Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6923

Search results for: European Technology Platforms

6923 Regulating Information Asymmetries at Online Platforms for Short-Term Vacation Rental in European Union– Legal Conondrum Continues

Authors: Vesna Lukovic

Abstract:

Online platforms as new business models play an important role in today’s economy and the functioning of the EU’s internal market. In the travel industry, algorithms used by online platforms for short-stay accommodation provide suggestions and price information to travelers. Those suggestions and recommendations are displayed in search results via recommendation (ranking) systems. There has been a growing consensus that the current legal framework was not sufficient to resolve problems arising from platform practices. In order to enhance the potential of the EU’s Single Market, smaller businesses should be protected, and their rights strengthened vis-à-vis large online platforms. The Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services aims to level the playing field in that respect. This research looks at Airbnb through the lenses of this regulation. The research explores key determinants and finds that although regulation is an important step in the right direction, it is not enough. It does not entail sufficient clarity obligations that would make online platforms an intermediary service which both accommodation providers and travelers could use with ease.

Keywords: algorithm, online platforms, ranking, consumers, EU regulation

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6922 Technoscience in the Information Society

Authors: A. P. Moiseeva, Z. S. Zavyalova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the Technoscience phenomenon and its role in modern society. It gives a review of the latest research on Technoscience. Based on the works of Paul Forman, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Bruno Latour, Maria Caramez Carlotto and others, the authors consider the concept of Technoscience, its specific character and prospects of its development.

Keywords: technoscience, information society, transdisciplinarity, European Technology Platforms

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6921 Characteristics of Business Models of Industrial-Internet-of-Things Platforms

Authors: Peter Kress, Alexander Pflaum, Ulrich Loewen

Abstract:

The number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) platforms is steadily increasing across various industries, especially for smart factories, smart homes and smart mobility. Also in the manufacturing industry, the number of Industrial-IoT platforms is growing. Both IT players, start-ups and increasingly also established industry players and small-and-medium-enterprises introduce offerings for the connection of industrial equipment on platforms, enabled by advanced information and communication technology. Beside the offered functionalities, the established ecosystem of partners around a platform is one of the key differentiators to generate a competitive advantage. The key question is how platform operators design the business model around their platform to attract a high number of customers and partners to co-create value for the entire ecosystem. The present research tries to answer this question by determining the key characteristics of business models of successful platforms in the manufacturing industry. To achieve that, the authors selected an explorative qualitative research approach and created an inductive comparative case study. The authors generated valuable descriptive insights of the business model elements (e.g., value proposition, pricing model or partnering model) of various established platforms. Furthermore, patterns across the various cases were identified to derive propositions for the successful design of business models of platforms in the manufacturing industry.

Keywords: industrial-internet-of-things, business models, platforms, ecosystems, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
6920 Exploring Digital Media’s Impact on Sports Sponsorship: A Global Perspective

Authors: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Lisa-Charlotte Wolter

Abstract:

With the continuous proliferation of media platforms, there have been tremendous changes in media consumption behaviors. From the perspective of sports sponsorship, while there is now a multitude of platforms to create brand associations, the changing media landscape and shift of message control also mean that sports sponsors will have to take into account the nature of and consumer responses toward these emerging digital media to devise effective marketing strategies. Utilizing the personal interview methodology, this study is qualitative and exploratory in nature. A total of 18 experts from European and American academics, sports marketing industry, and sports leagues/teams were interviewed to address three main research questions: 1) What are the major changes in digital technologies that are relevant to sports sponsorship; 2) How have digital media influenced the channels and platforms of sports sponsorship; and 3) How have these technologies affected the goals, strategies, and measurement of sports sponsorship. The study found that sports sponsorship has moved from consumer engagement, engagement measurement, and consequences of engagement on brand behaviors to micro-targeting one on one, engagement by context, time, and space, and activation and leveraging based on tracking and databases. From the perspective of platforms and channels, the use of mobile devices is prominent during sports content consumption. Increasing multiscreen media consumption means that sports sponsors need to optimize their investment decisions in leagues, teams, or game-related content sources, as they need to go where the fans are most engaged in. The study observed an imbalanced strategic leveraging of technology and digital infrastructure. While sports leagues have had less emphasis on brand value management via technology, sports sponsors have been much more active in utilizing technologies like mobile/LBS tools, big data/user info, real-time marketing and programmatic, and social media activation. Regardless of the new media/platforms, the study found that integration and contextualization are the two essential means of improving sports sponsorship effectiveness through technology. That is, how sponsors effectively integrate social media/mobile/second screen into their existing legacy media sponsorship plan so technology works for the experience/message instead of distracting fans. Additionally, technological advancement and attention economy amplify the importance of consumer data gathering, but sports consumer data does not mean loyalty or engagement. This study also affirms the benefit of digital media as they offer viral and pre-event activations through storytelling way before the actual event, which is critical for leveraging brand association before and after. That is, sponsors now have multiple opportunities and platforms to tell stories about their brands for longer time period. In summary, digital media facilitate fan experience, access to the brand message, multiplatform/channel presentations, storytelling, and content sharing. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on technology and media, today’s sponsors need to define what they want to focus on in terms of content themes that connect with their brands and then identify the channels/platforms. The big challenge for sponsors is to play to the venues/media’s specificity and its fit with the target audience and not uniformly deliver the same message in the same format on different platforms/channels.

