Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3009

Search results for: error estimate

3009 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed


An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

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3008 Analysis of an Error Estimate for the Asymptotic Solution of the Heat Conduction Problem in a Dilated Pipe

Authors: E. Marušić-Paloka, I. Pažanin, M. Prša


Subject of this study is the stationary heat conduction problem through a pipe filled with incompressible viscous fluid. In previous work, we observed the existence and uniqueness theorems for the corresponding boundary-value problem and within we have taken into account the effects of the pipe's dilatation due to the temperature of the fluid inside of the pipe. The main difficulty comes from the fact that flow domain changes depending on the solution of the observed heat equation leading to a non-standard coupled governing problem. The goal of this work is to find solution estimate since the exact solution of the studied problem is not possible to determine. We use an asymptotic expansion in order of a small parameter which is presented as a heat expansion coefficient of the pipe's material. Furthermore, an error estimate is provided for the mentioned asymptotic approximation of the solution for inner area of the pipe. Close to the boundary, problem becomes more complex so different approaches are observed, mainly Theory of Perturbations and Separations of Variables. In view of that, error estimate for the whole approximation will be provided with additional software simulations of gotten situation.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, dilated pipe, error estimate, heat conduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3007 Composite Forecasts Accuracy for Automobile Sales in Thailand

Authors: Watchareeporn Chaimongkol


In this paper, we compare the statistical measures accuracy of composite forecasting model to estimate automobile customer demand in Thailand. A modified simple exponential smoothing and autoregressive integrate moving average (ARIMA) forecasting model is built to estimate customer demand of passenger cars, instead of using information of historical sales data. Our model takes into account special characteristic of the Thai automobile market such as sales promotion, advertising and publicity, petrol price, and interest rate for loan. We evaluate our forecasting model by comparing forecasts with actual data using six accuracy measurements, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), geometric mean absolute error (GMAE), symmetric mean absolute percentage error (sMAPE), mean absolute scaled error (MASE), median relative absolute error (MdRAE), and geometric mean relative absolute error (GMRAE).

Keywords: composite forecasting, simple exponential smoothing model, autoregressive integrate moving average model selection, accuracy measurements

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3006 Comparison between Some of Robust Regression Methods with OLS Method with Application

Authors: Sizar Abed Mohammed, Zahraa Ghazi Sadeeq


The use of the classic method, least squares (OLS) to estimate the linear regression parameters, when they are available assumptions, and capabilities that have good characteristics, such as impartiality, minimum variance, consistency, and so on. The development of alternative statistical techniques to estimate the parameters, when the data are contaminated with outliers. These are powerful methods (or resistance). In this paper, three of robust methods are studied, which are: Maximum likelihood type estimate M-estimator, Modified Maximum likelihood type estimate MM-estimator and Least Trimmed Squares LTS-estimator, and their results are compared with OLS method. These methods applied to real data taken from Duhok company for manufacturing furniture, the obtained results compared by using the criteria: Mean Squared Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Sum of Absolute Error (MSAE). Important conclusions that this study came up with are: a number of typical values detected by using four methods in the furniture line and very close to the data. This refers to the fact that close to the normal distribution of standard errors, but typical values in the doors line data, using OLS less than that detected by the powerful ways. This means that the standard errors of the distribution are far from normal departure. Another important conclusion is that the estimated values of the parameters by using the lifeline is very far from the estimated values using powerful methods for line doors, gave LTS- destined better results using standard MSE, and gave the M- estimator better results using standard MAPE. Moreover, we noticed that using standard MSAE, and MM- estimator is better. The programs S-plus (version 8.0, professional 2007), Minitab (version 13.2) and SPSS (version 17) are used to analyze the data.

Keywords: Robest, LTS, M estimate, MSE

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3005 Aliasing Free and Additive Error in Spectra for Alpha Stable Signals

Authors: R. Sabre


This work focuses on the symmetric alpha stable process with continuous time frequently used in modeling the signal with indefinitely growing variance, often observed with an unknown additive error. The objective of this paper is to estimate this error from discrete observations of the signal. For that, we propose a method based on the smoothing of the observations via Jackson polynomial kernel and taking into account the width of the interval where the spectral density is non-zero. This technique allows avoiding the “Aliasing phenomenon” encountered when the estimation is made from the discrete observations of a process with continuous time. We have studied the convergence rate of the estimator and have shown that the convergence rate improves in the case where the spectral density is zero at the origin. Thus, we set up an estimator of the additive error that can be subtracted for approaching the original signal without error.

