Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3274

Search results for: cell viability

3274 In vitro Study on Characterization and Viability of Vero Cell Lines after Supplementation with Porcine Follicular Fluid Proteins in Culture Medium

Authors: Mayuva Youngsabanant, Suphaphorn Rabiab, Hatairuk Tungkasen, Nongnuch Gumlungpat, Mayuree Pumipaiboon

Abstract:

The porcine follicular fluid proteins (pFF) of healthy small size ovarian follicles (1-3 mm in diameters) of Large White pig ovaries were collected by sterile technique. They were used for testing the effect on cell viability and characterization of Vero cell lines using MTT assay. Two hundred microliter of round shape Vero cell lines were culture in 96 well plates with DMEM for 24 h. After that, they were attachment to substrate and some changed into fibroblast shape and spread over the surface after culture for 48 h. Then, Vero cell lines were treated with pFF at concentration of 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500, and 600 µg proteins/mL for 24 h. Yields of the best results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. MTT assay reviewed an increasing in percentage of viability of Vero cell lines indicated that at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL showed higher percentage of viability (115.64 ± 6.95, 106.91 ± 5.27 and 116.73 ± 20.15) than control group. They were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05) but lower than the positive control group (DMEM with 10% heat treated fetal bovine serum). Cell lines showed normal character in fibroblast elongate shape after treated with pFF except in high concentration of pFF. This result implies that pFF of small size ovarian follicle at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in Vero cell line culture medium to promote cell viability instead of growth hormone from fetal bovine serum. This merit could be applied in other cell biotechnology researches. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: cell viability, porcine follicular fluid, MTT assay, Vero cell line

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3273 A 3D Cell-Based Biosensor for Real-Time and Non-Invasive Monitoring of 3D Cell Viability and Drug Screening

Authors: Yuxiang Pan, Yong Qiu, Chenlei Gu, Ping Wang

Abstract:

In the past decade, three-dimensional (3D) tumor cell models have attracted increasing interest in the field of drug screening due to their great advantages in simulating more accurately the heterogeneous tumor behavior in vivo. Drug sensitivity testing based on 3D tumor cell models can provide more reliable in vivo efficacy prediction. The gold standard fluorescence staining is hard to achieve the real-time and label-free monitoring of the viability of 3D tumor cell models. In this study, micro-groove impedance sensor (MGIS) was specially developed for dynamic and non-invasive monitoring of 3D cell viability. 3D tumor cells were trapped in the micro-grooves with opposite gold electrodes for the in-situ impedance measurement. The change of live cell number would cause inversely proportional change to the impedance magnitude of the entire cell/matrigel to construct and reflect the proliferation and apoptosis of 3D cells. It was confirmed that 3D cell viability detected by the MGIS platform is highly consistent with the standard live/dead staining. Furthermore, the accuracy of MGIS platform was demonstrated quantitatively using 3D lung cancer model and sophisticated drug sensitivity testing. In addition, the parameters of micro-groove impedance chip processing and measurement experiments were optimized in details. The results demonstrated that the MGIS and 3D cell-based biosensor and would be a promising platform to improve the efficiency and accuracy of cell-based anti-cancer drug screening in vitro.

Keywords: micro-groove impedance sensor, 3D cell-based biosensors, 3D cell viability, micro-electromechanical systems

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3272 The Activity of Polish Propolis and Cannabidiol Oil Extracts on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Justyna Moskwa, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Konrad Mielcarek, Patryk Nowakowski, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) is a rapidly progressive brain tumor with very high morbidity and mortality. The vast malignant gliomas are not curable despite the therapy (surgical, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) and patients seek alternative or complementary treatments. Patients often use cannabidiol (CBD) oil as an alternative therapy of glioblastoma. CBD is one of the cannabinoids, an active component of Cannabis sativa. THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) can be addictive, and in many countries CBD oil without THC ( < 0,2%) is available. Propolis produced by bees from the resin collected from trees has antiglioma properties in vitro and can be used as a supplement in complementary therapy of gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of extract from CBD oil in combination with propolis extract on two glioblastoma cell lines. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test was used to determine the influence of CBD oil extract and polish propolis extract (PPE) on the viability of glioblastoma cell lines – U87MG and LN18. The cells were incubated (24, 48 and 72 h) with CBD oil extract and PPE. CBD extract was used in concentration 1, 1.5 and 3 µM and PPE in 30 µg/mL. The data were presented compared to the control. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. CBD oil extract in concentrations 1, 1.5 and 3 µM did not inhibit the viability of U87MG and LN18 cells (viability more than 90% cells compared to the control). There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. PPE in the concentration of 30 µg/mL time-dependently inhibited the viability of U87MG and LN18 cell line (after 48 h the viability as a percent of the control was 59,7±6% and 57,8±7%, respectively). In a combination of CBD with PPE, the viability of the treated cells was similar to PPE used alone (58,2±7% and 56,5±9%, respectively). CBD oil extract did not show anti-glioma activity and in combination with PPE did not change the activity of PPE.