Keywords: digital media, mobile media, social media, technology, sports sponsorship

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
6919 Seismic Hazard Assessment of Offshore Platforms

Authors: F. D. Konstandakopoulou, G. A. Papagiannopoulos, N. G. Pnevmatikos, G. D. Hatzigeorgiou

Abstract:

This paper examines the effects of pile-soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of offshore platforms under the action of near-fault earthquakes. Two offshore platforms models are investigated, one with completely fixed supports and one with piles which are clamped into deformable layered soil. The soil deformability for the second model is simulated using non-linear springs. These platform models are subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions. The role of fault mechanism on platforms’ response is additionally investigated, while the study also examines the effects of different angles of incidence of seismic records on the maximum response of each platform.

Keywords: hazard analysis, offshore platforms, earthquakes, safety

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6918 Decision Making to Study Abroad among Indonesian Student Migrants in Europe: The Role of Communication Technology

Authors: Inayah Hidayati

Abstract:

Innovation in communication technology has opened up opportunities for student to migrate and study abroad. The increasing number of Indonesian students migrating to study abroad suggests the importance of understanding the reason underline their movements. Objective: This research aims to explain the migration decision-making process of Indonesian student migrants in Europe. In detail, this research will consider the innovation in communication technology in the migration decision-making process of students who emigrated from Indonesia and how they use that in the context of the migration decision-making process. Methods: The data collected included qualitative data from in-depth interviews. An interview guide was formulated to facilitate the in-depth interviews and generate a better understanding of migration behavior. Expectation: 1). Innovation in communication technology help Indonesian student migrants on migration decision making process. 2). Student migrants use communication technology platforms for searching information about destination area. Result: Student migrant in Europe use their communication technology platforms to gain information before they choose that country for study. They use WhatsApp and LINE to making contact with their friends and colleagues in the destination country. WhatsApp and LINE group help Indonesian student to get information about school and daily life.

Keywords: international migration, student, decision making process, communication technology platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
6917 Determinants of Customer Value in Online Retail Platforms

Authors: Mikko Hänninen

Abstract:

This paper explores the effect online retail platforms have on customer behavior and retail patronage through an inductive multi-case study. Existing research on retail platforms and ecosystems generally focus on competition between platform members and most papers maintain a managerial perspective with customers seen mainly as merely one stakeholder of the value-exchange relationship. It is proposed that retail platforms change the nature of customer relationships compared to traditional brick-and-mortar or e-commerce retailers. With online retail platforms such as Alibaba, Amazon and Rakuten gaining increasing traction with their platform based business models, the purpose of this paper is to define retail platforms and look at how leading retail platforms are able to create value for their customers, in order to foster meaningful customer’ relationships. An analysis is conducted on the major global retail platforms with a focus specifically on understanding the tools in place for creating customer value in order to show how retail platforms create and maintain customer relationships for fostering customer loyalty. The results describe the opportunities and challenges retailers face when competing against platform based businesses and outline the advantages as well as disadvantages that platforms bring to individual consumers. Based on the inductive case research approach, five theoretical propositions on consumer behavior in online retail platforms are developed that also form the basis of further research with this research making both a practical as well as theoretical contribution to platform research streams.

Keywords: retail, platform, ecosystem, e-commerce, loyalty

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6916 The Effects of High Technology on Communicative Translation: A Case Study of Yoruba Language

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

Abstract:

European Languages are languages of literature, science and technology. Whereas, African languages are of literature, both written and oral, making it difficult for Yoruba, the African language of Kwa linguistic classification, to neatly and accurately translate European scientific and technological words, expressions and technologies. Unless a pragmatic and communicative approach is adopted, equivalence of European technical and scientific texts might be a mission impossible for Yoruba scholars. In view of the aforementioned difficult task, this paper tends to highlight the need for a thorough study and evaluation of English or French words, expressions, idiomatic expressions, technical and scientific terminologies then, trying to find ways of adopting them to Yoruba environment through interpretative translation.

