Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Lambert Chester

33 The Determination of Aflatoxins in Paddy and Milled Fractions of Rice in Guyana: Preliminary Results

Authors: Donna M. Morrison, Lambert Chester, Coretta A. N. Samuels, David R. Ledoux


A survey was conducted in the five rice-growing regions in Guyana to determine the presence of aflatoxins in multiple fractions of rice in June/October 2015 growing season. The fractions were paddy, steamed paddy, cargo rice, white rice and parboiled rice. Samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A subset of the samples was further analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concurrence. All analyses were conducted at the University of Missouri, USA. Of the 186 samples tested, 16 had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 20 ppb the recommended limit for aflatoxins in food according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. An additional three samples had aflatoxin B1 concentrations greater than the European Union Commission maximum levels for aflatoxin B1 in rice at 5 µg/kg and total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at 10 µg/kg. The survey indicates that there is no widespread aflatoxin problem in rice in Guyana. The incidence of aflatoxins appears to be localized.

Keywords: aflatoxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rice fractions

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32 New Coordinate System for Countries with Big Territories

Authors: Mohammed Sabri Ali Akresh


The modern technologies and developments in computer and Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) and total station TS. This paper presents a new proposal for coordinates system by a harmonic equations “United projections”, which have five projections (Mercator, Lambert, Russell, Lagrange, and compound of projection) in one zone coordinate system width 14 degrees, also it has one degree for overlap between zones, as well as two standards parallels for zone from 10 S to 45 S. Also this paper presents two cases; first case is to compare distances between a new coordinate system and UTM, second case creating local coordinate system for the city of Sydney to measure the distances directly from rectangular coordinates using projection of Mercator, Lambert and UTM.

Keywords: harmonic equations, coordinate system, projections, algorithms, parallels

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31 Level of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness, and Attitudes towards Physical Activity among Senior Medical Students of Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Hajar Al Rajaibi, Kawla Al Toubi, Saeed Al Jaadi, Deepali Jaju, Sanjay Jaju


Background: The available evidence in Oman on lack of physical activity call for immediate intervention. Physical activity counseling by doctors to their patients is influenced by their attitudes and personal physical fitness. To our best knowledge, the physical activity status of Omani medical students has not been addressed before. These future doctors will have a critical role in improving physical activity in patients and thus their overall health. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the physical activity level, physical fitness level, and attitudes towards physical activity among Sultan Qaboos University senior medical students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study (N=110; males 55), physical activity level was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ ) short form and attitudes towards physical activity using a fifty-four-items Kenyon questionnaire. The physical fitness level was assessed by estimating maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) using Chester step test. Results: Female students reported more sitting time more than 7hr/day (85.5%) compared to male students (40%; p < 0.05). The IPAQ revealed moderate level of physical activity in 58% of students. Students showed a high positive attitude towards physical activity for health and fitness and low attitude for physical activity as tension and risk. Both female and male students had a similar level and attitude towards physical activity. Physical fitness level was excellent (VO₂max > 55ml O₂/kg/min) in 11% of students, good (VO₂max>44-54ml O₂/kg/min) in 49% and average to below-average in 40%. Objectively measured physical fitness level, subjectively reported physical activity level or attitudes towards physical activity were not correlated. Conclusion: Omani medical students have a positive attitude towards physical activity but moderate physical activity level. Longer sitting time in females need further evaluation. Efforts are required to understand reasons for present physical activity level and to promote good physical activity among medical students by creating more awareness and facilities.

Keywords: Chester step test, Kenyon scale, medical students, physical activity, physical fitness

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
30 On q-Non-extensive Statistics with Non-Tsallisian Entropy

Authors: Petr Jizba, Jan Korbel


We combine an axiomatics of Rényi with the q-deformed version of Khinchin axioms to obtain a measure of information (i.e., entropy) which accounts both for systems with embedded self-similarity and non-extensivity. We show that the entropy thus obtained is uniquely solved in terms of a one-parameter family of information measures. The ensuing maximal-entropy distribution is phrased in terms of a special function known as the Lambert W-function. We analyze the corresponding ‘high’ and ‘low-temperature’ asymptotics and reveal a non-trivial structure of the parameter space.

Keywords: multifractals, Rényi information entropy, THC entropy, MaxEnt, heavy-tailed distributions

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29 Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts

Authors: Craig Jantzen, Tim Abram, Dirk Engelberg, Hugues Lambert, Daniel Cooper


Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.