Keywords: spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, non parametric

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3004 An Improved Model of Estimation Global Solar Irradiation from in situ Data: Case of Oran Algeria Region

Authors: Houcine Naim, Abdelatif Hassini, Noureddine Benabadji, Alex Van Den Bossche


In this paper, two models to estimate the overall monthly average daily radiation on a horizontal surface were applied to the site of Oran (35.38 ° N, 0.37 °W). We present a comparison between the first one is a regression equation of the Angstrom type and the second model is developed by the present authors some modifications were suggested using as input parameters: the astronomical parameters as (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and meteorological parameters as (relative humidity). The comparisons are made using the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean percentage error (MPE), and mean absolute bias error (MABE). This comparison shows that the second model is closer to the experimental values that the model of Angstrom.

Keywords: meteorology, global radiation, Angstrom model, Oran

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3003 Sensor Registration in Multi-Static Sonar Fusion Detection

Authors: Longxiang Guo, Haoyan Hao, Xueli Sheng, Hanjun Yu, Jingwei Yin


In order to prevent target splitting and ensure the accuracy of fusion, system error registration is an important step in multi-static sonar fusion detection system. To eliminate the inherent system errors including distance error and angle error of each sonar in detection, this paper uses offline estimation method for error registration. Suppose several sonars from different platforms work together to detect a target. The target position detected by each sonar is based on each sonar’s own reference coordinate system. Based on the two-dimensional stereo projection method, this paper uses real-time quality control (RTQC) method and least squares (LS) method to estimate sensor biases. The RTQC method takes the average value of each sonar’s data as the observation value and the LS method makes the least square processing of each sonar’s data to get the observation value. In the underwater acoustic environment, matlab simulation is carried out and the simulation results show that both algorithms can estimate the distance and angle error of sonar system. The performance of the two algorithms is also compared through the root mean square error and the influence of measurement noise on registration accuracy is explored by simulation. The system error convergence of RTQC method is rapid, but the distribution of targets has a serious impact on its performance. LS method can not be affected by target distribution, but the increase of random noise will slow down the convergence rate. LS method is an improvement of RTQC method, which is widely used in two-dimensional registration. The improved method can be used for underwater multi-target detection registration.

Keywords: data fusion, multi-static sonar detection, offline estimation, sensor registration problem

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3002 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao


The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer

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3001 Discrete Estimation of Spectral Density for Alpha Stable Signals Observed with an Additive Error

Authors: R. Sabre, W. Horrigue, J. C. Simon


This paper is interested in two difficulties encountered in practice when observing a continuous time process. The first is that we cannot observe a process over a time interval; we only take discrete observations. The second is the process frequently observed with a constant additive error. It is important to give an estimator of the spectral density of such a process taking into account the additive observation error and the choice of the discrete observation times. In this work, we propose an estimator based on the spectral smoothing of the periodogram by the polynomial Jackson kernel reducing the additive error. In order to solve the aliasing phenomenon, this estimator is constructed from observations taken at well-chosen times so as to reduce the estimator to the field where the spectral density is not zero. We show that the proposed estimator is asymptotically unbiased and consistent. Thus we obtain an estimate solving the two difficulties concerning the choice of the instants of observations of a continuous time process and the observations affected by a constant error.

Keywords: spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, periodogram

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3000 Contributing to Accuracy of Bid Cost Estimate in Construction Projects

Authors: Abdullah Alhomidan


This study is conducted to identify the main factors affecting accuracy of pretender cost estimate in building construction projects in Saudi Arabia from owners’ perspective. 44 factors affecting pretender cost estimate were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The results show that the top important factors affecting pretender cost estimate accuracy are: level of competitors in the tendering, material price changes, communications with suppliers, communications with client, and estimating method used.

Keywords: cost estimate, accuracy, pretender, estimating, bid estimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
2999 Relevancy Measures of Errors in Displacements of Finite Elements Analysis Results

Authors: A. B. Bolkhir, A. Elshafie, T. K. Yousif


This paper highlights the methods of error estimation in finite element analysis (FEA) results. It indicates that the modeling error could be eliminated by performing finite element analysis with successively finer meshes or by extrapolating response predictions from an orderly sequence of relatively low degree of freedom analysis results. In addition, the paper eliminates the round-off error by running the code at a higher precision. The paper provides application in finite element analysis results. It draws a conclusion based on results of application of methods of error estimation.

