Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13591

Search results for: urban design and planning

13591 Characteristics of New Town Planning between Neighborhood Unit and New Urbanism in Korea

Authors: In Su Na, Dongyeon Seo, Hwanyong Kim

Abstract:

This research focuses on new town planning methodology in aspects of Neighborhood Unit Formula and New Urbanism. In Korea, there were built many new towns since 1980’s. The urban design concepts also shifted variously in land use, transportation, open spaces and architectural design. This research aims to find out urban design planning and factors in each new town planning through comparison of four new town cases in aspects of land use, transportation and building design of metropolitan area of Seoul. In conclusion the recent new town has created an area with a unique place that has not been seen in the early new town, and it has a certain aspect that is in line with the planning principles of New Urbanism.

Keywords: compact city, neighborhood unit formula, new town planning, new urbanism

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13590 A Comprehensive Approach to Create ‘Livable Streets’ in the Mixed Land Use of Urban Neighborhoods Applying Urban Design Principles Which Will Achieve Quality of Life for Pedestrians

Authors: K. C. Tanuja, Mamatha P. Raj

Abstract:

Urbanisation is happening rapidly all over the world. As population increasing in the urban settlements, its required to provide quality of life to all the inhabitants who live in. Urban design is a place making strategic planning. Urban design principles promote visualising any place environmentally, socially and economically viable. Urban design strategies include building mass, transit development, economic viability and sustenance and social aspects.

Keywords: livable streets, social interaction, pedestrian use, urban design

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
13589 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu

Abstract:

Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: character areas, urban intensification, urban morphology, urban landscape

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13588 Optimising Urban Climate at Mesoscale: The Case of Floor-Area-Ratio Modelling and Energy Planning Integration

Authors: Ali Cheshmehzangi, Ayotunde Dawodu

Abstract:

In urban planning, Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of the site plays a major role in the multiplicity of performances, from humane living environments to energy performance. When one considers the astounding volume of new housing that is going to be constructed across the globe during the next few decades due to growing urbanisation (e.g. particularly in developing world), it is imperative that we have an empirically grounded grasp of which building configurations are more energy efficient. As a common planning metric, it would be helpful to know exactly how managing FAR connects with energy efficiency. Hence, this study puts together a set of modelling of various FARs for a typical residential compound and address the considerations of energy planning integration in the practice of building configuration and urban planning. Such decision makings at the planning and design stage enable us to provide pathways of optimising urban climate at mesoscale of the built environment, i.e. the neighbourhood or community level. In this study, a comparative study is conducted using Eco-Tect Software, using a case study in the City of Ningbo, China. Findings of the study contribute to identifying scenarios of various FAR use and energy planning at mesoscale. The final results contribute to studies in urban climate, from the perspectives of urban planning, energy planning, and urban modelling.

Keywords: China, energy planning, FAR, floor-area-ratio, mesoscale, urban climate, urban modelling

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13587 Knowledge Integration from Concept to Practice: An Exploratory Study of Designing a Flood Resilient Urban Park in Viet Nam

Authors: To Quyen Le, Oswald Devisch, Tu Anh Trinh, Els Hannes

Abstract:

Urban centres worldwide are affected differently by flooding. In Vietnam this impact is increasingly negative caused by a process of rapid urbanisation. Traditional spatial planning and flood mitigation planning are not able to deal with this growing threat. This article therefore proposes to focus on increasing the participation of local communities in flood control and management. It explores, on the basis of a design studio exercise, how lay knowledge on flooding can be integrated within planning processes. The article presents a theoretical basis for the structured criterion for site selection for a flood resilient urban park from the perspective of science, then discloses the tacit and explicit knowledge of the flood-prone area and finally integrates this knowledge into the design strategies for flood resilient urban park design.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, AHP, design resilience, flood resilient urban park, knowledge integration

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13586 Planning and Design Criteria to Make Urban Transport More Sustainable: The Case of Baku