Keywords: molten salt, salt, corrosion, high temperature, licl, KCL, MgCl, molybdenum, nickel, superalloys

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28 HPTLC Fingerprinting of steroidal glycoside of leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum L. (Inab-us-salab/makoh)

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh K. Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad


Inab-us-salab also known as Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various unani traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of solanaceae, these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time its fractionation and fingerprinting of aglycone (solasodine) and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) in leaves and berries of S. nigrum using solvent extraction and fractionation followed by HPTLC analysis. The fingerprinting was done using silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5% ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phase at 400 nm, after derivatization with antimony tri chloride reagent for identification of steroidal glycoside. The statistical data obtained can further be validated and can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanum nigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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27 Simultaneous Extraction and Estimation of Steroidal Glycosides and Aglycone of Solanum

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad


Solanumnigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of Solanaceae these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time simultaneous extraction and quantification of aglycone (solasodine)and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) inleaves and berries of S.nigrumusing solvent extraction followed by HPTLC analysis. Simultaneous extraction was carried out by sonication in mixture of chloroform and methanol as solvent. The quantification was done using silica gel 60F254HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5 % ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phaseat 400 nm, after derivatization with an isaldehydesul furic acid reagent. The method was validated as per ICH guideline for calibration, linearity, precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, LOD, and LOQ. The statistical data obtained for validation showed that method can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanumnigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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26 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan


This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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25 Computational Approaches for Ballistic Impact Response of Stainless Steel 304

Authors: A. Mostafa


This paper presents a numerical study on determination of ballistic limit velocity (V50) of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) used in manufacturing security screens. The simulated ballistic impact tests were conducted on clamped sheets with different thicknesses using ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear finite element (FE) package. The ballistic limit velocity was determined using three approaches, namely: numerical tests based on material properties, FE calculated residual velocities and FE calculated residual energies. Johnson-Cook plasticity and failure criterion were utilized to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the SS 304 under various strain rates, while the well-known Lambert-Jonas equation was used for the data regression for the residual velocity and energy model. Good agreement between the investigated numerical methods was achieved. Additionally, the dependence of the ballistic limit velocity on the sheet thickness was observed. The proposed approaches present viable and cost-effective assessment methods of the ballistic performance of SS 304, which will support the development of robust security screen systems.

Keywords: ballistic velocity, stainless steel, numerical approaches, security screen

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24 Social Accountability: Persuasion and Debate to Contain Corruption

Authors: A. Lambert-Mogiliansky


In this paper, we investigate the properties of simple rules for reappointment aimed at holding a public official accountable and monitor his activity. The public official allocates budget resources to various activities which results in the delivery of public services to citizens. He has discretion over the use of resource so he can divert some of them for private ends. Because of a liability constraint, zero diversion can never be secured in all states. The optimal reappointment mechanism under complete information is shown to exhibit some leniency thus departing from the zero tolerance principle. Under asymmetric information (about the state), a rule with random verification in a pre-announced subset is shown to be optimal in a class of common rules. Surprisingly, those common rules make little use of hard information about service delivery when available. Similarly, PO's claim about his record is of no value to improve the performance of the examined rules. In contrast requesting that the PO defends his records publicly can be very useful if the service users are given the chance to refute false claims with cheap talk complaints: the first best complete information outcome can be approached in the absence of any observation by the manager of the accountability mechanism.

Keywords: accountability, corruption, persuasion, debate

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23 Initial Dip: An Early Indicator of Neural Activity in Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Waveform

Authors: Mannan Malik Muhammad Naeem, Jeong Myung Yung


Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has a favorable position in non-invasive brain imaging techniques. The concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin and de-oxygenated hemoglobin during particular cognitive activity is the basis for this neuro-imaging modality. Two wavelengths of near-infrared light can be used with modified Beer-Lambert law to explain the indirect status of neuronal activity inside brain. The temporal resolution of fNIRS is very good for real-time brain computer-interface applications. The portability, low cost and an acceptable temporal resolution of fNIRS put it on a better position in neuro-imaging modalities. In this study, an optimization model for impulse response function has been used to estimate/predict initial dip using fNIRS data. In addition, the activity strength parameter related to motor based cognitive task has been analyzed. We found an initial dip that remains around 200-300 millisecond and better localize neural activity.