Keywords: communication, high technology, translation, Yoruba language

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
6915 Market Competition and the Adoption of Clean Technology: Evidence from the Taxi Industry

Authors: Raúl Bajo-Buenestado

Abstract:

This paper studies the impact of the intensity of market competition on firms' willingness to adopt green technologies —which has become particularly relevant in the light of the debate on whether competition policies should be relaxed to achieve certain environmental targets. We exploit the staggered rollout of different rail-hailing platforms (most notably, Uber) across different metropolitan areas in Spain as a natural experiment that provides time and city-specific exogenous variation in the intensity of competition to study the impact on taxi drivers' decisions to purchase “green” or “dirty” vehicles. It was shown that the entry of these platforms significantly increased the takeout of green vehicles among professional drivers in incumbent (dominant) conventional taxi companies and decreased that of dirty vehicles. The exact opposite effect is observed in the cities where these platforms were extremely unlikely to enter. Back of the envelope calculations suggest that the entry of Uber is associated with an extra green vehicle purchase in every four among taxi drivers, resulting in a substantial drop in the level of emissions from the taxi fleet —still mostly dominated diesel vehicles.

Keywords: technological change, green technology adoption, market competition, diffusion of technology, environmental externalities

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6914 Social Learning and the Flipped Classroom

Authors: Albin Wallace

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of social learning platforms in conjunction with the emergent pedagogy of the ‘flipped classroom’. In particular the attributes of the social learning platform “Edmodo” is considered alongside the changes in the way in which online learning environments are being implemented, especially within British education. Some observations are made regarding the use and usefulness of these platforms along with a consideration of the increasingly decentralized nature of education in the United Kingdom.

Keywords: education, Edmodo, Internet, learning platforms

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6913 Integrating Blockchain and Internet of Things Platforms: An Empirical Study on Immunization Cold Chain

Authors: Fawzia Abujalala, Asma Elmangoush, Majdi Ashibani

Abstract:

The adoption of Blockchain technology introduces the possibility to decentralize cold chain systems. This adaptation enhances them to be more efficient, accessible, verifiable, and data security. Additionally, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is considered as an added-value to various application domains. Cargo tracking and cold chain are a few to name. However, the security of the IoT transactions and integrated devices remains one of the key challenges to the IoT application’s success. Consequently, Blockchain technology and its consensus protocols have been used to solve many information security problems. In this paper, the researchers discussed the advantages of integrating Blockchain technology into IoT platform to improve security and provide an overview of existing literature on integrating Blockchain and IoT platforms. Then, presented the immunization cold chain solution as a use-case that could apply to any critical goods based on integrating hyperledger fabric platform and IoT platform.

Keywords: blockchain, hyperledger fabric, internet of things, security, traceability

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6912 Industry 4.0 Platforms as 'Cluster' ecosystems for small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

Authors: Vivek Anand, Rainer Naegele

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 is a global mega-trend revolutionizing the world of advanced manufacturing, but also bringing up challenges for SMEs. In response, many regional, as well as digital Industry 4.0 Platforms, have been set up to boost the competencies of established enterprises as well as SMEs. The concept of 'Clusters' is a policy tool that aims to be a starting point to establish sustainable and self-supporting structures in industries of a region by identifying competencies and supporting cluster actors with services that match their growth needs. This paper is motivated by the idea that Clusters have the potential to enable firms, particularly SMEs, to accelerate the innovation process and transition to digital technologies. In this research, the efficacy of Industry 4.0 platforms as Cluster ecosystems is evaluated, especially for SMEs. Focusing on the Baden Wurttemberg region in Germany, an action research method is employed to study how SMEs leverage other actors on Industry 4.0 Platforms to further their Industry 4.0 journeys. The aim is to evaluate how such Industry 4.0 platforms stimulate innovation, cooperation and competitiveness. Additionally, the barriers to these platforms fulfilling their promise to serve as capacity building cluster ecosystems for SMEs in a region will also be identified. The findings will be helpful for academicians and policymakers alike, who can leverage a ‘cluster policy’ to enable Industry 4.0 ecosystems in their regions. Furthermore, relevant management and policy implications stem from the analysis. This will also be of interest to the various players in a cluster ecosystem - like SMEs and service providers - who benefit from the cooperation and competition. The paper will improve the understanding of how a dialogue orientation, a bottom-up approach and active integration of all involved cluster actors enhance the potential of Industry 4.0 Platforms. A strong collaborative culture is a key driver of digital transformation and technology adoption across sectors, value chains and supply chains; and will position Industry 4.0 Platforms at the forefront of the industrial renaissance. Motivated by this argument and based on the results of the qualitative research, a roadmap will be proposed to position Industry 4.0 Platforms as effective clusters ecosystems to support Industry 4.0 adoption in a region.