Authors: Gülnar Bayramoğlu Barman

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, technological developments and increased population have caused environmental damages. To protect the nature and architectural environment, firstly, green architecture, ecological architecture and then sustainability occurred. This term has been proposed not to be a new term but a response to environmental disturbances caused by human activities and it is re-conceptualization of architecture. Sustainable architecture or sustainability is lot more extensive than ecological and green architecture. It contains the imbalance between environmental problems that is natural environment and consumption that occurred all around the world. An important part of sustainability debate focused on urban planning and design for more sustainable forms and patterns. In particular, it is discussed that planning and design of urban areas have a major effect on transport and therefore can help reduce car usage, emissions, global warming and climate change. There are many planning and design approaches and movement that introduce certain criteria and strategies to prevent car dependency and encourage people to use public transportation and walking. However, when review the literature, it is seen that planning movements, such as New Urbanism and Transit Oriented Development originated and were implemented mostly in West European and North American Cities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether all those criteria, principles and strategies are also relevant planning approaches for more non-western cities like Baku, which has a very different planning background and therefore possibly different urban form and transport issues. In order to answer the above mentioned question, planning and design approaches in the literature and these recent planning movements were studied and a check list was formed which indicate planning and design approaches that can help attain a more sustainable transport outcome. The checklist was then applied to the case of Baku.

Keywords: sustainability, sustainable development, sustainable transportation, transport, urban design

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13585 Innovation in Sustainable Development: Sustainable Place-Making Strategies in Hong Kong

Authors: Tris Kee

Abstract:

As the urban design discipline develops renewed interests in participatory design and collaborative place-making, it becomes critical to review the potential and limitations in current processes to ensure a sustainable method for future development.This paper explores how collaborative design can be a key to future sustainable urban development through two case studies from Asia.The process involves a multi-disciplinary collaboration and an innovative learning process by sharing ideas as well as careful consideration on social, economic and political circumstances among government and district stakeholders.This intrinsic proposition of innovative participatory planning implies interdisciplinary collaboration between professionals and local residents to integrate knowledge into new urban place-making thinking.Design innovation in contemporary society can manifest itself in the discourse sustainable urban development by bottom-up planning and community driven design. This paper examines the emerging design pedagogy which promotes interdisciplinary coalition of professionals and local stakeholders in community development as an innovative design rubric to create a sustainable urban approach.Through two case studies in Hong Kong, this paper reviews and critically evaluates the process of how the notion of sustainable development in contemporary urban planning theory is underpinned by the collaborative design practice.

Keywords: collaborative design, design innovation, sustainable development, urban development

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13584 The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities

Authors: Liang Zhang

Abstract:

Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.

Keywords: Chinese traditional gardens, eco-garden city, modern urban planning, urban development

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
13583 Strengthening Urban Governance and Planning Practices for Urban Sustainability Transformations in Cambodia

Authors: Fiona Lord

Abstract:

This paper presents research on strengthening urban governance and planning practices for sustainable and regenerative city transformations looking at urban governance in Cambodia as a case study. Transformations to urban sustainability and regeneration require systemic and long-term transformation processes, across multiple levels of society and inclusive of multiple urban actors. This paper presents the emerging findings of a qualitative case study comparing the urban governance and planning practices in two of Cambodia's secondary cities - Battambang and Sihanoukville. The lessons learned have broader implications for how governance and planning can be strengthened to initiate and sustain urban sustainability transformations in other developing country cities of Cambodia and the Southeast Asia region.

Keywords: Cambodia, planning practices, urban governance, urban sustainability transformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
13582 On the Paradigm Shift of the Overall Urban Design in China

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen, Junnan Liu

Abstract:

Facing a period of major change that’s rarely seen in a century, China formulates the 14th Five-Year Plan and places emphasis on promoting high-quality development. In this context, the overall urban design has become a crucial and systematic tool for high-quality urban development. However, there are bottlenecks in the nature definition, content scope and transmission mechanisms of the current overall urban design in China. The paper interprets the emerging demands of the 14th Five-Year Plan on urban design in terms of new value-quality priority, new dynamic-space performance, new target-region coordination and new path-refined governance. Based on the new trend and appeal, the multi-dimensional thinking integrated with the major tasks of urban design are proposed accordingly, which is the biomass thinking in ecological, production and living element, the strategic thinking in spatial structure, the systematic thinking in the cityscape, the low-carbon thinking in urban form, the governance thinking in public space, the user thinking in design implementation. The paper explores the possibility of transforming the value thinking and technical system of urban design in China and provides a breakthrough path for the urban planning and design industry to better respond to the propositions of the country’s 14th Five-Year Plan.

