Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 99

Search results for: Nicholas Lambert

99 New Coordinate System for Countries with Big Territories

Authors: Mohammed Sabri Ali Akresh

Abstract:

The modern technologies and developments in computer and Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) and total station TS. This paper presents a new proposal for coordinates system by a harmonic equations “United projections”, which have five projections (Mercator, Lambert, Russell, Lagrange, and compound of projection) in one zone coordinate system width 14 degrees, also it has one degree for overlap between zones, as well as two standards parallels for zone from 10 S to 45 S. Also this paper presents two cases; first case is to compare distances between a new coordinate system and UTM, second case creating local coordinate system for the city of Sydney to measure the distances directly from rectangular coordinates using projection of Mercator, Lambert and UTM.

Keywords: harmonic equations, coordinate system, projections, algorithms, parallels

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
98 A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction

Authors: Nicholas Lambert, Seungyeon Ryu, Mehmet Mulla, Albert Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.

Keywords: gesture, holographic interface, human-computer interaction, user-centered design

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97 On q-Non-extensive Statistics with Non-Tsallisian Entropy

Authors: Petr Jizba, Jan Korbel

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We combine an axiomatics of Rényi with the q-deformed version of Khinchin axioms to obtain a measure of information (i.e., entropy) which accounts both for systems with embedded self-similarity and non-extensivity. We show that the entropy thus obtained is uniquely solved in terms of a one-parameter family of information measures. The ensuing maximal-entropy distribution is phrased in terms of a special function known as the Lambert W-function. We analyze the corresponding ‘high’ and ‘low-temperature’ asymptotics and reveal a non-trivial structure of the parameter space.

Keywords: multifractals, Rényi information entropy, THC entropy, MaxEnt, heavy-tailed distributions

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96 Transformations between Bivariate Polynomial Bases

Authors: Dimitris Varsamis, Nicholas Karampetakis

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It is well known that any interpolating polynomial P(x,y) on the vector space Pn,m of two-variable polynomials with degree less than n in terms of x and less than m in terms of y has various representations that depends on the basis of Pn,m that we select i.e. monomial, Newton and Lagrange basis etc. The aim of this paper is twofold: a) to present transformations between the coordinates of the polynomial P(x,y) in the aforementioned basis and b) to present transformations between these bases.

Keywords: bivariate interpolation polynomial, polynomial basis, transformations, interpolating polynomial

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95 Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts

Authors: Craig Jantzen, Tim Abram, Dirk Engelberg, Hugues Lambert, Daniel Cooper

Abstract:

Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.

Keywords: molten salt, salt, corrosion, high temperature, licl, KCL, MgCl, molybdenum, nickel, superalloys

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94 Intertextuality as a Dialogue Between Postmodern Writer J. Fowles and Mid-English Writer J. Donne

Authors: Isahakyan Heghine

Abstract:

Intertextuality, being in the centre of attention of both linguists and literary critics, is vividly expressed in the outstanding British novelist and philosopher J. Fowles' works. 'The Magus’ is a deep psychological and philosophical novel with vivid intertextual links with the Greek mythology and authors from different epochs. The aim of the paper is to show how intertextuality might serve as a dialogue between two authors (J. Fowles and J. Donne) disguised in the dialogue of two protagonists of the novel : Conchis and Nicholas. Contrastive viewpoints concerning man's isolation, loneliness are stated in the dialogue. Due to the conceptual analysis of the text it becomes possible both to decode the conceptual information of the text and find out its intertextual links.

Keywords: dialogue, conceptual analysis, isolation, intertextuality

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93 Follower Upward Influence Tactics: A Review of Quantitative Studies

Authors: Najla Alshenaifi, Nicholas Clarke

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Interest in how followers may influence their leaders in order to achieve their goals can be traced to studies in the late 1970s. The last major review of the literature was published over a decade ago in 2002. It would seem timely then to take stock of the literature and consider what we have learned since then. In so doing, our aim is to derive an empirically-based framework for understanding the effects of upward influence tactics to underpin future research in the field. Many factors are identified as having a major effect on upward influence processes including goals of influence, culture, gender, leadership style and the outcome of influence. A key conclusion from our review is that although upward influence tactics can result in positive outcomes for followers, the results from many studies are more often than inconclusive.