Keywords: anticancer, cannabidiol, cell line, glioblastoma

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3271 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang

Abstract:

Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: cell viability, microemulsion, MTT, nanoemulsion, surfactants, ultrasonication

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3270 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn

Abstract:

Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

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3269 Effect of Far Infrared and Endothelial Cell Growth Supplement on Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells

Authors: Ming-Tzu Tsai, Jui-Ting Hsu, Chia-Chieh Lin, Feng-Tsai Chiang, Cheng-Chin Huang

Abstract:

Far infrared (FIR), an invisible and short electromagnetic waves ranges from 6-14 μm also defines as the “growth ray.” Although the mechanism of FIR is still unknown, most data have suggested that FIR could accelerate the skin microcirculation by elevating the blood flow and nitric-oxide (NO) synthesis. In this present work, the effect of FIR irradiation and endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated. To understand whether the cell viability and NO production of HUVECs affected by NO, cells with/without ECGS were treated in the presence or absence of L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor. For FIR exposure, FIR-emitted ceramic powders consisted of a variety of well-mixed metal oxides were developed. The results showed that L-NAME did had a strong effect on the inhibition of NO production, especially in the ECGS-treated group. However, the cell viability of each group was rarely affected in the presence of L-NAME. Cells with the incubation of ECGS showed much higher cell viability compared to the control. Moreover, NO production of HUVECs exposed to FIR irradiation was significantly inhibited in the presence of L-NAME. It suggested that NO could play a role modulating the downstream signals of HUVECs during FIR exposure.

Keywords: far-infrared irradiation (FIR), nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS)

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3268 The Cell Viability Study of Extracts of Bark, Flowers, Leaves and Seeds of Indian Dhak Tree, Flame of Forest

Authors: Madhavi S. Apte, Milind Bhitre

Abstract:

In pharmaceutical research and new drug development, medicinal plants have important roles. Similarly, Indian dhak tree belonging to family Fabaceae has been widely used in the traditional Indian medical system of ‘Ayurveda’ for the treatment of a variety of ailments. Hence the cell viability study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the activity of extracts of various parts like flower, bark, leaf, seed by conducting MTT assay method along with other pharmacognostical studies. The methanolic extracts of bark, flowers, leaves, and seeds were used for the study. The cell viability MTT assay was performed using the standard operating procedures. The extracts were dissolved in DMSO and serially diluted with complete medium to get the concentrations range of test concentration. DMSO concentration was kept < 0.1% in all the samples. HUVEC cells maintained in appropriate conditions were seeded in 96 well plates and treated with different concentrations of the test samples and incubated at 37°C, 5% CO₂ for 96 hours. MTT reagent was added to the wells and incubated for 4 hours; the dark blue formazan product formed by the cells was dissolved in DMSO under a safety cabinet and read at 550nm. Percentage inhibitions were calculated and plotted with the concentrations used to calculate the IC50 values. The bark, flower, leaves and seed extracts have shown the cytotoxicity activity and can be further studied for antiangiogenesis activity.

Keywords: pharmacognosy, Cell viability, MTT assay, anti-angiogenesis

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3267 The Expression of Toll-Like Receptors Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Betong (KU Line) Chicken

Authors: Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Anutian Suklek, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn, Autchara Kayan

Abstract:

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved microbial sensing receptors located on cell surface that are able to detect different pathogens. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of TLR gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of Betong (KU line) chicken. Blood samples were collected from healthy 12 Betong (KU line) chicken. PBMCs were isolated and maintained in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. The expression of TLRs gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results showed that PBMCs viability from Betong (KU line) chicken was 95.38 ± 1.06%. From the study of TLRs gene expression, results indicated that there are expressions of TLR1.1 TLR1.2 TLR2.1 TLR2.2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR 7 TLR15 and TLR21 in PBMCs of Betong (KU line) chicken. In conclusion, PBMCs isolated from blood of Betong (KU line) chicken had a high cell viability ( > 95%). The expression of TLRs in chicken was all found in PBMCs, which indicated that PBMC isolated from the blood of Betong (KU line) chicken can be used as an in vitro immune responses study.

