Keywords: polyester, fabric, sanitization, microwave, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
119 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Reinforced Composite with Different Fiber Orientation

Authors: Y. C. Ching, K. H. Chong

Abstract:

The increasing of environmental awareness has led to grow interest in the expansion of materials with eco-friendly attributes. In this study, a 3 ply sandwich layer of kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester with various fiber orientations was developed. The effect of the fiber orientation on mechanical and thermal stability properties of polyester was studied. Unsaturated polyester as a face sheets and kenaf fibers as a core was fabricated with combination of hand lay-up process and cold compression method. Tested result parameters like tensile, flexural, impact strength, melting point, and crystallization point were compared and recorded based on different fiber orientation. The failure mechanism and property changes associated with directional change of fiber to polyester composite were discussed.

Keywords: kenaf fiber, polyester, tensile, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
118 Heat Setting of Polyester: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Heat setting is a commonly used technique in textile industry for treating synthetic fibers. In this study, we examined the effect of heat-setting process on the dyeing properties of polyester fabric. The heat setting conditions were varied, and these conditions would affect the dyeing results. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application method of heat setting process to polyester fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, heat setting, polyester, dyeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
117 Sustainable Dyeing of Cotton and Polyester Blend Fabric without Reduction Clearing

Authors: Mohammad Tofayel Ahmed, Seung Kook An

Abstract:

In contemporary research world, focus is more set on sustainable products and innovative processes. The global textile industries are putting tremendous effort to achieve a balance between economic development and ecological protection concurrently. The conservation of water sources and environment have become immensely significant issue in textile dyeing production. Accordingly, an attempt has been taken in this study to develop a process to dye polyester blend cotton without reduction clearing process and any extra wash off chemical by simple modification aiming at cost reduction and sustainability. A widely used combination of 60/40 cotton/polyester (c/p) single jersey knitted fabric of 30’s, 180 g/m² was considered for study. Traditionally, pretreatment is done followed by polyester part dyeing, reduction clearing and cotton part dyeing for c/p blend dyeing. But in this study, polyester part is dyed right away followed by pretreatment process and cotton part dyeing by skipping the reduction clearing process diametrically. The dyed samples of both traditional and modified samples were scrutinized by various color fastness tests, dyeing parameters and by consumption of water, steam, power, process time and total batch cost. The modified process in this study showed no necessity of reduction clearing process for polyester blend cotton dyeing. The key issue contributing to avoid the reduction clearing after polyester part dyeing has been the multifunctional effect of NaOH and H₂O₂ while pretreatment of cotton after polyester part dyeing. The results also revealed that the modified process could reduce the consumption of water, steam, power, time and cost remarkably. The bulk trial of modified process demonstrated the well exploitability to dye polyester blend cotton substrate ensuring all fastness and dyeing properties regardless of dyes category, blend ratio, color, and shade percentage thus making the process sustainable, eco-friendly and economical. Furthermore, the proposed method could be applicable to any cellulosic blend with polyester.

Keywords: cotton, dyeing, economical, polyester

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
116 Dyeing of Polyester/Cotton Blends with Reverse-Micelle Encapsulated High Energy Disperse/Reactive Dye Mixture

Authors: Chi-Wai Kan, Yanming Wang, Alan Yiu-Lun Tang, Cheng-Hao Lee Lee

Abstract:

Dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabrics in various polyester/cotton percentages (32/68, 40/60 and 65/35) was investigated using (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG) based reverse-micelle. High energy disperse dyes and warm type reactive dyes were encapsulated and applied on polyester/cotton blend fabrics in a one bath one step dyeing process. Comparison of reverse micellar-based and aqueous-based (water-based) dyeing was conducted in terms of colour reflectance. Experimental findings revealed that the colour shade of the dyed fabrics in reverse micellar non-aqueous dyeing system at a lower dyeing temperature of 98°C is slightly lighter than that of conventional aqueous dyeing system in two-step process (130oC for disperse dyeing and 70°C for reactive dyeing). The exhaustion of dye in polyester-cotton blend fabrics, in terms of colour reflectance, were found to be highly fluctuated at dyeing temperature of 98°C.