Keywords: upward influence tactics, influence tactics, influence strategies, followership

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92 Biopolitics and Race in the Age of a Global Pandemic: Interactions and Transformations

Authors: Aistis ZekevicIus

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Biopolitical theory, which was first developed by Michel Foucault, takes into consideration the administration of life by implying a style of government based on the regulation of populations as its subject. The intensification of the #BlackLivesMatter movement and popular outcries against racial discrimination in the US health system have prompted us to reconsider the relationship between biopolitics and race in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on works by Foucault, Achille Mbembe and Nicholas Mirzoeff that transcend the boundaries of poststructuralism, critical theory and postcolonial studies, the paper suggests that the global pandemic has highlighted new aspects of the interplay between biopower and race by encouraging the search for scapegoats, deepening the structural racial inequality, and thus producing necropolitical regimes of exclusion.

Keywords: biopolitics, biopower, necropolitics, pandemic, race

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91 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Authors: Khattab Al Qaisi, Nicholas Bowring

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This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: DSI, SVPWM, THD, DC-AC converter, sampling frequency, performance

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90 Computational Approaches for Ballistic Impact Response of Stainless Steel 304

Authors: A. Mostafa

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical study on determination of ballistic limit velocity (V50) of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) used in manufacturing security screens. The simulated ballistic impact tests were conducted on clamped sheets with different thicknesses using ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear finite element (FE) package. The ballistic limit velocity was determined using three approaches, namely: numerical tests based on material properties, FE calculated residual velocities and FE calculated residual energies. Johnson-Cook plasticity and failure criterion were utilized to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the SS 304 under various strain rates, while the well-known Lambert-Jonas equation was used for the data regression for the residual velocity and energy model. Good agreement between the investigated numerical methods was achieved. Additionally, the dependence of the ballistic limit velocity on the sheet thickness was observed. The proposed approaches present viable and cost-effective assessment methods of the ballistic performance of SS 304, which will support the development of robust security screen systems.

Keywords: ballistic velocity, stainless steel, numerical approaches, security screen

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89 Digital Storytelling in the ELL Classroom: A Literature Review

Authors: Nicholas Jobe

Abstract:

English Language Learners (ELLs) often struggle in a classroom setting, too embarrassed at their skill level to write or speak in front of peers and too lacking in confidence to practice. Storytelling is an age-old method of teaching that allows learners to remember important details while listening or sharing a narrative. In the modern world, digital storytelling through the use of technological tools such as podcasts and videos allow students to safely interact with each other to build skills in a fun and engaging way that also works as a confidence booster. Specifically using a constructionist approach to learning, digital storytelling allows ELL students to grow and build new and prior knowledge by creating stories via these technological means. Research herein suggests, through the use of case studies and mixed methodologies, that digital storytelling mainly yields positive results for effective learning in an ELL classroom setting.

Keywords: digital storytelling, ELL, narrative, podcast

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88 Social Accountability: Persuasion and Debate to Contain Corruption

Authors: A. Lambert-Mogiliansky

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the properties of simple rules for reappointment aimed at holding a public official accountable and monitor his activity. The public official allocates budget resources to various activities which results in the delivery of public services to citizens. He has discretion over the use of resource so he can divert some of them for private ends. Because of a liability constraint, zero diversion can never be secured in all states. The optimal reappointment mechanism under complete information is shown to exhibit some leniency thus departing from the zero tolerance principle. Under asymmetric information (about the state), a rule with random verification in a pre-announced subset is shown to be optimal in a class of common rules. Surprisingly, those common rules make little use of hard information about service delivery when available. Similarly, PO's claim about his record is of no value to improve the performance of the examined rules. In contrast requesting that the PO defends his records publicly can be very useful if the service users are given the chance to refute false claims with cheap talk complaints: the first best complete information outcome can be approached in the absence of any observation by the manager of the accountability mechanism.