Keywords: China’s 14th five-year plan, overall urban design, urban design thinking, transformation of urban design

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13581 Transit Network Design Problem Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mahmoud Owais

Abstract:

Public Transit (P.T) is very important means to reduce traffic congestion, to improve urban environmental conditions and consequently affects people social lives. Planning, designing and management of P.T are the key issues for offering a competitive mode that can compete with the private transportation. These transportation planning, designing and management issues are addressed in the Transit Network Design Problem (TNDP). It deals with a complete hierarchy of decision making process. It includes strategic, tactical and operational decisions. The main body of TNDP is two stages, namely; route design stage and frequency setting. The TNDP is extensively studied in the last five decades; however the research gate is still widely open due to its many practical and modeling challenges. In this paper, a comprehensive background is given to illustrate the issues and challenges related to the TNDP to help in directing the incoming researches towards the untouched areas of the problem.

Keywords: frequency setting, network design, transit planning, urban planning

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13580 The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

Authors: Jens-Phillip Petersen

Abstract:

The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies in Europe, because buildings are responsible for a major share of the final energy consumption. It is at local scale where policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures get implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper, the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful transitions towards a holistic urban energy planning procedures were identified.

Keywords: energy planning, urban planning, renewable energies, sustainable cities

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13579 Public Participation as a Social Inclusion Tool in the Urban Planning Process: A Case Study of Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Nwachi Prosper Louis, Cynthia Ogonna Ikesee

Abstract:

The urban planning system of cities varies by country, but in general, it is an instrument for establishing long-term sustainable frameworks and plans for social, institutional and economic development. There is limited knowledge, development, and implementation of effective and sustainable urban planning structures and plans that encourage social inclusion in most communities. This has led to social, economic and environmental deficiencies resulting in community isolation and segregation in class, ethnicity, and race. Encouraging public participation in the urban planning process is one of the instruments that cities can utilise to achieve better social inclusion outcomes. This paper explores how public participation can be used as a social inclusion tool in the urban planning process to achieve better outcomes in Abuja urban planning system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of this approach. Also, a conceptual model was developed which evaluates the relationship between public participation and social inclusion outcomes in the urban planning process. It was seen that every community has its peculiar way of life and challenges, and an understanding of these social societal needs is paramount in the urban planning process. Therefore, the involvement of the public in identifying their needs, selecting priorities and identifying strategies offer better chances for developing solutions that are sustainable, feasible and implementable.

Keywords: public participation, social inclusion, urban planning, urban planning process

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13578 Urban Planning Compilation Problems in China and the Corresponding Optimization Ideas under the Vision of the Hyper-Cycle Theory

Authors: Hong Dongchen, Chen Qiuxiao, Wu Shuang

Abstract:

Systematic science reveals the complex nonlinear mechanisms of behaviour in urban system. However, in China, when the current city planners face with the system, most of them are still taking simple linear thinking to consider the open complex giant system. This paper introduces the hyper-cycle theory, which is one of the basis theories of systematic science, based on the analysis of the reasons why the current urban planning failed, and proposals for optimization ideas that urban planning compilation should change, from controlling quantitative to the changes of relationship, from blueprint planning to progressive planning based on the nonlinear characteristics and from management control to dynamically monitor feedback.

Keywords: systematic science, hyper-cycle theory, urban planning, urban management

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
13577 Enabling Quantitative Urban Sustainability Assessment with Big Data

Authors: Changfeng Fu

Abstract:

Sustainable urban development has been widely accepted a common sense in the modern urban planning and design. However, the measurement and assessment of urban sustainability, especially the quantitative assessment have been always an issue obsessing planning and design professionals. This paper will present an on-going research on the principles and technologies to develop a quantitative urban sustainability assessment principles and techniques which aim to integrate indicators, geospatial and geo-reference data, and assessment techniques together into a mechanism. It is based on the principles and techniques of geospatial analysis with GIS and statistical analysis methods. The decision-making technologies and methods such as AHP and SMART are also adopted to address overall assessment conclusions. The possible interfaces and presentation of data and quantitative assessment results are also described. This research is based on the knowledge, situations and data sources of UK, but it is potentially adaptable to other countries or regions. The implementation potentials of the mechanism are also discussed.

Keywords: urban sustainability assessment, quantitative analysis, sustainability indicator, geospatial data, big data

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13576 "Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?