Keywords: cluster policy, digital transformation, industry 4.0, innovation clusters, innovation policy, SMEs and startups

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6911 Social Networking Application: What Is Their Quality and How Can They Be Adopted in Open Distance Learning Environments?

Authors: Asteria Nsamba

Abstract:

Social networking applications and tools have become compelling platforms for generating and sharing knowledge across the world. Social networking applications and tools refer to a variety of social media platforms which include Facebook, Twitter WhatsApp, blogs and Wikis. The most popular of these platforms are Facebook, with 2.41 billion active users on a monthly basis, followed by WhatsApp with 1.6 billion users and Twitter with 330 million users. These communication platforms have not only impacted social lives but have also impacted students’ learning, across different delivery modes in higher education: distance, conventional and blended learning modes. With this amount of interest in these platforms, knowledge sharing has gained importance within the context in which it is required. In open distance learning (ODL) contexts, social networking platforms can offer students and teachers the platform on which to create and share knowledge, and form learning collaborations. Thus, they can serve as support mechanisms to increase interactions and reduce isolation and loneliness inherent in ODL. Despite this potential and opportunity, research indicates that many ODL teachers are not inclined to using social media tools in learning. Although it is unclear why these tools are uncommon in these environments, concerns raised in the literature have indicated that many teachers have not mastered the art of teaching with technology. Using technological, pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) and product quality theory, and Bloom’s Taxonomy as lenses, this paper is aimed at; firstly, assessing the quality of three social media applications: Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, in order to determine the extent to which they are suitable platforms for teaching and learning, in terms of content generation, information sharing and learning collaborations. Secondly, the paper demonstrates the application of teaching, learning and assessment using Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Keywords: distance education, quality, social networking tools, TPACK

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6910 The Return of the Rejected Kings: A Comparative Study of Governance and Procedures of Standards Development Organizations under the Theory of Private Ordering

Authors: Olia Kanevskaia

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Standardization has been in the limelight of numerous academic studies. Typically described as ‘any set of technical specifications that either provides or is intended to provide a common design for a product or process’, standards do not only set quality benchmarks for products and services, but also spur competition and innovation, resulting in advantages for manufacturers and consumers. Their contribution to globalization and technology advancement is especially crucial in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and telecommunications sector, which is also characterized by a weaker state-regulation and expert-based rule-making. Most of the standards developed in that area are interoperability standards, which allow technological devices to establish ‘invisible communications’ and to ensure their compatibility and proper functioning. This type of standard supports a large share of our daily activities, ranging from traffic coordination by traffic lights to the connection to Wi-Fi networks, transmission of data via Bluetooth or USB and building the network architecture for the Internet of Things (IoT). A large share of ICT standards is developed in the specialized voluntary platforms, commonly referred to as Standards Development Organizations (SDOs), which gather experts from various industry sectors, private enterprises, governmental agencies and academia. The institutional architecture of these bodies can vary from semi-public bodies, such as European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), to industry-driven consortia, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The past decades witnessed a significant shift of standard setting to those institutions: while operating independently from the states regulation, they offer a rather informal setting, which enables fast-paced standardization and places technical supremacy and flexibility of standards above other considerations. Although technical norms and specifications developed by such nongovernmental platforms are not binding, they appear to create significant regulatory impact. In the United States (US), private voluntary standards can be used by regulators to achieve their policy objectives; in the European Union (EU), compliance with harmonized standards developed by voluntary European Standards Organizations (ESOs) can grant a product a free-movement pass. Moreover, standards can de facto manage the functioning of the market when other regulative alternatives are not available. Hence, by establishing (potentially) mandatory norms, SDOs assume regulatory functions commonly exercised by States and shape their own legal order. The purpose of this paper is threefold: First, it attempts to shed some light on SDOs’ institutional architecture, focusing on private, industry-driven platforms and comparing their regulatory frameworks with those of formal organizations. Drawing upon the relevant scholarship, the paper then discusses the extent to which the formulation of technological standards within SDOs constitutes a private legal order, operating in the shadow of governmental regulation. Ultimately, this contribution seeks to advise whether a state-intervention in industry-driven standard setting is desirable, and whether the increasing regulatory importance of SDOs should be addressed in legislation on standardization.