Keywords: accountability, corruption, persuasion, debate

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87 High-pressure Crystallographic Characterization of f-block Element Complexes

Authors: Nicholas B. Beck, Thomas E. Albrecht-Schönzart

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High-pressure results in decreases in the bond lengths of metal-ligand bonds, which has proven to be incredibly informative in uncovering differences in bonding between lanthanide and actinide complexes. The degree of f-electron contribution to the metal ligand bonds has been observed to increase under pressure by a far greater degree in the actinides than the lanthanides, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. However, the actual changes in bond lengths have yet to be quantified, although computationally predicted. By using high-pressure crystallographic techniques, crystal structures of lanthanide complexes have been obtained at pressures up to 5 GPa for both hard and soft-donor ligands. These studies have revealed some unpredicted changes in the coordination environment as well as provided experimental support to computational results

Keywords: crystallography, high-pressure, lanthanide, materials

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86 Modelling Consistency and Change of Social Attitudes in 7 Years of Longitudinal Data

Authors: Paul Campbell, Nicholas Biddle

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There is a complex, endogenous relationship between individual circumstances, attitudes, and behaviour. This study uses longitudinal panel data to assess changes in social and political attitudes over a 7-year period. Attitudes are captured with the question 'what is the most important issue facing Australia today', collected at multiple time points in a longitudinal survey of 2200 Australians. Consistency of attitudes, and factors predicting change over time, are assessed. The consistency of responses has methodological implications for data collection, specifically how often such questions ought to be asked of a population. When change in attitude is observed, this study assesses the extent to which individual demographic characteristics, personality traits, and broader societal events predict change.

Keywords: attitudes, longitudinal survey analysis, personality, social values

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85 Initial Dip: An Early Indicator of Neural Activity in Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Waveform

Authors: Mannan Malik Muhammad Naeem, Jeong Myung Yung

Abstract:

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has a favorable position in non-invasive brain imaging techniques. The concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin and de-oxygenated hemoglobin during particular cognitive activity is the basis for this neuro-imaging modality. Two wavelengths of near-infrared light can be used with modified Beer-Lambert law to explain the indirect status of neuronal activity inside brain. The temporal resolution of fNIRS is very good for real-time brain computer-interface applications. The portability, low cost and an acceptable temporal resolution of fNIRS put it on a better position in neuro-imaging modalities. In this study, an optimization model for impulse response function has been used to estimate/predict initial dip using fNIRS data. In addition, the activity strength parameter related to motor based cognitive task has been analyzed. We found an initial dip that remains around 200-300 millisecond and better localize neural activity.

Keywords: fNIRS, brain-computer interface, optimization algorithm, adaptive signal processing

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84 Updating Stochastic Hosting Capacity Algorithm for Voltage Optimization Programs and Interconnect Standards

Authors: Nicholas Burica, Nina Selak

Abstract:

The ADHCAT (Automated Distribution Hosting Capacity Assessment Tool) was designed to run Hosting Capacity Analysis on the ComEd system via a stochastic DER (Distributed Energy Resource) placement on multiple power flow simulations against a set of violation criteria. The violation criteria in the initial version of the tool captured a limited amount of issues that individual departments design against for DER interconnections. Enhancements were made to the tool to further align with individual department violation and operation criteria, as well as the addition of new modules for use for future load profile analysis. A reporting engine was created for future analytical use based on the simulations and observations in the tool.

Keywords: distributed energy resources, hosting capacity, interconnect, voltage optimization

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83 Methodology of Geometry Simplification for Conjugate Heat Transfer of Electrical Rotating Machines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sachin Aggarwal, Sarah Kassinger, Nicholas Hoffman

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Geometry simplification is a key step in performing conjugate heat transfer analysis using CFD. This paper proposes a standard methodology for the geometry simplification of rotating machines, such as electrical generators and electrical motors (both air and liquid-cooled). These machines are extensively deployed throughout the aerospace and automotive industries, where optimization of weight, volume, and performance is paramount -especially given the current global transition to renewable energy sources and vehicle hybridization and electrification. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is an essential step in optimizing their complex design. This methodology will help in reducing convergence issues due to poor mesh quality, thus decreasing computational cost and overall analysis time.