Keywords: toll-like receptor, Betong (KU line) chicken, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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3266 Natural Bio-Active Product from Marine Resources

Authors: S. Ahmed John

Abstract:

Marine forms-bacteria, actinobacteria, cynobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds mangroves and other halophytes an extremely important oceanic resources and constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. The marine natural products have lead to the discovery of many compounds considered worthy for clinical applications. The marine sources have the highest probability of yielding natural products. Natural derivatives play an important role to prevent the cancer incidences as synthetic drug transformation in mangrove. 28.12% of anticancer compound extracted from the mangroves. Exchocaria agollocha has the anti cancer compounds. The present investigation reveals the potential of the Exchocaria agollocha with biotechnological applications for anti cancer, antimicrobial drug discovery, environmental remediation, and developing new resources for the industrial process. The anti-cancer activity of Exchocaria agollocha was screened from 3.906 to 1000 µg/ml of concentration with the dilution leads to 1:1 to 1:128 following methanol and chloroform extracts. The cell viability in the Exchocaria agollocha was maximum at the lower concentration where as low at the higher concentration of methanol and chloroform extracts when compare to control. At 3.906 concentration, 85.32 and 81.96 of cell viability was found at 1:128 dilution of methanol and chloroform extracts respectively. At the concentration of 31.25 following 1:16 dilution, the cell viability was 65.55 in methanol and 45.55 in chloroform extracts. However, at the higher concentration, the cell viability 22.35 and 8.12 was recorded in the extracts of methanol and chloroform. The cell viability was more in methanol when compare to chloroform extracts at lower concentration. The present findings gives current trends in screening and the activity analysis of metabolites from mangrove resources and to expose the models to bring a new sustain for tackling cancer. Bioactive compounds of Exchocaria agollocha have extensive use in treatment of many diseases and serve as a compound and templates for synthetic modification.

Keywords: bio-active product, compounds, natural products and microalgae

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3265 The Influence of Amygdalin on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

Amygdalin is found in many fruit seeds, including apricot, peach, quince, apples, and almonds. Amygdalin (also named vitamin B17), as well as its sources, are commonly used as an alternative therapy or prevention of cancer. The potential activity of amygdalin is related to its enzymatic degradation to the hydrogen cyanide. Hydrogen cyanide is a toxic substance that causes liver and nerves damage, fever, coma or even death. Amygdalin is much better tolerated after intravenous than oral administration. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of amygdalin on glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Three glioblastoma multiforme cell lines – U87MG, T98, LN18 were incubated (48 h) with amygdalin in concentrations 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test and DNA binding test by [3H]-thymidine incorporation were used to determine the anti-proliferative activity of amygdalin. The secretion of metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP-9) from U87MG cells was estimated by gelatin zymography. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. The data was presented as a % of control. Amygdalin did not show significant inhibition of viability of all the glioblastoma cells in concentrations 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL. In 2000 µg/mL there were significant differences compared to the control, but inhibition of viability was less than 20% (more than 80% of control). The average viability of U87MG cells was 92,0±4%, T98G: 85,8±3% and LN18: 94,7±2% of the control. There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. DNA binding in U87MG cells was not inhibited (109,0±3 % of control). After treatment with amygdalin, we observed significantly increased secretion of MMP2 and MMP9 in U87MG cells (130,3±14% and 112,0±5% of control, respectively). Our results suggest that amygdalin has no anticancer activity in glioblastoma cell lines.

Keywords: amygdalin, anticancer, cell line, glioblastoma

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3264 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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3263 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability

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3262 Design of 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

Authors: Gloria Pinilla, Jose Manuel Baena, Patricia Gálvez-Martín, Juan Antonio Marchad

Abstract:

Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair properties. Currently, the therapeutic use of autologous or allogenic chondrocytes makes up an alternative therapy to the pharmacological treatment. The design of a bioprinted 3D cartilage with chondrocytes and biodegradable biomaterials offers a new therapeutic alternative able of bridging the limitations of current therapies in the field. We have developed an enhanced printing processes-Injection Volume Filling (IVF) to increase the viability and survival of the cells when working with high-temperature thermoplastics without the limitation of the scaffold geometry in contact with cells. We have demonstrated the viability of the printing process using chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration. This development will accelerate the clinical uptake of the technology and overcomes the current limitation when using thermoplastics as scaffolds. An alginate-based hydrogel combined with human chondrocytes (isolated from osteoarthritis patients) was formulated as bioink-A and the polylactic acid as bioink-B. The bioprinting process was carried out with the REGEMAT V1 bioprinter (Regemat 3D, Granada-Spain) through a IVF. The printing capacity of the bioprinting plus the viability and cell proliferation of bioprinted chondrociytes was evaluated after five weeks by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue Assay (Biorad). Results showed that the IVF process does not decrease the cell viability of the chondrocytes during the printing process as the cells do not have contact with the thermoplastic at elevated temperatures. The viability and cellular proliferation of the bioprinted artificial 3D cartilage increased after 5 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential use of Regemat V1 for 3D bioprinting of cartilage and the viability of bioprinted chondrocytes in the scaffolds for application in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: cartilage regeneration, bioprinting, bioink, scaffold, chondrocyte