Keywords: private order, standardization, standard-setting organizations, transnational law

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6909 The Concept and Practice of Good Governance in the European Union

Authors: Robert Grzeszczak

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The article deals with one of the most significant issues concerning the functioning of the public sector in the European Union. The objectives of good governance were formulated by the EU itself and also the Scholars in reaction to the discussion that started a decade ago and concerned the role of the government in 21st century, the future of integration processes and globalization challenges in Europe. Currently, the concept of good governance is mainly associated with the improvement of management of public policies in the European Union, concerning both domestic and EU policies. However, it goes beyond the issues of state capacity and effectiveness of management. Good governance relates also to societal participation in the public administration and verification of decisions made in public authorities’ (including public administration). Indirectly, the concept and practice of good governance are connected to societal legitimisation of public bodies in the European Union.

Keywords: good governance, government, European law, European Union

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6908 Blockchain for Transport: Performance Simulations of Blockchain Network for Emission Monitoring Scenario

Authors: Dermot O'Brien, Vasileios Christaras, Georgios Fontaras, Igor Nai Fovino, Ioannis Kounelis

Abstract:

With the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), 5G, and blockchain (BC) technologies, vehicles are becoming ever increasingly connected and are already transmitting substantial amounts of data to the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) servers. This data could be used to help detect mileage fraud and enable more accurate vehicle emissions monitoring. This would not only help regulators but could enable applications such as permitting efficient drivers to pay less tax, geofencing for air quality improvement, as well as pollution tolling and trading platforms for transport-related businesses and EU citizens. Other applications could include traffic management and shared mobility systems. BC enables the transmission of data with additional security and removes single points of failure while maintaining data provenance, identity ownership, and the possibility to retain varying levels of privacy depending on the requirements of the applied use case. This research performs simulations of vehicles interacting with European member state authorities and European Commission BC nodes that are running hyperleger fabric and explores whether the technology is currently feasible for transport applications such as the emission monitoring use-case.

Keywords: future transportation systems, technological innovations, policy approaches for transportation future, economic and regulatory trends, blockchain

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6907 On the Transition of Europe’s Power Sector: Economic Consequences of National Targets

Authors: Geoffrey J. Blanford, Christoph Weissbart

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The prospects for the European power sector indicate that it has to almost fully decarbonize in order to reach the economy-wide target of CO2-emission reduction. We apply the EU-REGEN model to explain the penetration of RES from an economic perspective, their spatial distribution, and the complementary role of conventional generation technologies. Furthermore, we identify economic consequences of national energy and climate targets. Our study shows that onshore wind power will be the most crucial generation technology for the future European power sector. Its geographic distribution is driven by resource quality. Gas power will be the major conventional generation technology for backing-up wind power. Moreover, a complete phase out of coal power proves to be not economically optimal. The paper demonstrates that existing national targets have a negative impact, especially on the German region with higher prices and lower revenues. The remaining regions profit are hardly affected. We encourage an EU-wide coordination on the expansion of wind power with harmonized policies. Yet, this requires profitable market structures for both, RES and conventional generation technologies.

Keywords: European, policy evaluation, power sector investment, technology choices

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6906 Communication Policies of Turkey Related to European Union

Authors: Muhammet Erbay

Abstract:

The phenomenon of communication that has been studied by different disciplines has social, political and economical aspects. The scope of communication has extended from a traditional content to the modern world which is under the control of mass media. Nowadays, thanks to globalization and technological facilities, many companies, public or international institutions take advantage of new communication technologies and overhaul their policies. European Union (EU) is one of the effective institutions in this sphere. It aims to harmonize the communication infrastructure and policies of member countries which have gone through the process of political unification. It is a significant problem for the unification of EU to have legal restrictions or critical differences in communication facilities among countries while technology stands at the center of economic and social life. Therefore, EU institutions place a particular importance to their communication policies. Besides, communication processes have a vital importance in creating a European public opinion in the process of political integration. Based on the evaluation above, the aim of this paper is to analyze the cohesion process of Turkey that tries to take an active role in EU communication policies and has on-going negotiations. This article does not only confine itself to the technical details of communication policies but also aims to evaluate socio-political dimension of the process. Therefore, a corporate review has been featured in the study and Turkey's compliance process in communication policies on European Union has been evaluated by the means of deduction method. Some problematic areas have been identified in compliance process on communication policies such as human rights and minority rights, whereas compliance process on communication infrastructure and technology proceeds effectively.