Keywords: finite element analysis (FEA), discretization error, round-off error, mesh refinement, richardson extrapolation, monotonic convergence

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2998 Multiple Linear Regression for Rapid Estimation of Subsurface Resistivity from Apparent Resistivity Measurements

Authors: Sabiu Bala Muhammad, Rosli Saad


Multiple linear regression (MLR) models for fast estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity field measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The parameters investigated were apparent resistivity (ρₐ), horizontal location (X) and depth (Z) of measurement as the independent variables; and true resistivity (ρₜ) as the dependent variable. To achieve linearity in both resistivity variables, datasets were first transformed into logarithmic domain following diagnostic checks of normality of the dependent variable and heteroscedasticity to ensure accurate models. Four MLR models were developed based on hierarchical combination of the independent variables. The generated MLR coefficients were applied to another data set to estimate ρₜ values for validation. Contours of the estimated ρₜ values were plotted and compared to the observed data plots at the colour scale and blanking for visual assessment. The accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination (R²), standard error (SE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). It is concluded that the MLR models can estimate ρₜ for with high level of accuracy.

Keywords: apparent resistivity, depth, horizontal location, multiple linear regression, true resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
2997 An Adaptive Back-Propagation Network and Kalman Filter Based Multi-Sensor Fusion Method for Train Location System

Authors: Yu-ding Du, Qi-lian Bao, Nassim Bessaad, Lin Liu


The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is regarded as an effective approach for the purpose of replacing the large amount used track-side balises in modern train localization systems. This paper describes a method based on the data fusion of a GNSS receiver sensor and an odometer sensor that can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. A digital track map is needed as another sensor to project two-dimensional GNSS position to one-dimensional along-track distance due to the fact that the train’s position can only be constrained on the track. A model trained by BP neural network is used to estimate the trend positioning error which is related to the specific location and proximate processing of the digital track map. Considering that in some conditions the satellite signal failure will lead to the increase of GNSS positioning error, a detection step for GNSS signal is applied. An adaptive weighted fusion algorithm is presented to reduce the standard deviation of train speed measurement. Finally an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for the fusion of the projected 1-D GNSS positioning data and the 1-D train speed data to get the estimate position. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well, which can reduce positioning error notably.

Keywords: multi-sensor data fusion, train positioning, GNSS, odometer, digital track map, map matching, BP neural network, adaptive weighted fusion, Kalman filter

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2996 Low-Cost Reversible Logic Serial Multipliers with Error Detection Capability

Authors: Mojtaba Valinataj


Nowadays reversible logic has received many attentions as one of the new fields for reducing the power consumption. On the other hand, the processing systems have weaknesses against different external effects. In this paper, some error detecting reversible logic serial multipliers are proposed by incorporating the parity-preserving gates. This way, the new designs are presented for signed parity-preserving serial multipliers based on the Booth's algorithm by exploiting the new arrangements of existing gates. The experimental results show that the proposed 4×4 multipliers in this paper reach up to 20%, 35%, and 41% enhancements in the number of constant inputs, quantum cost, and gate count, respectively, as the reversible logic criteria, compared to previous designs. Furthermore, all the proposed designs have been generalized for n×n multipliers with general formulations to estimate the main reversible logic criteria as the functions of the multiplier size.

Keywords: Booth’s algorithm, error detection, multiplication, parity-preserving gates, quantum computers, reversible logic

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2995 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin


Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

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2994 High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee


Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error precompensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighbouring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error precompensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, error precompensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2993 Forecasting Stock Prices Based on the Residual Income Valuation Model: Evidence from a Time-Series Approach

Authors: Chen-Yin Kuo, Yung-Hsin Lee


Previous studies applying residual income valuation (RIV) model generally use panel data and single-equation model to forecast stock prices. Unlike these, this paper uses Taiwan longitudinal data to estimate multi-equation time-series models such as Vector Autoregressive (VAR), Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), and conduct out-of-sample forecasting. Further, this work assesses their forecasting performance by two instruments. In favor of extant research, the major finding shows that VECM outperforms other three models in forecasting for three stock sectors over entire horizons. It implies that an error correction term containing long-run information contributes to improve forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the pattern of composite shows that at longer horizon, VECM produces the greater reduction in errors, and performs substantially better than VAR.

Keywords: residual income valuation model, vector error correction model, out of sample forecasting, forecasting accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
2992 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang


To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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2991 Using Derivative Free Method to Improve the Error Estimation of Numerical Quadrature

Authors: Chin-Yun Chen


Numerical integration is an essential tool for deriving different physical quantities in engineering and science. The effectiveness of a numerical integrator depends on different factors, where the crucial one is the error estimation. This work presents an error estimator that combines a derivative free method to improve the performance of verified numerical quadrature.