Keywords: fNIRS, brain-computer interface, optimization algorithm, adaptive signal processing

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22 SISSLE in Consensus-Based Ripple: Some Improvements in Speed, Security, Last Mile Connectivity and Ease of Use

Authors: Mayank Mundhra, Chester Rebeiro


Cryptocurrencies are rapidly finding wide application in areas such as Real Time Gross Settlements and Payments Systems. Ripple is a cryptocurrency that has gained prominence with banks and payment providers. It solves the Byzantine General’s Problem with its Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA), where each server maintains a list of servers, called Unique Node List (UNL) that represents the network for the server, and will not collectively defraud it. The server believes that the network has come to a consensus when members of the UNL come to a consensus on a transaction. In this paper we improve Ripple to achieve better speed, security, last mile connectivity and ease of use. We implement guidelines and automated systems for building and maintaining UNLs for resilience, robustness, improved security, and efficient information propagation. We enhance the system so as to ensure that each server receives information from across the whole network rather than just from the UNL members. We also introduce the paradigm of UNL overlap as a function of information propagation and the trust a server assigns to its own UNL. Our design not only reduces vulnerabilities such as eclipse attacks, but also makes it easier to identify malicious behaviour and entities attempting to fraudulently Double Spend or stall the system. We provide experimental evidence of the benefits of our approach over the current Ripple scheme. We observe ≥ 4.97x and 98.22x in speedup and success rate for information propagation respectively, and ≥ 3.16x and 51.70x in speedup and success rate in consensus.

Keywords: Ripple, Kelips, unique node list, consensus, information propagation

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21 Comparative Evaluation of Pharmacologically Guided Approaches (PGA) to Determine Maximum Recommended Starting Dose (MRSD) of Monoclonal Antibodies for First Clinical Trial

Authors: Ibraheem Husain, Abul Kalam Najmi, Karishma Chester


First-in-human (FIH) studies are a critical step in clinical development of any molecule that has shown therapeutic promise in preclinical evaluations, since preclinical research and safety studies into clinical development is a crucial step for successful development of monoclonal antibodies for guidance in pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of human diseases. Therefore, comparison between USFDA and nine pharmacologically guided approaches (PGA) (simple allometry, maximum life span potential, brain weight, rule of exponent (ROE), two species methods and one species methods) were made to determine maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first in human clinical trials using four drugs namely Denosumab, Bevacizumab, Anakinra and Omalizumab. In our study, the predicted pharmacokinetic (pk) parameters and the estimated first-in-human dose of antibodies were compared with the observed human values. The study indicated that the clearance and volume of distribution of antibodies can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in human and a good estimate of first human dose can be obtained from the predicted human clearance and volume of distribution. A pictorial method evaluation chart was also developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods.

Keywords: clinical pharmacology (CPH), clinical research (CRE), clinical trials (CTR), maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD), clearance and volume of distribution

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20 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid


Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: macronutrients absorption, optical spectroscopy, soil, absorption

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19 Machine Learning Strategies for Data Extraction from Unstructured Documents in Financial Services

Authors: Delphine Vendryes, Dushyanth Sekhar, Baojia Tong, Matthew Theisen, Chester Curme


Much of the data that inform the decisions of governments, corporations and individuals are harvested from unstructured documents. Data extraction is defined here as a process that turns non-machine-readable information into a machine-readable format that can be stored, for instance, in a database. In financial services, introducing more automation in data extraction pipelines is a major challenge. Information sought by financial data consumers is often buried within vast bodies of unstructured documents, which have historically required thorough manual extraction. Automated solutions provide faster access to non-machine-readable datasets, in a context where untimely information quickly becomes irrelevant. Data quality standards cannot be compromised, so automation requires high data integrity. This multifaceted task is broken down into smaller steps: ingestion, table parsing (detection and structure recognition), text analysis (entity detection and disambiguation), schema-based record extraction, user feedback incorporation. Selected intermediary steps are phrased as machine learning problems. Solutions leveraging cutting-edge approaches from the fields of computer vision (e.g. table detection) and natural language processing (e.g. entity detection and disambiguation) are proposed.

Keywords: computer vision, entity recognition, finance, information retrieval, machine learning, natural language processing

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18 Growth and Immune Response of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) Postlarvae Fed Diets Containing Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Gian Carlo F. Maliwat, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Janice A. Ragaza