Keywords: strategic planning, project, urban project stakeholders, management

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13575 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

Abstract:

The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront

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13574 A Study of the Planning and Designing of the Built Environment under the Green Transit-Oriented Development

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey

Abstract:

In recent years, the problems of global climate change and natural disasters have induced the concerns and attentions of environmental sustainability issues for the public. Aside from the environmental planning efforts done for human environment, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been widely used as one of the future solutions for the sustainable city development. In order to be more consistent with the urban sustainable development, the development of the built environment planning based on the concept of Green TOD which combines both TOD and Green Urbanism is adapted here. The connotation of the urban development under the green TOD including the design toward environment protect, the maximum enhancement resources and the efficiency of energy use, use technology to construct green buildings and protected areas, natural ecosystems and communities linked, etc. Green TOD is not only to provide the solution to urban traffic problems, but to direct more sustainable and greener consideration for future urban development planning and design. In this study, we use both the TOD and Green Urbanism concepts to proceed to the study of the built environment planning and design. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) is utilized to screen suitable criteria of the green TOD. Furthermore, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) were then developed to evaluate the criteria and prioritize the alternatives. The study results can be regarded as the future guidelines of the built environment planning and designing under green TOD development in Taiwan.

Keywords: green TOD, built environment, fuzzy delphi technique, quality function deployment, fuzzy analytic network process

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13573 An Exploration of Architecture Design Methods in Urban Fringe Belt Based on Typo-Morphological Research- A Case of Expansion Project of the Second Middle School in Xuancheng, China

Authors: Dong Yinan, Zhou Zijie

Abstract:

Urban fringe belt is an important part of urban morphology research. Different from the relatively fixed central district of city, the position of fringe belt is changing. In the process of urban expansion, the original fringe belt is likely to be merged by the new-built city, even become new city public center. During the change, we are facing the dialectic between restoring the organicity of old urban form and creating new urban image. There are lots of relevant research in urban scale, but when we focus on building scale, rare design method can be proposed, thus some new individual building cannot match the overall urban planning intent. The expansion project of the second middle school in Xuancheng is facing this situation. The existing campus is located in the south fringe belt of Xuancheng, Anhui province, China, adjacent to farmland and ponds. While based on the Xucheng urban planning, the farmland and ponds will be transformed into a big lake, around which new public center will be built; the expansion of the school becomes an important part of the boundary of the new public center. Therefore, the expansion project faces challenges from both urban and building scale. In urban scale, we analyze and summarize the fringe belt characters through the reading of existing and future urban organism, in order to determine the form of the expansion project. Meanwhile, in building scale, we study on different types of school buildings and select appropriate type which can satisfy to both urban form and school function. This research attempts to investigate design methods based on an under construction project in Xuancheng, a historic city in southeast China. It also aims to bridge the gap from urban design to individual building design through the typo-morphological research.

Keywords: design methods, urban fringe belt, typo-morphological research, middle school

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13572 Physical Planning Antidote to Urban Malice

Authors: Adelayo Akeem Jolaoye

Abstract:

Historically urban centers serve as the fulcrum upon which significant complex social and economic development rest. Despite their fixed geographical locations, though in different degree, cities generate self-sustenance and multiplier effects in all aspects of life. They also house inestimable human capital, which serves as a power house for future generation transformation requirements. Unfortunately, the untamed global urbanization process has resulted in an unimaginable damage to the urban social structure as well as urban environmental value. The preceding has caused cities failure in performing their expected roles worst still becoming a regional burden and national liabilities. This paper briefly discusses the ecological concept of urban settlements and reviews the world historical urban evolution and growth. Also, given the above-mentioned anomalies, the paper also raised conceptual principles of urban planning as well as administrative policies for its strategic management.

Keywords: city, urbanization, urban planning, urban malice

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13571 On Figuring the City Characteristics and Landscape in Overall Urban Design: A Case Study in Xiangyang Central City, China

Authors: Guyue Zhu, Liangping Hong

Abstract:

Chinese overall urban design faces a large number of problems such as the neglect of urban characteristics, generalization of content, and difficulty in implementation. Focusing on these issues, this paper proposes the main points of shaping urban characteristics in overall urban design: focuses on core problems in city function and scale, landscape pattern, historical culture, social resources and modern city style and digs the urban characteristic genes. Then, we put forward “core problem location and characteristic gene enhancement” as a kind of overall urban design technical method. Firstly, based on the main problems in urban space as a whole, for the operability goal, the method extracts the key genes and integrates into the multi-dimension system in a targeted manner. Secondly, hierarchical management and guidance system is established which may be in line with administrative management. Finally, by converting the results, action plan is drawn up that can be dynamically implemented. Based on the above idea and method, a practical exploration has been performed in the case of Xiangyang central city.