Keywords: communication policies, European Union, integration, Turkey

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6905 Marketing of Turkish Films by Crowdfunding

Authors: Nurdan Tumbek Tekeoglu

Abstract:

With rising importance in all over the world, crowdfunding has become a new financing and marketing method for film industry. Crowdfunding is a new practice in film industry for funding a film project by raising monetary contributions from a large group of people. By crowdfunding an estimate fund of 20 billion USD has been raised in 2015. Through the crowdfunding platforms not only the film makers, but also the entrepreneurs and nongovernmental organizations finance and market their projects. Among the prominent crowdfunding platforms in Turkey, we can list Crowdfon, Fonlabeni, Kickstarter, Indiego, Bi Ayda, and Fongogo platforms. In 2014 the Turkish film industry celebrated its 100th anniversary and reached its peak producing around 150-200 films a year reminding the brilliant years of Yesilcam period. In general feature films apply for crowdfunding. Until April 2015 more than 190 films applied for crowdfunding platforms. Crowdfunding has a promising future in Turkey, since donation traditions has an important place in Turkish culture traditionally. This paper is exploring the marketing of the crowdfunding platforms established in Turkey in order for the films meet their target groups during the pre-production period.

Keywords: crowdfunding, marketing of films, Turkey, Turkish film industry

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6904 Assessing the Citizens' Adoption of E-Government Platforms in the North West Province Local Governments, South Africa

Authors: Matsobane Mosetja, Nehemiah Mavetera, Ernest Mnkandla

Abstract:

Local governments in South Africa are responsible for the provision of basic services. There are countless benefits that come with e-Government platforms if they are properly implemented to help local governments deliver these basic services to citizens. This study investigates factors influencing the adoption and use of e-Government platforms by citizens in the North West Province, South. The study is set against a background of significant change in South Africa where government services are electronically delivered. The outcome of the study revealed that: 1) decisions on the development of e-Government platforms are made based on a series of consultative forums; 2) the municipalities are open to constructive criticism on their online platform; 3) the municipalities have room for dialogue on how best to improve service delivery; 4) the municipalities are accessible to the citizens all the time; 5) the municipalities are making means and ways to empower them to be part of the collective and lastly e-Government provides room for online discussion.

Keywords: e-government, e-government platforms, user acceptance, local government

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6903 Neo-Filipino: A Study on the Impact of Internet and Mobile Technology on the Identity Formation of Selected Filipino Third Culture Kids (TCKs)

Authors: Erika Mae L. Valencia

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Third Culture Kids (TCKs) are children who experienced a cross-cultural upbringing – being raised and lived outside their parents’ culture. As a result, TCKs experience the difficulty of building and attaining a concrete cultural identity. However, in the context of globalization and the emergence of ICTs, the internet, and mobile technology creates better ways of constructing cultural identities. This study investigates the social and cultural impacts of the internet and mobile technology on the multi-cultural identity development among selected Filipino TCKs. Moreover, this research seeks to understand how the Filipino TCKs form their identity and address their complex issue of belonging with the use of different internet platforms and mobile technology. To explore the lived experiences of Filipino TCKs, this research employs a transcendental phenomenological design. Also, this study uses purposive and snowball sampling and conduct in-depth interviews through Skype, phone call, or face-to-face. This study utilizes Pierre Bourdieu’s social capital as a theoretical lens to gain understanding of the TCKs’ identity formation process in relation to the said ICTs. This research argues that the internet and mobile technology play a significant role in facilitating multi-cultural identity formation of Filipino TCKs, as well as potentially broadening their social network through its various technological platforms.

Keywords: identity, internet, third culture kids, mobile technology

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6902 Golden Dawn's Rhetoric on Social Networks: Populism, Xenophobia and Antisemitism