Keywords: numerical quadrature, error estimation, derivative free method, interval computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2990 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt


The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: medical error, narrative, physician-patient relationship, qualitative research

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2989 A Semiparametric Approach to Estimate the Mode of Continuous Multivariate Data

Authors: Tiee-Jian Wu, Chih-Yuan Hsu


Mode estimation is an important task, because it has applications to data from a wide variety of sources. We propose a semi-parametric approach to estimate the mode of an unknown continuous multivariate density function. Our approach is based on a weighted average of a parametric density estimate using the Box-Cox transform and a non-parametric kernel density estimate. Our semi-parametric mode estimate improves both the parametric- and non-parametric- mode estimates. Specifically, our mode estimate solves the non-consistency problem of parametric mode estimates (at large sample sizes) and reduces the variability of non-parametric mode estimates (at small sample sizes). The performance of our method at practical sample sizes is demonstrated by simulation examples and two real examples from the fields of climatology and image recognition.

Keywords: Box-Cox transform, density estimation, mode seeking, semiparametric method

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2988 Arabic Character Recognition Using Regression Curves with the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

Authors: Abdullah A. AlShaher


In this paper, we demonstrate how regression curves can be used to recognize 2D non-rigid handwritten shapes. Each shape is represented by a set of non-overlapping uniformly distributed landmarks. The underlying models utilize 2nd order of polynomials to model shapes within a training set. To estimate the regression models, we need to extract the required coefficients which describe the variations for a set of shape class. Hence, a least square method is used to estimate such modes. We then proceed by training these coefficients using the apparatus Expectation Maximization algorithm. Recognition is carried out by finding the least error landmarks displacement with respect to the model curves. Handwritten isolated Arabic characters are used to evaluate our approach.

Keywords: character recognition, regression curves, handwritten Arabic letters, expectation maximization algorithm

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2987 An Observer-Based Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Control with Adjustable Membership Functions

Authors: Alireza Gholami, Amir H. D. Markazi


In this paper, an observer-based direct adaptive fuzzy sliding mode (OAFSM) algorithm is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the zero-input dynamics of the plant could be unknown. The input connection matrix is used to combine the sliding surfaces of individual subsystems, and an adaptive fuzzy algorithm is used to estimate an equivalent sliding mode control input directly. The fuzzy membership functions, which were determined by time consuming try and error processes in previous works, are adjusted by adaptive algorithms. The other advantage of the proposed controller is that the input gain matrix is not limited to be diagonal, i.e. the plant could be over/under actuated provided that controllability and observability are preserved. An observer is constructed to directly estimate the state tracking error, and the nonlinear part of the observer is constructed by an adaptive fuzzy algorithm. The main advantage of the proposed observer is that, the measured outputs is not limited to the first entry of a canonical-form state vector. The closed-loop stability of the proposed method is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. The proposed method is applied numerically on a multi-link robot manipulator, which verifies the performance of the closed-loop control. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with some conventional control algorithms.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, fuzzy systems, membership functions, observer

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2986 Variation of Refractive Errors among Right and Left Eyes in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Authors: F. B. Masok, S. S Songdeg, R. R. Dawam


Vision is an important process for learning and communication as man depends greatly on vision to sense his environment. Prevalence and variation of refractive errors conducted between December 2010 and May 2011 in Jos, revealed that 735 (77.50%) out 950 subjects examined for refractive error had various refractive errors. Myopia was observed in 373 (49.79%) of the subjects, the error in the right eyes was 263 (55.60%) while the error in the left was 210(44.39%). The mean myopic error was found to be -1.54± 3.32. Hyperopia was observed in 385 (40.53%) of the sampled population comprising 203(52.73%) of the right eyes and 182(47.27%). The mean hyperopic error was found to be +1.74± 3.13. Astigmatism accounted for 359 (38.84%) of the subjects, out of which 193(53.76%) were in the right eyes while 168(46.79%) were in the left eyes. Presbyopia was found in 404(42.53%) of the subjects, of this figure, 164(40.59%) were in the right eyes while 240(59.41%) were in left eyes. The number of right eyes and left eyes with refractive errors was observed in some age groups to increase with age and later had its peak within 60 – 69 age groups. This pattern of refractive errors could be attributed to exposure to various forms of light particularly the ultraviolet rays (e.g rays from television and computer screen). There was no remarkable differences between the mean Myopic error and mean Hyperopic error in the right eyes and in the left eyes which suggest the right eye and the left eye are similar.