Keywords: city characteristics, overall urban design, planning implementation, Xiangyang central city

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13570 The Planning Strategies of Public Sports Facilities Based on the Field Investigation: Case Study of Songyuan, China

Authors: Li Hua Li, Ling Ling Li

Abstract:

With the National Fitness Program being established as a national strategy by the Chinese government, Chinese old planning strategies of sports facilities which are based on the purpose for hosting high-level sports events have been failed to meet the rapid growth of Chinese residents’ healthy needs. As the most important carrier for promoting the health of citizens in China, public sports facilities may have further conflicts when they are planned without considering the characteristics of the city itself and the fitness needs of the urban residents. With the planning practice in Songyuan in northeastern China, this paper explores the key planning strategies of public sports facilities through the field investigation to obtain the current situation of public sports facilities in Songyuan and the questionnaire to get the date of Songyuan residents’ fitness characteristics and needs. Findings from this investigation suggest that the planning of public sports facilities in Songyuan should first increase the quantities of public sports facilities at the community level, which could match the fitness population and meet the fitness needs in Songyuan. Secondly, the planning should combine with other available resources, such as urban parks, squares and other places where Songyuan residents often choose to do physical activities to enhance the vitality of public sports facilities. Finally, the planning should also link the urban transportation system in Songyuan to improve the accessibility and efficiency of public sports facilities. All these planning strategies could provide essential information for updating the urban and regional design of Songyuan.

Keywords: field investigation, healthy needs, public sports facilities, planning strategies, questionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
13569 Urban Design and Social Capital in Spontaneous Settlements

Authors: Vilar, Katila

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization have made of spontaneous settlements one of the dominant´s social subjects of the XXIst century. Currently, it´s recognized that these territories cannot easily be eradicated and are a way of life to many populations of emergent countries. Since late 90s, there is an urgent concern in finding planning and efficient urban design strategies to poverty reduction, spatial integration and social inclusion of low-income communities. The article aims to identify, understand and evaluate the social inclusion´s processes through the urban transformation that has been undertaken in Moravia and how they affected the community´s social capital. To achieve this objective, we start to analyse the PPMIM´s planning discourse in which prevails the sustainability´s concept, to further identify, through the analysis of the project carried out, the urban design strategies implemented and their impact on the perception and on the community´s experience, and, finally, how these focused on the social capital. It relies on concepts such as urban design, social capital, local development and sustainability. At the urban design level it starts on the current principles of “making places”, on the new urbanism concepts and on the practices on the ground carried out by a new generation of architects/planners whose have the main ethical approach in order to create more opportunities and greater social impact to these territories. At the social capital´s level and on the development´s theory, relies on authors such as Coleman, Putman Kliksberg and Amartya Sen. Finally, it aims to address a general discussion about the positive and negative implications of slum upgrading programmes and some necessary recommendations for urban design and social capital can really be translated into real resources for the self sustainable development of low-income communities and their future generations.

Keywords: local and sustainable development, social capital, spontaneous settlements, urban design

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13568 Thermal Comfort and Outdoor Urban Spaces in the Hot Dry City of Damascus, Syria

Authors: Lujain Khraiba

Abstract:

Recently, there is a broad recognition that micro-climate conditions contribute to the quality of life in urban spaces outdoors, both from economical and social viewpoints. The consideration of urban micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort in urban design and planning processes has become one of the important aspects in current related studies. However, these aspects are so far not considered in urban planning regulations in practice and these regulations are often poorly adapted to the local climate and culture. Therefore, there is a huge need to adapt the existing planning regulations to the local climate especially in cities that have extremely hot weather conditions. The overall aim of this study is to point out the complexity of the relationship between urban planning regulations, urban design, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort in the hot dry city of Damascus, Syria. The main aim is to investigate the temporal and spatial effects of micro-climate on urban surface temperatures and outdoor thermal comfort in different urban design patterns as a result of urban planning regulations during the extreme summer conditions. In addition, studying different alternatives of how to mitigate the surface temperature and thermal stress is also a part of the aim. The novelty of this study is to highlight the combined effect of urban surface materials and vegetation to develop the thermal environment. This study is based on micro-climate simulations using ENVI-met 3.1. The input data is calibrated according to a micro-climate fieldwork that has been conducted in different urban zones in Damascus. Different urban forms and geometries including the old and the modern parts of Damascus are thermally evaluated. The Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index is used as an indicator for outdoor thermal comfort analysis. The study highlights the shortcomings of existing planning regulations in terms of solar protection especially at street levels. The results show that the surface temperatures in Old Damascus are lower than in the modern part. This is basically due to the difference in urban geometries that prevent the solar radiation in Old Damascus to reach the ground and heat up the surface whereas in modern Damascus, the streets are prescribed as wide spaces with high values of Sky View Factor (SVF is about 0.7). Moreover, the canyons in the old part are paved in cobblestones whereas the asphalt is the main material used in the streets of modern Damascus. Furthermore, Old Damascus is less stressful than the modern part (the difference in PET index is about 10 °C). The thermal situation is enhanced when different vegetation are considered (an improvement of 13 °C in the surface temperature is recorded in modern Damascus). The study recommends considering a detailed landscape code at street levels to be integrated in urban regulations of Damascus in order to achieve a better urban development in harmony with micro-climate and comfort. Such strategy will be very useful to decrease the urban warming in the city.

Keywords: micro-climate, outdoor thermal comfort, urban planning regulations, urban spaces

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13567 Semi-Natural Vertical Gardens and Urban Ecology, the Sample of Bartın City

Authors: Yeliz Sarı Nayim, B. N. Nayim

Abstract:

Vertical natural gardens encountered in urban ecosystems are important elements contributing to urban ecology by raising the quality of urban life. This research covers the investigation of the semi-natural plant walls of Bartın city which is located on the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Landscape analysis and evaluation as a result of land and office work have resulted in vertical garden ecosystems that have been processed in the urban habitat map, mostly in natural stone walls, wooden garden fences, garden entrance doors, historical buildings and building walls. Structural surfaces on old building facades, especially with abandoned or still in use with natural stone walls, have been found to have many natural vertical gardens over time. Parietaria judaica, Cymbalaria longipes and Hedera helix species were dominant, and other types of content were recorded, providing information on the current biotope potential, human activities and effects on them. It has been emphasized that the described vertical gardens together with the species they contain should be protected in terms of Bartin urban ecology and biodiversity. It has been stated that sustainable urban planning, design and management should be considered as a compensation for open and green area losses.

Keywords: semi-natural vertical gardens, urban ecology, sustainable urban planning and design, Bartın

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13566 The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transportation Planning and Evaluation: Limits and Potentials

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Yueh-Lung Lin, Zhong Wang

Abstract:

Transportation planning is an academic integration discipline combining research and practice with the aim of mobility and accessibility improvements at both strategic-level policy-making and operational dimensions of practical planning. Transportation planning could build the linkage between traffic and social development goals, for instance, economic benefits and environmental sustainability. The transportation planning analysis and evaluation tend to apply empirical quantitative approaches with the guidance of the fundamental principles, such as efficiency, equity, safety, and sustainability. Space syntax theory has been applied in the spatial distribution of pedestrian movement or vehicle flow analysis, however rare has been written about its application in transportation planning. The correlated relationship between the variables of space syntax analysis and authentic observations have declared that the urban configurations have a significant effect on urban dynamics, for instance, land value, building density, traffic, crime. This research aims to explore the potentials of applying Space Syntax methodology to evaluate urban transportation planning through studying the effects of urban configuration on cities transportation performance. By literature review, this paper aims to discuss the effects that urban configuration with different degrees of integration and accessibility have on three elementary components of transportation planning - transportation efficiency, transportation safety, and economic agglomeration development - via intensifying and stabilising the nature movements generated by the street network. And then the potential and limits of Space Syntax theory to study the performance of urban transportation and transportation planning would be discussed in the paper. In practical terms, this research will help future research explore the effects of urban design on transportation performance, and identify which patterns of urban street networks would allow for most efficient and safe transportation performance with higher economic benefits.