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3261 A Comparison of Sulfur Mustard Cytotoxic Effects on the Two Human Lung Origin Cell Lines

Authors: P. Jost, L. Muckova, M. Matula, J. Pejchal, D. Jun, R. Stetina

Abstract:

Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide) is highly toxic, chemical warfare agent that has been used in the past in several armed conflicts. Except for the skin, respiratory tract is one of the important routes of exposure. The elucidation and understanding of the mechanism of toxicity of SM have been effort intensive research. The multiple targets character of SM caused cellular damage resulted in activation of many different mechanisms which contribute to cellular response and participate in the final cytopathology effect. In our present work, we compared time-dependent changes in sulfur mustard exposed adult human lung fibroblasts NHLF and lung epithelial alveolar cell line A-549. Cell viability (MTT assay, Calcein-AM assay, and xCELLigence - real-time cell analysis), apoptosis (flow cytometry), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, flow cytometry), reactive oxygen species induction (DC and cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry) were studied. We observed significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequent induction of apoptosis correlating with decreased cellular viability in the sulfur mustard exposed cells. In low concentrations, sulfur mustard-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest, on the other hand, high concentrations, cell cycle phase distribution of sulfur mustard exposed cells resembled cell cycle phase distribution of control group, which implies nonspecific cell cycle inhibition. Epithelial cells A-549 was found as more sensible to sulfur mustard toxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: apoptosis, cell cycle, cytotoxicity, sulfur mustard

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3260 Cerium Salt Effect in 70s Bioactive Glass

Authors: Alessandra N. Santos, Max P. Ferreira, Alexandra R. P. Silva, Agda A. R. de Oliveira, Marivalda M. Pereira

Abstract:

The literature describes experiments, in which ceria nanoparticles in the bioactive glass significantly improve differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts and increase production of collagen. It is not known whether this effect observed due to the presence of nanoceria can be also observed in the presence of cerium in the bioactive glass network. The effect of cerium into bioactive glasses using the sol–gel route is the focus of this work, with the goal to develop a material for tissue engineering with the potential to enhance osteogenesis. A bioactive glass composition based on 70% SiO2–30% CaO is produced with the addition of cerium. The analyses XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET/BJH, in vitro bioactivity test and the Cell viability assay were performed. The results show that cerium remains in the bioactive glass structure. The obtained material present in vitro bioactivity and promote the cell viability.

Keywords: bioactive glass, bioactivity, cerium salt, material characterization, sol-gel method

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3259 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Hela cancer cell, MDA-Md-231 cancer cell, Virgularia gustavina

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3258 Evaluation of the Influence of Graphene Oxide on Spheroid and Monolayer Culture under Flow Conditions

Authors: A. Zuchowska, A. Buta, M. Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, A. Malolepszy, L. Stobinski, Z. Brzozka

Abstract:

In recent years, graphene-based materials are finding more and more applications in biological science. As a thin, tough, transparent and chemically resistant materials, they appear to be a very good material for the production of implants and biosensors. Interest in graphene derivatives also resulted at the beginning of research about the possibility of their application in cancer therapy. Currently, the analysis of their potential use in photothermal therapy and as a drug carrier is mostly performed. Moreover, the direct anticancer properties of graphene-based materials are also tested. Nowadays, cytotoxic studies are conducted on in vitro cell culture in standard culture vessels (macroscale). However, in this type of cell culture, the cells grow on the synthetic surface in static conditions. For this reason, cell culture in macroscale does not reflect in vivo environment. The microfluidic systems, called Lab-on-a-chip, are proposed as a solution for improvement of cytotoxicity analysis of new compounds. Here, we present the evaluation of cytotoxic properties of graphene oxide (GO) on breast, liver and colon cancer cell line in a microfluidic system in two spatial models (2D and 3D). Before cell introduction, the microchambers surface was modified by the fibronectin (2D, monolayer) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (3D, spheroids) covering. After spheroid creation (3D) and cell attachment (2D, monolayer) the selected concentration of GO was introduced into microsystems. Then monolayer and spheroids viability/proliferation using alamarBlue® assay and standard microplate reader was checked for three days. Moreover, in every day of the culture, the morphological changes of cells were determined using microscopic analysis. Additionally, on the last day of the culture differential staining using Calcein AM and Propidium iodide were performed. We were able to note that the GO has an influence on all tested cell line viability in both monolayer and spheroid arrangement. We showed that GO caused higher viability/proliferation decrease for spheroids than a monolayer (this was observed for all tested cell lines). Higher cytotoxicity of GO on spheroid culture can be caused by different geometry of the microchambers for 2D and 3D cell cultures. Probably, GO was removed from the flat microchambers for 2D culture. Those results were also confirmed by differential staining. Comparing our results with the studies conducted in the macroscale, we also proved that the cytotoxic properties of GO are changed depending on the cell culture conditions (static/ flow).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, graphene oxide, monolayer, spheroid