Keywords: one-bath dyeing, polyester/cotton blends, disperse/reactive dyes, reverse micelle

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115 Flexural Properties of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Aggressive Environment

Authors: Mohd Shahneel Saharudin, Jiacheng Wei, Islam Shyha, Fawad Inam

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This study aimed to investigate the effect of aggressive environment on the flexural properties of halloysite nanotubes-polyester nanocomposites. Results showed that the addition of halloysite nanotubes into polyester matrix was found to improve flexural properties of the nanocomposites in dry condition and after water-methanol exposure. Significant increase in surface roughness was also observed and measured by Alicona Infinite Focus optical microscope.

Keywords: halloysite nanotube, composites, flexural properties, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
114 Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil-Based Resin Containing Unsaturated Polyester

Authors: Alireza Fakhari, Abdul Razak Rahmat

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In this study, new palm oil-based polymer systems have been produced by blending unsaturated polyester (UPE) and maleinated, acrylated epoxidized palm oil (MAEPO). The MAEPO/UPE ratio was varied between 10/90 and 40/60 wt%. The influences of various loadings of MAEPO (10, 20, 30, and 40 wt%) on tensile, flexural and impact properties of resulting polymer systems were investigated. The results revealed that, these bio-based polymer systems exhibit mechanical properties comparable to those of petroleum-based polymers.

Keywords: palm oil, bio-based resin, renewable resources, unsaturated polyester resin

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113 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit

Abstract:

Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarns

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
112 The Electrical Properties of Polyester Materials as Outdoor Insulators

Authors: R. M. EL-Sharkawy, L. S. Nasrat, K. B. Ewiss

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This work presents a study of flashover voltage for outdoor polyester and composite insulators under dry, ultra-violet and contaminated conditions. Cylindrical of polyester composite samples (with different lengths) have been prepared after incorporated with different concentration of inorganic filler e.g. Magnesium Hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] to improve the electrical and thermal properties in addition to maximize surface flashover voltage and decrease tracking phenomena. Results showed that flashover voltage reaches to 46 kV for samples without filler and 52.6 kV for samples containing 40% of [Mg(OH)2] filler in dry condition. A comparison between different concentrations of filler under various environmental conditions (dry and contaminated conditions) showed higher flashover voltage values for samples containing filler with ratio 40% [Mg(OH)2] and length 3cm than that of samples containing filler [Mg(OH)2] with ratios 20%, 30% and lengths 0.5cm, 1cm, 2cm and 2.5cm. Flashover voltage decreases by adding [Mg(OH)2] filler for polyester samples under ultra-violet condition; as the ratio of filler increases, the value of flashover voltage decreases Also, in this study, the effect of thermal performance with respect to surface of the sample under test have been investigated in details.

Keywords: flashover voltage, filler, polymers, ultra-violet radiation

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111 Modified Surface Morphology, Structure and Enhanced Weathering Performance of Polyester-Urethane/Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings

Authors: Gaurav Verma

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Organoclay loaded (0-5 weight %) polyester-urethane (PU) coatings were prepared with a branched hydroxyl-bearing polyester and an aliphatic poly-isocyanate. TEM micrographs show partial exfoliation and intercalation of clay platelets in organoclay-polyester dispersions. AFM surface images reveals that the PU hard domains tend to regularise and also self-organise into spherical shapes of sizes 50 nm (0 wt %), 60 nm (2 wt %) and 190 nm (4 wt %) respectively. IR analysis shows that PU chains have increasing tendency to interact with exfoliated clay platelets through hydrogen bonding. This interaction strengthens inter-chain linkages in PU matrix and hence improves anti-ageing properties. 1000 hours of accelerated weathering was evaluated by ATR spectroscopy, while yellowing and overall discoloration was quantified by the Δb* and ΔE* values of the CIELab colour scale. Post-weathering surface properties also showed improvement as the loss of thickness and reduction in gloss in neat PU was 25% and 42%; while it was just 3.5% and 14% respectively for the 2 wt% nanocomposite coating. This work highlights the importance of modifying surface and bulk properties of PU coatings at nanoscale, which led to improved performance in accelerated weathering conditions.