Keywords: CFD, electrical machines, Geometry simplification, heat transfer

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82 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen

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The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

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81 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid

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Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: macronutrients absorption, optical spectroscopy, soil, absorption

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80 The Determination of Aflatoxins in Paddy and Milled Fractions of Rice in Guyana: Preliminary Results

Authors: Donna M. Morrison, Lambert Chester, Coretta A. N. Samuels, David R. Ledoux

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A survey was conducted in the five rice-growing regions in Guyana to determine the presence of aflatoxins in multiple fractions of rice in June/October 2015 growing season. The fractions were paddy, steamed paddy, cargo rice, white rice and parboiled rice. Samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A subset of the samples was further analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concurrence. All analyses were conducted at the University of Missouri, USA. Of the 186 samples tested, 16 had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 20 ppb the recommended limit for aflatoxins in food according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. An additional three samples had aflatoxin B1 concentrations greater than the European Union Commission maximum levels for aflatoxin B1 in rice at 5 µg/kg and total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at 10 µg/kg. The survey indicates that there is no widespread aflatoxin problem in rice in Guyana. The incidence of aflatoxins appears to be localized.

Keywords: aflatoxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rice fractions

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79 An Empirical Investigation of Big Data Analytics: The Financial Performance of Users versus Vendors

Authors: Evisa Mitrou, Nicholas Tsitsianis, Supriya Shinde

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In the age of digitisation and globalisation, businesses have shifted online and are investing in big data analytics (BDA) to respond to changing market conditions and sustain their performance. Our study shifts the focus from the adoption of BDA to the impact of BDA on financial performance. We explore the financial performance of both BDA-vendors (business-to-business) and BDA-clients (business-to-customer). We distinguish between the five BDA-technologies (big-data-as-a-service (BDaaS), descriptive, diagnostic, predictive, and prescriptive analytics) and discuss them individually. Further, we use four perspectives (internal business process, learning and growth, customer, and finance) and discuss the significance of how each of the five BDA-technologies affects the performance measures of these four perspectives. We also present the analysis of employee engagement, average turnover, average net income, and average net assets for BDA-clients and BDA-vendors. Our study also explores the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on business continuity for both BDA-vendors and BDA-clients.

Keywords: BDA-clients, BDA-vendors, big data analytics, financial performance

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78 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis

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In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

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77 Iran’s Dual Geopolitical Approach towards African States

Authors: Dragos Ardeleanu, Silviu-Valentin Petre

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Written to satisfy the needs of Western powers, classical geopolitics bore the stint of Eurocentrism. Both Mackinder’s heartland and Nicholas Spykman’s rimland were intellectual creations set for the purpose of the Anglophone nations dealing with Eurasia. However, while today’s world is moving towards multipolarity, other emerging regional actors are following their own interests using a different geospatial map. Such is the case of Iran which has developed an engagement pattern in Africa, directed mostly towards costal states, in order to break the rimland grip of Arab states and also the international pressure established against Tehran’s nascent nuclear program. Capitalizing on literature review and analysing statements from key public figures, our paper argues that Iranian African geopolitics displays a dual message: on the one hand, it uses tiers-mondiste rhetoric to garner the support of different coastal African states and, on the other hand, it employs Shiism to gain a foothold in strategic parts of the black continent.

Keywords: African geopolitics, Iran, Shiism, tiers-mondisme

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76 Distance Education: Using a Digital Platform to Improve Struggling University Students' Mathematical Skills

Authors: Robert Vanderburg, Nicholas Gibson

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Objectives: There has been an increased focus in education students’ mathematics skills in the last two years. Universities have, specifically, had problems teaching students struggling with mathematics. This paper focuses on the ability of a digital platform to significantly improve mathematics skills for struggling students. Methods: 32 students who demonstrated low scores on a mathematics test were selected to take part in a one-month tutorial program using a digital mathematics portal. Students were provided feedback for questions posted on the portal and a fortnightly tutorial session. Results: A pre-test post-test design was analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The analysis suggested that students improved skills in algebra, geometry, statistics, probability, ratios, fractions, and probability. Conclusion: Distance university students can improve their mathematics skills using a digital platform.