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3257 In vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Simona Baldovská, Ľubomír Ondruška, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed by using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated by using the metabolic activity MTT assay, and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P<0.05 with respect to time 8h). At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 100 µg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P<0.05 in case of 5, 50 and 100 µg/mL; P<0.01 with respect to 1 and 10 µg/mL, time 8h). 1 and 5 µg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the ROS production, particularly notable at time 8h (P<0.01). The results indicate that the Viscum extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the spermatozoon by the in vitro environment.

Keywords: CASA, mistletoe, mitochondrial activity, motility, reactive oxygen species, rabbits, spermatozoa, Viscum album

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3256 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability

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3255 Role of Autophagic Lysosome Reformation for Cell Viability in an in vitro Infection Model

Authors: Muhammad Awais Afzal, Lorena Tuchscherr De Hauschopp, Christian Hübner

Abstract:

Introduction: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent degradation pathway, which can be induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stressors in living systems to adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. In the context of inflammatory stress, autophagy contributes to the elimination of invading pathogens, the regulation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, and regulation of inflammasome activity as well as tissue damage repair. Lysosomes can be recycled from autolysosomes by the process of autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which depends on the presence of several proteins including Spatacsin. Thus ALR contributes to the replenishment of lysosomes that are available for fusion with autophagosomes in situations of increased autophagic turnover, e.g., during bacterial infections, inflammatory stress or sepsis. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether ALR plays a role for cell survival in an in-vitro bacterial infection model. Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from wild-type mice and Spatacsin (Spg11-/-) knockout mice. Wild-type MEFs and Spg11-/- MEFs were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (multiplication of infection (MOI) used was 10). After 8 and 16 hours of infection, cell viability was assessed on BD flow cytometer through propidium iodide intake. Bacterial intake by cells was also calculated by plating cell lysates on blood agar plates. Results: in-vitro infection of MEFs with Staphylococcus aureus showed a marked decrease of cell viability in ALR deficient Spatacsin knockout (Spg11-/-) MEFs after 16 hours of infection as compared to wild-type MEFs (n=3 independent experiments; p < 0.0001) although no difference was observed for bacterial intake by both genotypes. Conclusion: Suggesting that ALR is important for the defense of invading pathogens e.g. S. aureus, we observed a marked increase of cell death in an in-vitro infection model in cells with compromised ALR.

Keywords: autophagy, autophagic lysosome reformation, bacterial infections, Staphylococcus aureus

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3254 Effect of Ti, Nb, and Zr Additives on Biocompatibility of Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Busra Gundede, Ozal Mutlu, Nagihan Gulsoy

Abstract:

Background: Over the years, material research has led to the development of numerous metals and alloys for using in biomedical applications. One of the major tasks of biomaterial research is the functionalization of the material surface to improve the biocompatibility according to a specific application. 316L and 316L alloys are excellent for various bio-applications. This research was investigated the effect of titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and zirconium (Zr) additives on injection molded austenitic grade 316L stainless steels in vitro biocompatibility. For this purpose, cytotoxic tests were performed to evaluate the potential biocompatibility of the specimens. Materials and Methods: 3T3 fibroblast were cultivated in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and %1 penicillin-streptomycin at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 95%humidity. Trypsin/EDTA solution was used to remove cells from the culture flask. Cells were reseeded at a density of 1×105cell in 25T flasks. The medium change took place every 3 days. The trypan blue assay was used to determine cell viability. Cell viability is calculated as the number of viable cells divided by the total number of cells within the grids on the cell counter machine counted the number of blue staining cells and the number of total cells. Cell viability should be at least 95% for healthy log-phase cultures. MTT assay was assessed for 96-hours. Cells were cultivated in 6-well flask within 5 ml DMEM and incubated as same conditions. 0,5mg/ml MTT was added for 4-hours and then acid-isoprohanol was added for solubilize to formazan crystals. Cell morphology after 96h was investigated by SEM. The medium was removed, samples were washed with 0.15 M PBS buffer and fixed for 12h at 4- 8°C with %2,5 gluteraldehyte. Samples were treated with 1% osmium tetroxide. Samples were then dehydrated and dried, mounted on appropriate stubs with colloidal silver and sputter-coated with gold. Images were collected using a scanning electron microscope. ROS assay is a cell viability test for in vitro studies. Cells were grown for 96h, ROS solution added on cells in 6 well plate flask and incubated for 1h. Fluorescence signal indicates ROS generation by cells. Results: Trypan Blue exclusion assay results were 96%, 92%, 95%, 90%, 91% for negative control group, 316L, 316L-Ti, 316L-Nb and 316L-Zr, respectively. Results were found nearly similar to each other when compared with control group. Cell viability from MTT analysis was found to be 100%, 108%, 103%, 107%, and 105% for the control group, 316L, 316L-Ti, 316L-Nb and 316L-Zr, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated that all test groups were same as the control group in ROS assay. SEM images demonstrated that the attachment of 3T3 cells on biomaterials. Conclusion: We, therefore, concluded that Ti, Nb and Zr additives improved physical properties of 316L stainless. In our in vitro experiments showed that these new additives did not modify the cytocompatibility of stainless steel and these additives on 316L might be useful for biomedical applications.