Keywords: coatings, AFM, ageing, spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
110 Effect of Water Absorption on the Fatigue Behavior of Glass/Polyester Composite

Authors: Djamel Djeghader, Bachir Redjel

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The composite materials of glass fibers can be used as a repair material for damage elements under repeated stresses, and in various environments. A cyclic bending characterization of a glass/polyester composite material was carried out with consideration of the period of immersion in water. These tests describe the behavior of materials and identify the mechanical fatigue characteristics using the Wohler Curve for different immersion time: 0, 90, 180 and 270 days in water. These curves are characterized by a dispersion in the lifetimes were modeled by straight whose intercepts are very similar and comparable to the static strength. This material deteriorates fatigue at a constant rate, which increases with increasing immersion time in water at a constant speed. The endurance limit seems to be independent of the immersion time in the water.

Keywords: fatigue, composite, glass, polyester, immersion, wohler

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109 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad

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Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: adhesion, mesh, polyester, prolene

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108 Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Olesia Mikhailova

Abstract:

In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste, (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste, (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand in a mixture of geopolymer with 5% PES content led to higher compressive strength, while it increased water absorption and reduced thermal conductivity coefficient. The increase of PES addition in geopolymer mortars resulted in a more dense structure, indicated by the increase of strength and thermal conductivity and the decrease of water absorption.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymers, polyester waste, composites

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107 Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend

Authors: Omaima G. Allam, O. A. Hakeim, K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy

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In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: polyester viscose blends fabric, sericin, dyes, colour value

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
106 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide

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This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: biomedical, composites, cow bone, mechanical properties, polyester, reinforcement

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105 Utilization of Discarded PET and Concrete Aggregates in Construction Causes: A Green Approach

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh

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The purpose of this study is to resolve the solid waste problems caused by plastics and concrete demolition as well. In order to that mechanical properties of polymer concrete; in particular, polymer concrete made of unsaturated polyester resins from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste and recycled concrete aggregates is carried out. Properly formulated unsaturated polyester based on recycled PET is mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete. Apart from low manufacturing cost, polymer concrete blend has acceptable properties, to go through it. The prior objectives of the paper is to investigate the mechanical properties, i.e. compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength of polymer concrete blend using an unsaturated polyester resin based on recycled PET. The relationships between the mechanical properties are also analyzed.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), concrete aggregates, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength

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104 Effect of Dyeing on the Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabric Treated by Tetra Carboxylic Acid (BTCA) and Nano TiO2

Authors: Aryan Azad, Sun Jae Kim

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Cotton fabric is particularly prone to wrinkling. BTCA has been confirmed as the most effective reagent with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst for decreasing the wrinkle issue. Using nano TiO2 as aco-catalyst could improve the catalytic reaction of the BTCA as well. In this study, the effect of dying process using reactive/disperse on the cotton/polyester blended fabric (65/35%) which is previously treated by nano TiO2 and BTCA, were investigated. Results were compared by samples which were not treated by nano TiO2 and BTCA by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Results showed, samples which were treated by mixing nano TiO2 and BTCA have not absorbed dye as much as untreated samples.

Keywords: cotton/polyester, dyeing process, nano titanium dioxide (TiO2), sodium hypophosphite (SHP), Tetra carboxylic acid (BTCA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
103 Comparative Study of Compressive Strength of Triangular Polyester Fiber with Fly Ash Roller Compacted Concrete Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method

Authors: Pramod Keshav Kolase, Atul K. Desai

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This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture and triangular polyester fiber as a secondary reinforcement. The each mix design series fly ash content is varied from 0% to 45 % and triangular polyester fiber 0% to 0.75% by volume fraction. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e. 7, 28 and 90 days) forty-eight cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV of fly ash was found to be lower for all mixtures at 7 days in comparison with control mix concrete. But at 28, 56 days and 90 days the UPV were significantly improved for all the mixes. Relationships between compressive strength of RCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, dynamic elastic modulus, fly ash, fiber, roller compacted concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
102 Effect of Nano-Copper Oxide Synthesized by Solution-Based Chemical Precipitation Method on Antibacterial Polyester Nanocopper Oxide Composite