Authors: Georgios Samaras

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New media such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter introduced the world to a new era of instant communication. An era where online interactions could replace a lot of offline actions. Technology can create a mediated environment in which participants can communicate (one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many) both synchronously and asynchronously and participate in reciprocal message exchanges. Currently, social networks are attracting similar academic attention to that of the internet after its mainstream implementation into public life. Websites and platforms are seen as the forefront of a new political change. There is a significant backdrop of previous methodologies employed to research the effects of social networks. New approaches are being developed to be able to adapt to the growth of social networks and the invention of new platforms. Golden Dawn was the first openly neo-Nazi party post World War II to win seats in the parliament of a European country. Its racist rhetoric and violent tactics on social networks were rewarded by their supporters, who in the face of Golden Dawn’s leaders saw a ‘new dawn’ in Greek politics. Mainstream media banned its leaders and members of the party indefinitely after Ilias Kasidiaris attacked Liana Kanelli, a member of the Greek Communist Party, on live television. This media ban was seen as a treasonous move by a significant percentage of voters, who believed that the system was desperately trying to censor Golden Dawn to favor mainstream parties. The shocking attack on live television received international coverage and while European countries were condemning this newly emerged neo-Nazi rhetoric, almost 7 percent of the Greek population rewarded Golden Dawn with 18 seats in the Greek parliament. Many seem to think that Golden Dawn mobilised its voters online and this approach played a significant role in spreading their message and appealing to wider audiences. No strict online censorship existed back in 2012 and although Golden Dawn was openly used neo-Nazi symbolism, it was allowed to use social networks without serious restrictions until 2017. This paper used qualitative methods to investigate Golden Dawn’s rise in social networks from 2012 to 2019. The focus of the content analysis was set on three social networking platforms: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, while the existence of Golden Dawn’s website, which was used as a news sharing hub, was also taken into account. The content analysis included text and visual analyses that sampled content from their social networking pages to translate their political messaging through an ideological lens focused on extreme-right populism. The absence of hate speech regulations on social network platforms in 2012 allowed the free expression of those heavily ultranationalist and populist views, as they were employed by Golden Dawn in the Greek political scene. On YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, the influence of their rhetoric was particularly strong. Official channels and MPs profiles were investigated to explore the messaging in-depth and understand its ideological elements.

Keywords: populism, far-right, social media, Greece, golden dawn

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6901 Do European Hedge Fund Managers Time Market Liquidity?

Authors: Soumaya Ben Kheilifa, Dorra Mezzez Hmaied

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We propose two approaches to examine whether European hedge fund managers can time market liquidity. Using a sample of 1616 European hedge funds, we find evidence of liquidity timing. More importantly, this ability adds economic value to investors. Thus, it represents valuable managerial skill and a major source of European hedge funds’ performance. Also we show that the majority of these funds demonstrate liquidity timing ability especially during liquidity crisis. Finally, it emerged that our main evidence of liquidity timing remains significant after controlling for market timing and volatility timing.

Keywords: european hedge funds, liquidity timing ability, market liquidity, crisis

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6900 Highly Skilled Migrants Trapped in the Brain Waste: The Eastern European Graduates in the Western European Underemployment

Authors: Katalin Bándy

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The European emigration of highly educated immigrants draws attention to the problem of brain drain. Due to the Eastern European countries joining the EU and the opening of the Western European labour market the west-wards migration brisked up. By now another problem has been intensified correlated to migration: the migration of highly skilled workers related to brain waste tendencies. With some exceptions, educated immigrants from Eastern European countries are more likely to end up in unskilled jobs than residents. This paper is about to reveal the above-mentioned problems and this study is supported by the results of secondary pieces of research and the own survey made in the EU-15 among the Hungarian highly skilled (especially economics graduated) migrants, and it also examines the causes and in the focus there are the migrant motivations of the high-skilled young generation after the crisis.

Keywords: brain drain, brain waste, migration of highly-skilled, underemployment

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6899 Technology Transfer and FDI: Some Lessons for Tunisia

Authors: Assaad Ghazouani, Hedia Teraoui

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to try to see if the FDI actually contributes to technology transfer in Tunisia or are there other sources that can guarantee this transfer? The answer to this problem was gradual as we followed an approach using economic theory, the reality of Tunisia and econometric and statistical tools. We examined the relationship between technology transfer and FDI in Tunisia over a period of 40 years from 1970 to 2010. We estimated in two stages: first, a growth equation, then we have learned from this regression residue (proxy technology), secondly, we regressed on European FDI, exports of manufactures, imports of goods from the European Union in addition to other variables to test the robustness of the results and describing the level of infrastructure in the country. It follows from our study that technology transfer does not originate primarily and exclusively in the FDI and the latter is econometrically weakly with technology transfer and spill over effect of FDI does not seem to occur according to our results. However, the relationship between technology transfer and imports is negative and significant. Although this result is cons-intuitive, is recurrent in the literature of panel data. It has also given rise to intense debate on the microeconomic modelling as well as on the empirical applications. Technology transfer through trade or foreign investment has become a catalyst for growth recognized by numerous empirical studies in particular. However, the relationship technology transfer FDI is more complex than it appears. This complexity is due, primarily, but not exclusively to the close link between FDI and the characteristics of the host country. This is essentially the host's responsibility to establish general conditions, transparent and conducive to investment, and to strengthen human and institutional capacity necessary for foreign capital flows that can have real effects on growth.