Keywords: 316L stainles steel, biocompatibility, cell culture, Ti, Nb, Zr

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3253 Effect of Z-VAD-FMK on in Vitro Viability of Dog Follicles

Authors: Leda Maria Costa Pereira, Maria Denise Lopes, Nucharin Songsasen

Abstract:

Mammalian ovaries contain thousands of follicles that eventually degenerate or die after culture in vitro. Caspase-3 is a key enzyme that regulating cell death. Our objective was to examine the influence of anti-apoptotic drug Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) on in vitro viability of dog follicles within the ovarian cortex. Ovaries were obtained from prepubertal (age, 2.5–6 months) and adult (age, 8 months to 2 years) bitches and ovarian cortical fragments were recovered. The cortices were then incubated on 1.5% (w/v) agarose gel blocks within a 24-wells culture plate (three cortical pieces/well) containing Minimum Essential Medium Eagle - Alpha Modification (Alpha MEM) supplemented with 4.2 µg/ml insulin, 3.8 µg/ml transferrin, 5 ng/ml selenium, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 µg/mL of penicillin G sodium, 100 µg/mL of streptomycin sulfate, 0.05 mM ascorbic acid, 10 ng/mL of FSH and 0.1% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 5% O2. The cortices were divided in six treatment groups: 1) 10 ng/mL EGF (EGF V0); 2) 10 ng/mL of EGF plus 1 mM Z-VAD-FMK (EGF V1); 3) 10 ng/mL of EGF and 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK (EGF V10); 4) 1 mM Z-VAD-FMK; 5) 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK and (6) no EGF and Z-VAD-FMK supplementation. Ovarian follicles within the tissues were processed for histology and assessed for follicle density, viability (based on morphology) and diameter immediately after collection (Control) or after 3 or 7 days of in vitro incubation. Comparison among fresh and culture treatment group was performed using ANOVA test. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in follicle density and viability among different culture treatments. However, there were differences in this parameter between culture days. Specifically, culturing tissue for 7 days resulted in significant reduction in follicle viability and density, regardless of treatments. We found a difference in size between culture days when these follicles were cultured using 10 mM Z-VAD-FMK or 10 ng/mL EGF (EGF V0). In sum, the finding demonstrated that Z-VAD-FMK at the dosage used in the present study does not provide the protective effect to ovarian tissue during in vitro culture. Future studies should explore different Z-VAD-FMK dosages or other anti-apoptotic agent, such as surviving in protecting ovarian follicles against cell death.

Keywords: anti apoptotic drug, bitches, follicles, Z-VAD-FMK

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3252 Cytotoxic and Biocompatible Evaluation of Silica Coated Silver Nanoparticle Against Nih-3t3 Cells

Authors: Chen-En Lin, Lih-Rou Rau, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai

Abstract:

The unique optical properties of plasmon resonance metallic particles have attracted considerable applications in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect is one of the useful applications. MEF effect stated that fluorescence intensity can be quenched or be enhanced depending on the distance between fluorophores and the metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have used widely in antibacterial studies. However, the major limitation for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in biomedical application is well-known cytotoxicity on cells. There were numerous literatures have been devoted to overcome the disadvantage. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of silica coated AgNPs against NIH-3T3 cells. The results were shown that NIH-3T3 cells started to detach, shrink, become rounded and finally be irregular in shape after 24 h of exposure at 10 µg/ml AgNPs. Besides, compared with untreated cells, the cell viability significantly decreased to 60% and 40% which were exposed to 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml AgNPs respectively. The result was consistent with previously reported findings that AgNPs induced cytotoxicity was concentration dependent. However, the morphology and cell viability of cells appeared similar to the control group when exposed to 20 µg/ml of silica coated AgNPs. We further utilized the dark-field hyperspectral imaging system to analysis the optical properties of the intracellular nanoparticles. The image displayed that the red shift of the surface plasmonic resonances band of the enclosed AgNPs further confirms the agglomerate of the AgNPs rather than their distribution in cytoplasm. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the silica coated of AgNPs showed well biocompatibility and significant lower cytotoxicity compared with bare AgNPs.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, silica, cell viability, morphology