Authors: Jordy Herfandi, Faris Naufal, Anne Zulfia Syahrial

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Antibacterial materials have become future textile materials due to the escalation of people’s awareness regarding the importance of maintaining health. Textile materials with antibacterial properties are examples in application which has positive results in various aspects. In this research polyester nano-copper oxide composite with nanoparticle is synthesized by solution-based chemical precipitation method from Cu(NO3)2 solution. Parameters such as precursor concentration is varied to determine which composition would result in effective properties of antibacterial composite. The antibacterial property is observed using disk diffusion method and SEM observation is conducted on each specimen. The composites produced are able to inhibit the growth of both positive gram bacteria (i.e. S. aureus) and negative gram bacteria (i.e. E. coli), thus, highly capable of helping to prevent the spread of disease.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticle, antibacterial, solution-based chemical precipitation, polyester composite

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101 Optical Whitening of Textiles: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

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This study examines the results of optical whitening process of different textiles such as cotton, wool and polyester. The optical whitening agents used are commercially available products, and the optical whitening agents were applied to the textiles with manufacturers’ suggested methods. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application methods of optical whitening agent to different textiles and hence to provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, optical whitening agent, wool, cotton, polyester

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
100 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

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The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

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99 Bacterial Decontamination of Nurses' White Coats by Application of Antimicrobial Finish

Authors: Priyanka Gupta, Nilanjana Bairagi, Deepti Gupta

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New pathogenic strains of microbes are continually emerging and resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is growing. Hospitals in India have a high burden of infections in their intensive care units and general wards. Rising incidence of hospital infections is a matter of great concern in India. This growth is often attributed to the absence of effective infection control strategies in healthcare facilities. Government, therefore, is looking for cost effective strategies that are effective against HAIs. One possible method is by application of an antimicrobial finish on the uniform. But there are limited studies to show the effect of antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial finish treated nurses’ uniforms in a real hospital set up. This paper proposes a prospective non-destructive sampling technique, based on the use of a detachable fabric patch, to assess the effectiveness of silver based antimicrobial agent across five wards in a tertiary care government hospital in Delhi, India. Fabrics like polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric which are more prevalent for making coats were selected for the study. Polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric was treated with silver based antimicrobial (AM) finish. At the beginning of shift, a composite patch of untreated and treated fabric respectively was stitched on the abdominal region on the left and right side of the washed white coat of participating nurse. At the end of the shift, the patch was removed and taken for bacterial sampling on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) plates. Microbial contamination on polyester and blend fabrics after 6 hours shift was compared in Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI). All patches treated with silver based antimicrobial agent showed decreased bacterial counts. Percent reduction in the bacterial colonies after the antimicrobial treatment in both fabrics was 81.0 %. Antimicrobial finish was equally effective in reducing microbial adhesion on both fabric types. White coats of nurses become progressively contaminated during clinical care. Type of fabric used to make the coat can affect the extent of contamination which is higher on polyester cotton blend as compared to 100% polyester. The study highlights the importance of silver based antimicrobial finish in the area of uniform hygiene. Bacterial load can be reduced by using antimicrobial finish on hospital uniforms. Hospital staff uniforms endowed with antimicrobial properties may be of great help in reducing the occurrence and spread of infections.

Keywords: antimicrobial finish, bacteria, infection control, silver, white coat

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98 Influence of High Temperature and Humidity on Polymer Composites Used in Relining of Sewage

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi, Folke Björk

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Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.