Keywords: digital education, distance education, higher education, mathematics education

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75 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert

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Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

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74 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

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Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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73 A Case Study of Meningoencephalitis following Le Fort I Osteotomy

Authors: Ryan Goh, Nicholas Beech

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Introduction: Le Fort I Osteotomies, although are common procedures in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, carry a degree of risk of unfavourable propagation of the down-fracture of the maxilla. This may be the first reported case in the literature for meningoencephalitis to occur following a Le Fort I Osteotomy. Case: A 32-year-old female was brought into the Emergency Department four days after a Le Fort I Osteotomy, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 (E3V1M4). A Computed Tomography (CT) Head showed a skull base fracture at the right sphenoid sinus. Lumbar puncture was completed, and Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). She was treated with Meropenem, and rapidly improved thereafter. CSF rhinorrhoea was identified when she was extubated, which was successfully managed via a continuous lumbar drain. She was discharged on day 14 without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: The most likely aspect of the Le Fort I Osteotomy to obtain a skull base fracture is during the pterygomaxillary disjunction. Care should always be taken to avoid significant risks of skull base fractures, CSF rhinorrhoea, meningitis and encephalitis.

Keywords: meningitis, orthognathic surgery, post-operative complication, skull base, rhinorrhea

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72 Newly-Rediscovered Manuscripts Talking about Seventeenth-Century French Harpsichord Pedagogy

Authors: David Chung

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The development of seventeenth-century French harpsichord music is enigmatic in several respects. Although little is known about the formation of this style before 1650 (we have names of composers, but no surviving music), the style has attained a high degree of refinement and sophistication in the music of the earliest known masters (e.g. Chambonnières, Louis Couperin and D’Anglebert). In fact, how the seventeenth-century musicians acquired the skills of their art remains largely steeped in mystery, as the earliest major treatise on French keyboard pedagogy was not published until 1702 by Saint Lambert. This study fills this lacuna by surveying some twenty recently-rediscovered manuscripts, which offer ample materials for revisiting key issues pertaining to seventeenth-century harpsichord pedagogy. By analyzing the musical contents, the verbal information and explicit notation (such as written-out ornaments and rhythmic effects), this study provides a rich picture of the process of learning at the time, with engaging details of performance nuances often lacking in tutors and treatises. Of even greater significance, that creative skills (such as continuo and ornamentation) were taught alongside fundamental knowledge (solfèges, note values, etc.) at the earliest stage of learning offers fresh challenge for modern pedagogues to rethink how harpsichord pedagogy can be revamped to cater for our own pedagogical and aesthetic needs.

Keywords: French, harpsichord, pedagogy, seventeenth century

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71 Experimental Investigation of Cup Anemometer under Static and Dynamic Wind Direction Changes: Evaluation of Directional Sensitivity

Authors: Vaibhav Rana, Nicholas Balaresque

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The 3-cup anemometer is the most commonly used instrument for wind speed measurement and, consequently, for the wind resource assessment. Though the cup anemometer shows accurate measurement under quasi-static conditions, there is uncertainty in the measurement when subjected to field measurement. Sensitivity to the angle of attacks with respect to horizontal plane, dynamic response, and non-linear behavior in calibration due to friction. The presented work aimed to identify the sensitivity of anemometer to non-horizontal flow. The cup anemometer was investigated under low wind speed wind tunnel, first under the static flow direction changes and second under the dynamic direction changes, at a different angle of attacks, under the similar conditions of reference wind tunnel speeds. The cup anemometer response under both conditions was evaluated and compared. The results showed the anemometer under dynamic wind direction changes is highly sensitive compared to static conditions.

Keywords: wind energy, cup anemometer, directional sensitivity, dynamic behavior, wind tunnel

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70 Machine Learning-Enabled Classification of Climbing Using Small Data

Authors: Nicholas Milburn, Yu Liang, Dalei Wu

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Athlete performance scoring within the climbing do-main presents interesting challenges as the sport does not have an objective way to assign skill. Assessing skill levels within any sport is valuable as it can be used to mark progress while training, and it can help an athlete choose appropriate climbs to attempt. Machine learning-based methods are popular for complex problems like this. The dataset available was composed of dynamic force data recorded during climbing; however, this dataset came with challenges such as data scarcity, imbalance, and it was temporally heterogeneous. Investigated solutions to these challenges include data augmentation, temporal normalization, conversion of time series to the spectral domain, and cross validation strategies. The investigated solutions to the classification problem included light weight machine classifiers KNN and SVM as well as the deep learning with CNN. The best performing model had an 80% accuracy. In conclusion, there seems to be enough information within climbing force data to accurately categorize climbers by skill.

Keywords: classification, climbing, data imbalance, data scarcity, machine learning, time sequence

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