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3251 Some Probiotic Traits of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Pollen

Authors: Hani Belhadj, Daoud Harzallah, Seddik Khennouf, Saliha Dahamna, Mouloud Ghadbane

Abstract:

In this study, Lactobacillus strains isolated from pollen were identified by means of phenotypic and genotypic methods, At pH 2, most strains proved to be acid resistants, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.77 to 4.04 Log orders. In addition, at pH 3 all strains could grew and resist the acidic conditions, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.40 to 3.61 Log orders. It seems that, 0.3% and 0.5% of bile salts does not affect greatly the survival of most strains, excluding Lactobacillus sp. BH1398. Survival ranged from 81.0±3.5 to 93.5±3.9%. In contrast, in the presence of 1.0% bile salts, survival of five strains was decreased by more than 50%. Lactobacillus fermentum BH1509 was considered the most tolerant strain (77.5% for 1% bile) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum BH1541 (59.9% for 1% bile). Furthermore, all strains were resistant to colistine, clindamycine, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacine, but most of the strains were susceptible to Peniciline, Oxacillin, Oxytetracyclin, and Amoxicillin. Functionally interesting Lactobacillus isolates may be used in the future as probiotic cultures for manufacturing fermented foods and as bioactive delivery systems.

Keywords: probiotics, lactobacillus, pollen, bile, acid tolerance

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3250 Synthesis and Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activity on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MFC7 of Some Novel Thiazolidino (3,2-b)-1, 2,4-Triazole-5(6H)-one Derivatives

Authors: Kamta P. Namdeo

Abstract:

Novel thiazolidino-(3,2-b)-1, 2,4-triazole-5(6H)-one derivatives were synthesized, and anticancer activity was studied on human breast cancer cell line MFC7. It showed a significant decrease in cell viability with reference to the standard. The findings suggest that nitro-substituted compound showed best anticancer activity and activity was due to the triazole and thiazolidinone hetero nucleus present in the structure.

Keywords: anti-cancer, adriamycine, thiazolidinone, 1, 2, 4-triazole, thiazolidino-triazolone

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3249 Fibroblast Compatibility of Core-Shell Coaxially Electrospun Hybrid Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Chitosan Scaffolds

Authors: Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel, Ozan Ozkan, Seda Surucu

Abstract:

Tissue engineering is the field of treating defects caused by injuries, trauma or acute/chronic diseases by using artificial scaffolds that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), the natural biological support for the tissues and cells within the body. The main aspects of a successful artificial scaffold are (i) large surface area in order to provide multiple anchorage points for cells to attach, (ii) suitable porosity in order to achieve 3 dimensional growth of the cells within the scaffold as well as proper transport of nutrition, biosignals and waste and (iii) physical, chemical and biological compatibility of the material in order to obtain viability throughout the healing process. By hybrid scaffolds where two or more different materials were combined with advanced fabrication techniques into complex structures, it is possible to combine the advantages of individual materials into one single structure while eliminating the disadvantages of each. Adding this to the complex structure provided by advanced fabrication techniques enables obtaining the desired aspects of a successful artificial tissue scaffold. In this study, fibroblast compatibility of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan core-shell electrospun hybrid scaffolds with proper mechanical, chemical and physical properties successfully developed in our previous study was investigated. Standard 7-day cell culture was carried out with L929 fibroblast cell line. The viability of the cells cultured with the scaffolds was monitored with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay for every 48 h starting with 24 h after the initial seeding. In this assay, blank commercial tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) Petri dishes, single electrospun PCL and single electrospun chitosan mats were used as control in order to compare and contrast the performance of the hybrid scaffolds. The adhesion, proliferation, spread and growth of the cells on/within the scaffolds were observed visually on the 3rd and the 7th days of the culture period with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability assay showed that the hybrid scaffolds caused no toxicity for fibroblast cells and provided a steady increase in cell viability, effectively doubling the cell density for every 48 h for the course of 7 days, as compared to TCPS, single electrospun PCL or chitosan mats. The cell viability on the hybrid scaffold was ~2 fold better compared to TCPS because of its 3D ECM-like structure compared to 2D flat surface of commercially cell compatible TCPS, and the performance was ~2 fold and ~10 fold better compared to single PCL and single chitosan mats, respectively, even though both fabricated similarly with electrospinning as non-woven fibrous structures, because single PCL and chitosan mats were either too hydrophobic or too hydrophilic to maintain cell attachment points. The viability results were verified with visual images obtained with CSLM and SEM, in which cells found to achieve characteristic spindle-like fibroblast shape and spread on the surface as well within the pores successfully at high densities.