Keywords: composite, epoxy, polyester, relining, sewage

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97 Controlled Conductivity of Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonate) Composites with Polyester

Authors: Kazui Sasakii, Seira Mormune-Moriya, Hiroaki Tanahashi, Shigeji Kongaya

Abstract:

Poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) attracted a great deal of attention because of its unique characteristics of flexibility, optical properties, heat resistance and colloidal dispersion in water. It is well known that when high boiling solvents such as ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulfoxide are added as a secondary dopant to the micellar structure, PEDOT microcrystallizes and becomes highly conductive. In previous study bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (BPS) was used as a secondary dopant for PEDOT:PSS and the enhancement of the conductivity was revealed. However, ductility is one of the serious issues which limited the application of PEDOT:PSS/BPS. So far, the composition with polymer binders has been conducted, however, polymer binders decrease the conductivity of the materials. In this study, PEDOT: PSS composites with polyester (PEs) were prepared by a simple aqueous process using PEs emulsion. The structural studies revealed that PEDOT:PSS and PEs were homogeneously distributed in the composites. It was found that the properties of PEDOT:PSS were remarkably enhanced by the incorporation of PEs. According to the tensile test, the ductility of PEDOT:PSS was remarkably improved. Interestingly, the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS/PEs composites was higher than that of neat PEDOT:PSS. For example, the conductivity increased by 8% at PEs content of 25 wt%. Since PEDOT:PSS were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of PEs particles, it was assumed that the conductive pathway was constructed by PEs particles in the nanocomposites. Therefore, a significant increase in conductivity was achieved.

Keywords: polymer composites, conductivity, PEDOT:PSS, polyester

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96 Anti-Bubble Painting Booth for Wood Coating Resins

Authors: Abasali Masoumi, Amir Gholamian Bozorgi

Abstract:

To have the best quality in wood products such as tabletops and inlay-woods, applying two principles are required: aesthetic and protection against the destructive agent. Artists spent a lot of time creating a masterwork project and also for better demonstrating beautiful appearance and preserving it for hundred years. So they need good material and appropriate method to finish it. As usual, wood painters use polyester or epoxy resins. These finishes need a special skill to use and then give a fantastic paint film and clearness. If we let resins dry in exposure to environmental agents such as unstable temperature, dust and etc., no doubt it becomes cloudy, crack, blister and much wood dust and air bubbles in it. We have designed a special wood coating booth (IR-Patent No: 70429) for wood-coating resins (polyester and epoxy), and this booth provides an adjustable space to control factors that is necessary to have a good finish in the end. Anti-bubble painting booth has the ability to remove bubbles from resin, precludes the cracking process and causes the resin to be the best. With this booth drying time of resin is reduced from 24 hours to 6 hours by fixing the optimum temperature, and it is very good for saving time. This booth is environment-friendly and never lets the poisonous vapors and other VOC (Volatile organic components) enter to workplace atmosphere because they are very harmful to humans.

Keywords: wood coating, epoxy resin, polyester resin, wood finishes

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
95 Behavior of Polymeric Mortars: An Analysis from the Point of View of Application in Severe Conditions

Authors: J. P. Gorninski, J. M. L. Reis

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This present work was aimed to develop polymeric mortars having as binder two polyester resins namely isophtalic and orthophtalic polyester. The inorganic phase was composed by medium-size river sand and fly ash fíller, a by-product of the burning of coal in power plants. The compositions in this study are high performance mortars and were assessed by mechanical properties, through compressive strength and flexural strength, by durability strength when exposed to the cyclical variation of temperature from -400C to +300C and by the chemical aggression test. The composites displayed good performance when exposed to cyclical temperature variations and chemical solutions. The mechanical strength values reached the 100 MPa, the flexural strength yielded values of about twenty percent of mechanical strength.