Keywords: transportation planning, space syntax, economic agglomeration, transportation efficiency, transportation safety

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13565 Information and Communication Technologies-Based Urban Spaces: From Planning and Design to Implementation

Authors: Yountaik Leem, Kwang Woo Nam, Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon

Abstract:

As to the development of the capitalist economy, local governments put their focuses on economic growth and quality of life including the management of declined urban area. Together with the rapid advances in ICTs (information and communication technologies) Korean government tried to adapt ICTs to urban spaces to catch these two goals. Ubiquitous city, concept introduced by Mark Weiser in 1988, is a kind of ICTs based urban space which can provide IT services anytime and anywhere. This paper introduces the experience of developing ICTs-based urban planning and it’s implementation process and discusses the effect of the R&D based U-City test-bed project. For a community center of a residential zone in a newly developing city, spatial problems and citizen’s needs were identified to plan IT-based urban services. The paper also describes the structure and functions of Community O/S (COS) as an IT platform which controls data and urban devices such as media facades and U-poles. Not only one-way information but also Interactive services were included. Public creating activities using this platform also added –CO2 emission management and citizen making safety map, etc. The effects of the comprehensive U-City planning in S/W, H/W and human-ware were discussed on the case study of similar individual projects.

Keywords: ICTs-based urban planning, implementation, public IT service, U-City

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13564 Urban Planning in Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Chala Elhassen

Abstract:

City planning and urban management seem more complex our days compared to past times. The interaction of many factors both endogenous and exogenous made more difficult the urban fact. The city has changed status with the demographic bulge. It passed the primary status meeting limited requirements to a multidisciplinary status marked by the diversity of needs. These increase with the increase in population and living standard. Our era is marked by urbanization, complex phenomenon that develops both in industrialized countries in those of the third world. Human concentrations increasingly have significant multiplier effects on the social and economic structure of a region or a country. On the whole, the issue of urban planning revolved around questions related firstly to the understanding of the phenomena of urbanization; and also in search of the most appropriate ways to ensure control, the efficiency and consistency of the urbanization process. Urban planning remains an ambiguous area that mixes scientific contributions, technical, artistic, administrative and legal in varying proportions. What is the founder of specificity is that it always presupposes the existence of a will to act, itself supported by a thorough knowledge of will.

Keywords: urbanization, urban planning, management, industrialized countries

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13563 Parametric Urbanism: A Climate Responsive Urban Form for the MENA Region

Authors: Norhan El Dallal

Abstract:

The MENA region is a challenging, rapid urbanizing region, with a special profile; culturally, socially, economically and environmentally. Despite the diversity between different countries of the MENA region they all share similar urban challenges where extensive interventions are crucial. A climate sensitive region as the MENA region requires special attention for development, adaptation and mitigation. Integrating climatic and environmental parameters into the planning process to create a responsive urban form is the aim of this research in which “Parametric Urbanism” as a trend serves as a tool to reach a more sustainable urban morphology. An attempt to parameterize the relation between the climate and the urban form in a detailed manner is the main objective of the thesis. The aim is relating the different passive approaches suitable for the MENA region with the design guidelines of each and every part of the planning phase. Various conceptual scenarios for the network pattern and block subdivision generation based on computational models are the next steps after the parameterization. These theoretical models could be applied on different climatic zones of the dense communities of the MENA region to achieve an energy efficient neighborhood or city with respect to the urban form, morphology, and urban planning pattern. A final criticism of the theoretical model is to be conducted showing the feasibility of the proposed solutions economically. Finally some push and pull policies are to be proposed to help integrate these solutions into the planning process.

Keywords: parametric urbanism, climate responsive, urban form, urban and regional studies

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13562 An Overview of Smart Growth Concept from Ecological Planning Perspective

Authors: Ozge Celik, Elvan Ender

Abstract:

With rapidly increasing population growth and industrial revolution in the 1950s, in Turkey migration began to the cities from the countryside. Along the rapid growth of urban population has started to bring many problems. Depending on the uncontrolled urban development, concerns about the protection of natural values has increased day by day. As a result of disturbance on the natural environment, human health has started to be under threat. After all, much urban planning approaches outspread that protecting natural resources by respect to human health and troubleshooting problems emerging with anthropogenic effects. Smart growth concept is one of the chosen methods to resolve the problems in Turkey. In this paper, smart growth concept idea and its criteria will be explained while ecological planning and urban planning problems will be mentioned in Turkey according to the need of concept. Studies, consisting of practical and theoretical smart growth ideas, shows that ecological landscape planning is not included in the urban development process in Turkey. The main idea is to initiate urban development plans considering social and cultural structures of cultural assets and also natural values.

Keywords: ecological landscape planning, smart growth, Turkey, urban development

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