Keywords: left eye, refractive errors, right eye, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2985 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang


Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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2984 A Study on the Influence of Planet Pin Parallelism Error to Load Sharing Factor

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Yong Yang, Gang Shen


In this paper, planet pin parallelism error, which is one of manufacturing error of planet carrier, is employed as a main variable to influence planet load sharing factor. This error is categorize two group: (i) pin parallelism error with rotation on the axis perpendicular to the tangent of base circle of gear(x axis rotation in this paper) (ii) pin parallelism error with rotation on the tangent axis of base circle of gear(y axis rotation in this paper). For this study, the planetary gear system in 1.5MW wind turbine is applied and pure torsional rigid body model of this planetary gear is built using Solidworks and MSC.ADAMS. Based on quantified parallelism error and simulation model, dynamics simulation of planetary gear is carried out to obtain dynamic mesh load results with each type of error and load sharing factor is calculated with mesh load results. Load sharing factor formula and the suggestion for planetary reliability design is proposed with the conclusion of this study.

Keywords: planetary gears, planet load sharing, MSC. ADAMS, parallelism error

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2983 Reliability of the Estimate of Earthwork Quantity Based on 3D-BIM

Authors: Jaechoul Shin, Juhwan Hwang


In case of applying the BIM method to the civil engineering in the area of free formed structure, we can expect comparatively high rate of construction productivity as it is in the building engineering area. In this research, we developed quantity calculation error applying it to earthwork and bridge construction (e.g. PSC-I type segmental girder bridge amd integrated bridge of steel I-girders and inverted-Tee bent cap), NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method) tunnel construction, retaining wall construction, culvert construction and implemented BIM based 3D modeling quantity survey. we confirmed high reliability of the BIM-based method in structure work in which errors occurred in range between -6% ~ +5%. Especially, understanding of the problem and improvement of the existing 2D-CAD based of quantity calculation through rock type quantity calculation error in range of -14% ~ +13% of earthwork quantity calculation. It is benefit and applicability of BIM method in civil engineering. In addition, routine method for quantity of earthwork has the same error tolerance negligible for that of structure work. But, rock type's quantity calculated as the error appears significantly to the reliability of 2D-based volume calculation shows that the problem could be. Through the estimating quantity of earthwork based 3D-BIM, proposed method has better reliability than routine method. BIM, as well as the design, construction, maintenance levels of information when you consider the benefits of integration, the introduction of BIM design in civil engineering and the possibility of applying for the effectiveness was confirmed.

Keywords: BIM, 3D modeling, 3D-BIM, quantity of earthwork

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2982 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady


We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

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2981 A Study on the Influence of Pin-Hole Position Error of Carrier on Mesh Load and Planet Load Sharing of Planetary Gear

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Gang Shen


For planetary gear system, Planet pin-hole position accuracy is one of most influential factor to efficiency and reliability of planetary gear system. This study considers planet pin-hole position error as a main input error for model and build multi body dynamic simulation model of planetary gear including planet pin-hole position error using MSC. ADAMS. From this model, the mesh load results between meshing gears in each pin-hole position error cases are obtained and based on these results, planet load sharing factor which reflect equilibrium state of mesh load sharing between whole meshing gear pair is calculated. Analysis result indicates that the pin-hole position error of tangential direction cause profound influence to mesh load and load sharing factor between meshing gear pair.

Keywords: planetary gear, load sharing factor, multibody dynamics, pin-hole position error

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
2980 A Low Order Thermal Envelope Model for Heat Transfer Characteristics of Low-Rise Residential Buildings

Authors: Nadish Anand, Richard D. Gould


A simplistic model is introduced for determining the thermal characteristics of a Low-rise Residential (LRR) building and then predicts the energy usage by its Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) system according to changes in weather conditions which are reflected in the Ambient Temperature (Outside Air Temperature). The LRR buildings are treated as a simple lump for solving the heat transfer problem and the model is derived using the lumped capacitance model of transient conduction heat transfer from bodies. Since most contemporary HVAC systems have a thermostat control which will have an offset temperature and user defined set point temperatures which define when the HVAC system will switch on and off. The aim is to predict without any error the Body Temperature (i.e. the Inside Air Temperature) which will estimate the switching on and off of the HVAC system. To validate the mathematical model derived from lumped capacitance we have used EnergyPlus simulation engine, which simulates Buildings with considerable accuracy. We have predicted through the low order model the Inside Air Temperature of a single house kept in three different climate zones (Detroit, Raleigh & Austin) and different orientations for summer and winter seasons. The prediction error from the model for the same day as that of model parameter calculation has showed an error of < 10% in winter for almost all the orientations and climate zones. Whereas the prediction error is only <10% for all the orientations in the summer season for climate zone at higher latitudes (Raleigh & Detroit). Possible factors responsible for the large variations are also noted in the work, paving way for future research.

Keywords: building energy, energy consumption, energy+, HVAC, low order model, lumped capacitance

Procedia PDF Downloads 203