Keywords: chitosan, core-shell, fibroblast, electrospinning, PCL

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3248 Metal Nanoparticles Caused Death of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Cells

Authors: O. S. Adeyemi, C. G. Whiteley

Abstract:

The present study determined the toxic potential of metal nanoparticles in cell culture system. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized following established "green" protocols. The synthesized nanoparticles, in varying concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 µM were evaluated for toxicity in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. The nanoparticles promoted a generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced cell viability to less than 50% in the demonstration of cellular toxicity. The nanoparticles; gold and the silver-gold mixture had IC50 values of 56.65 and 18.44 µM respectively. The IC50 concentration for silver nanoparticles could not be determined. Furthermore, the probe of the cell death using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed the partial involvement of apoptosis as well as necrosis. Our results revealed cellular toxicity caused by the nanoparticles but the mechanism remains yet undefined.

Keywords: cell death, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, toxicity

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3247 Cytotoxicity of a Short Chain Fatty Acid Histone Deactylase Inhibitor on HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: N. A. Kazemi Sefat, M. M. Mohammadi, J. Hadjati, S. Talebi, M. Ajami, H. Daneshvar

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer metastases result in a significant number of cancer related deaths. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (SB) is a short chain fatty acid, belongs to HDAC inhibitors which is released in the colonic lumen as a consequence of fiber fermentation. In this study, we are about to assess the effect of sodium butyrate on HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line. The viability of cells was measured by microscopic morphologic study and MTT assay. After 48 hours, treatments more than 10 mM lead to cell injury in HCT116 by increasing cell granulation and decreasing cell adhesion (p>0.05). After 72 hours, treatments at 10 mM and more lead to significant cell injury (p<0.05). Our results may suggest that the gene expression which is contributed in cell proliferation and apoptosis has been changed under pressure of HDAC inhibition.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, sodium butyrate, cytotoxicity, MTT

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3246 Hsa-miR-326 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer through Targeting CCND1

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Hsa-miRNA-326 (miR-326) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-326 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-326 on the development of NSCLC. The results indicated that miR-326 was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in NSCLC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-326 in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibition of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, CDK4, and up-regulation of p57(Kip2) and p21(Waf1/Cip1). In addition, miR-326 induced apoptosis, as indicated by concomitantly with up-regulation of key apoptosis protein cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl2. Moreover, miR-326 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene CCND1 was revealed to be a putative target of miR-326, which was inversely correlated with miR-326 expression in NSCLC. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-326 played a pivotal role on NSCLC through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic CCND1.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-326 (miR-326), cyclin D1, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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3245 Effect of Plasma Radiation on Keratinocyte Cells Involved in the Wound Healing Process

Authors: B. Fazekas, I. Korolov, K. Kutasi

Abstract:

Plasma medicine, which involves the use of gas discharge plasmas for medical applications is a rapidly growing research field. The use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas in dermatology to assist tissue regeneration by improving the healing of infected and/or chronic wounds is a promising application. It is believed that plasma can activate cells, which are involved in the wound closure. Non-thermal atmospheric plasmas are rich in chemically active species (such as O and N-atoms, O2(a) molecules) and radiative species such as the NO, N2+ and N2 excited molecules, which dominantly radiate in the 200-500 nm spectral range. In order to understand the effect of plasma species, both of chemically active and radiative species on wound healing process, the interaction of physical plasma with the human skin cells is necessary. In order to clarify the effect of plasma radiation on the wound healing process we treated keratinocyte cells – that are one of the main cell types in human skin epidermis – covered with a layer of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with a low power atmospheric pressure plasma. For the generation of such plasma we have applied a plasma needle. Here, the plasma is ignited at the tip of the needle in flowing helium gas in contact with the ambient air. To study the effect of plasma radiation we used a plasma needle configuration, where the plasma species – chemically active radicals and charged species – could not reach the treated cells, but only the radiation. For the comparison purposes, we also irradiated the cells using a UV-B light source (FS20 lamp) with a 20 and 40 mJ cm-2 dose of 312 nm. After treatment the viability and the proliferation of the cells have been examined. The proliferation of cells has been studied with a real time monitoring system called Xcelligence. The results have indicated, that the 20 mJ cm-2 dose did not affect cell viability, whereas the 40 mJ cm-2 dose resulted a decrease in cell viability. The results have shown that the plasma radiation have no quantifiable effect on the cell proliferation as compared to the non-treated cells.

Keywords: UV radiation, non-equilibrium gas discharges (non-thermal plasmas), plasma emission, keratinocyte cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 533