Keywords: polymer mortar, mechanical strength, cyclical temperatures, chemical strength, sustainability

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94 A Two-Stage Process for the Sustainable Production of Aliphatic Polyesters

Authors: A. Douka, S. Vouyiouka, L. M. Papaspyridi, D. Korres, C. Papaspyrides

Abstract:

A "green" process was studied for the preparation of partially renewable aliphatic polyesters based on 1,4-butanediol and 1,8-octanediol with various diacids and derivatives, namely diethyl succinate, adipic acid, sebacic acid, 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid. A first step of enzymatic prepolymerization was carried out in the presence of two different solvents, toluene and diphenylether, applying molecular sieves and vacuum, respectively, to remove polycondensation by-products. Poly(octylene adipate) (PE 8.6), poly(octylene dodecanate)(PE 8.12) and poly(octylene tetradecanate) (PE 8.14) were firstly enzymatically produced in toluene using molecular sieves giving however, low-molecular-weight products. Thereafter, the synthesis of PE 8.12 and PE 8.14 was examined under optimized conditions using diphenylether as solvent and a more vigorous by-product removal step, such as application of vacuum. Apart from these polyesters, the optimized process was also implemented for the production of another long-chain polyester-poly(octylene sebacate) (PE 8.10) and a short-chain polyester-poly(butylene succinate) (PE 4.4). Subsequently, bulk post-polymerization in the melt or solid state was performed. SSP runs involved absence of biocatalyst and reaction temperatures (T) in the vicinity of the prepolymer melting point (Tm-T varied between 15.5 up to 4oC). Focusing on PE 4.4 and PE 8.12, SSP took place under vacuum or flowing nitrogen leading to increase of the molecular weight and improvement of the end product physical appearance and thermal properties.

Keywords: aliphatic polyester, enzymatic polymerization, solid state polymerization, Novozym 435

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
93 Investigation of Water Absorption and Compressive Strength of Resin Coated Mortar

Authors: Yasir Ali, Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Wisal Khattak

Abstract:

Nowadays various advanced techniques are used to enhance the performance of materials in the field of construction engineering. Structures exposed to an aggressive, humid and hostile environment are experiencing severe negative impacts which lead to premature failure. Polyester resin is one of the advanced material used for improving performance of structural materials especially for repair/ refurbish purpose of structures and protection from contaminated environmental effect/ hazards. This study investigated the aptness of the polyester resin as coating agent on the mortar and assessed its performance in an ambient environment of Pakistan. Cubical specimens of mortar were fabricated. These specimens were tested for water absorption and compressive strength after one day and sixty days. These tests were performed under different exposure conditions (ambient environment and submerged in water). The specimens were coated with one, two and three layers and results were compared to control (no/ zero resin layer) specimens. Test results indicated that there is a significant decrease in water absorption of mortar coated with resin when compared to controlled specimens. The compressive strength test results revealed that resin coated specimen had higher strength when compared to controlled specimens. The results suggested that resin is a promising material and can be used effectively in structures which are exposed to high temperatures. The study would be helpful in improving performance of the structural material in a hazardous environment.

Keywords: ambient environment, coating, mortar, polyester resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
92 Theoretical-Experimental Investigations on Free Vibration of Glass Fiber/Polyester Composite Conical Shells Containing Fluid

Authors: Tran Ich Thinh, Nguyen Manh Cuong

Abstract:

Free vibrations of partial fluid-filled composite truncated conical shells are investigated using the Dynamic Stiffness Method (DSM) or Continuous Element Method (CEM) based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) and non-viscous incompressible fluid equations. Numerical examples are given for analyzing natural frequencies and harmonic responses of clamped-free conical shells partially and completely filled with fluid. To compare with the theoretical results, detailed experimental results have been obtained on the free vibration of a clamped-free conical shells partially filled with water by using a multi-vibration measuring machine (DEWEBOOK-DASYLab 5.61.10). Three glass fiber/polyester composite truncated cones with the radius of the larger end 285 mm, thickness 2 mm, and the cone lengths along the generators are 285 mm, 427.5 mm and 570 mm with the semi-vertex angles 27, 14 and 9 degrees respectively were used, and the filling ratio of the contained water was 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0. The results calculated by proposed computational model for studied composite conical shells are in good agreement with experiments. Obtained results indicate that the fluid filling can reduce significantly the natural frequencies of composite conical shells. Parametric studies including circumferential wave number, fluid depth and cone angles are carried out.

Keywords: dynamic stiffness method, experimental study, free vibration, fluid-shell interaction, glass fiber/polyester composite conical shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 423