Keywords: technology transfer, foreign direct investment, economics, finance

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6898 Augmented Reality Aplications for Armed Forces

Authors: Murat Sözen

Abstract:

It is not at all difficult to estimate which level today’s technology reaches considering that humankinds space-faring in early 1950s. Technology is a means to help achieve goals and people can produce systems on their physical and mental abilities. Needed and used as tools in all areas of life and became a necessity and dependency, technology, widely used in the military field. To be a revolutionary change in the military matters, opportunities offered by technology should be put into practice. Tech makes weapons, sensors, platforms and soldiers carrying them more effective. To increase this efficiency in the battlefield defense industry is seeking every advantage of technology. In this study, the applicability of existing and on-going augmented reality applications for Armed Forces will be evaluated.

Keywords: augmented reality, battlefield, military, virtual reality

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6897 Formation of Convergence Culture in the Framework of Conventional Media and New Media

Authors: Berkay Buluş, Aytekin İşman, Kübra Yüzüncüyıl

Abstract:

Developments in media and communication technologies have changed the way we use media. The importance of convergence culture has been increasing day by day within the framework of these developments. With new media, it is possible to say that social networks are the most powerful platforms that are integrated to this digitalization process. Although social networks seem like the place that people can socialize, they can also be utilized as places of production. On the other hand, audience has become users within the framework of transformation from national to global broadcasting. User generated contents make conventional media and new media collide. In this study, these communication platforms will be examined not as platforms that replace one another but mediums that unify each other. In the light of this information, information that is produced by users regarding new media platforms and all new media use practices are called convergence culture. In other words, convergence culture means intersections of conventional and new media. In this study, examples of convergence culture will be analyzed in detail.

Keywords: new media, convergence culture, convergence, use of new media, user generated content

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6896 On the Way to the European Research Area: Programmes of the European Union as Factor of the Innovation Development the Scientific Organization in Ukraine

Authors: Yuri Nikitin, Veronika Rukas

Abstract:

Within the framework of the FP7 project "START" the cooperation with European research centres has had a positive impact on raising the level of innovation researches and the introduction of innovations Institute for Super hard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences (ISM NAS) of Ukraine in the economy of Europe and Ukraine, which in turn permits to speeds up the way for Ukrainian science to the European research area through the creation in Ukraine the scientific organizations of innovative type.

Keywords: programs of the EU, innovative scientific results, innovation competence of the staff, commercialization in business of industry of the Europe and Ukraine

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6895 Economic Conflict between the United Kingdom and the European Community 1945-1975

Authors: Soumia Hebbri

Abstract:

The relationship between Britain and the European Union is phenomenally complex with a great opposition to Europe in the British Conservative and Labour Parties emerged since 1945. During the history and development of the European Union, Europe saw a lack of British involvement until 1961, after refusing to sign the Treaties of Rome of 1957 for being a member of the European Economic Community. Britain then applied to join the EEC in 1961 under Harold Macmillan’s Conservative Government, its application led by the Chief Negotiator Edward Heath. This application was vetoed by President de Gaulle. With de Gaulle out of power Britain. finally could joined in 1973. But again Labour and conservative both found themselves divided on the issue and they hold a referendum under labour on whether to continue the UK’s membership.

Keywords: the European Union, the British, economic community, de Gaulle

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6894 LGBTQ+ Visibility: An Analysis of the Mechanisms for Safeguarding Sexual Minorities within the Common European Asylum System

Authors: Alessandra Tosi, Teia M. Rogers

Abstract:

The Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is the framework that standardises the treatment of applicants for international protection and harmonises asylum systems throughout the European Union. This paper interrogates the rules applied within the CEAS, specifically Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013, which puts forth the standards for the reception of vulnerable people applying for asylum. Absent from the definition of ‘vulnerable people’ are sexual minorities who routinely experience discrimination in reception centres and emergency accommodations. This paper undertakes an analysis of policies and legalisation of reception centres within the European Union. In confronting the flaws inherent to the system of processing asylum applications, this paper argues for the reform of the CEAS with emphasis on the inclusion of LBGTQ+ asylum seekers as vulnerable people following standards set by international human rights law.

Keywords: accommodation, asylum seekers, CEAS, Common European Asylum System, European Union, LGBTQ+, reception conditions, vulnerable people

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