A 50-day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck) as an ingredient in the diets of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) postlarvae (PL30). Immune response (total haemocyte count and prophenoloxidase activity) was also assessed by subjecting postlarvae to a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) for 14 days. Isonitrogenous and iso-lipidic test diets were prepared using a fishmeal-based-positive control diet (D0) and four basal diets with inclusion levels of 2% (D2), 4% (D4), 6% (D6) and 8% (D8) C. vulgaris. Postlarvae of M. rosenbergii were randomly stocked (mean initial body weight of 0.19 ± 0.02 g) in 30-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for evaluation of growth performance. Another set of postlarvae (mean initial body weight of 1.25 ± 0.02 g) was randomly distributed in 95-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for the assessment of immune response. Results showed that specific growth rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in postlarvae fed D4 and D6. Variations in values for carcass protein, lipid, moisture, and ash were also evident. Postlarvae fed diets with Chlorella showed increased prophenol oxidase activity and total haemocyte counts. Moreover, the survival rate after challenge with A. hydrophila was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Inclusion of C. vulgaris in diets enhanced immune response and resistance of M. rosenbergii postlarvae against A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, haemocyte count, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, prophenoloxidase activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
17 In vitro Protein Folding and Stability Using Thermostable Exoshells

Authors: Siddharth Deshpande, Nihar Masurkar, Vallerinteavide Mavelli Girish, Malan Desai, Chester Drum


Folding and stabilization of recombinant proteins remain a consistent challenge for industrial and therapeutic applications. Proteins derived from thermophilic bacteria often have superior expression and stability qualities. To develop a generalizable approach to protein folding and stabilization, we tested the hypothesis that wrapping a thermostable exoshell around a protein substrate would aid folding and impart thermostable qualities to the internalized substrate. To test the effect of internalizing a protein within a thermostable exoshell (tES), we tested in vitro folding and stability using green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and renilla luciferase (rLuc). The 8nm interior volume of a thermostable ferritin assembly was engineered to accommodate foreign proteins and either present a positive, neutral or negative interior charge environment. We further engineered the tES complex to reversibly assemble and disassemble with pH titration. Template proteins were expressed as inclusion bodies and an in vitro folding protocol was developed that forced proteins to fold inside a single tES. Functional yield was improved 100-fold, 100-fold and 150-fold with use of tES for GFPuv, HRP and rLuc respectively and was highly dependent on the internal charge environment of the tES. After folding, functional proteins could be released from the tES folding cavity using size exclusion chromatography at pH 5.8. Internalized proteins were tested for improved stability against thermal, organic, urea and guanidine denaturation. Our results demonstrated that thermostable exoshells can efficiently refold and stabilize inactive aggregates into functional proteins.

Keywords: thermostable shell, in vitro folding, stability, functional yield

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16 A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction

Authors: Nicholas Lambert, Seungyeon Ryu, Mehmet Mulla, Albert Kim


In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.

Keywords: gesture, holographic interface, human-computer interaction, user-centered design

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15 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert


Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

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14 Newly-Rediscovered Manuscripts Talking about Seventeenth-Century French Harpsichord Pedagogy

Authors: David Chung


The development of seventeenth-century French harpsichord music is enigmatic in several respects. Although little is known about the formation of this style before 1650 (we have names of composers, but no surviving music), the style has attained a high degree of refinement and sophistication in the music of the earliest known masters (e.g. Chambonnières, Louis Couperin and D’Anglebert). In fact, how the seventeenth-century musicians acquired the skills of their art remains largely steeped in mystery, as the earliest major treatise on French keyboard pedagogy was not published until 1702 by Saint Lambert. This study fills this lacuna by surveying some twenty recently-rediscovered manuscripts, which offer ample materials for revisiting key issues pertaining to seventeenth-century harpsichord pedagogy. By analyzing the musical contents, the verbal information and explicit notation (such as written-out ornaments and rhythmic effects), this study provides a rich picture of the process of learning at the time, with engaging details of performance nuances often lacking in tutors and treatises. Of even greater significance, that creative skills (such as continuo and ornamentation) were taught alongside fundamental knowledge (solfèges, note values, etc.) at the earliest stage of learning offers fresh challenge for modern pedagogues to rethink how harpsichord pedagogy can be revamped to cater for our own pedagogical and aesthetic needs.

Keywords: French, harpsichord, pedagogy, seventeenth century

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13 The Results of Longitudinal Water Quality Monitoring of the Brandywine River, Chester County, Pennsylvania by High School Students

Authors: Dina L. DiSantis


Strengthening a sense of responsibility while relating global sustainability concepts such as water quality and pollution to a local water system can be achieved by teaching students to conduct and interpret water quality monitoring tests. When students conduct their own research, they become better stewards of the environment. Providing outdoor learning and place-based opportunities for students helps connect them to the natural world. By conducting stream studies and collecting data, students are able to better understand how the natural environment is a place where everything is connected. Students have been collecting physical, chemical and biological data along the West and East Branches of the Brandywine River, in Pennsylvania for over ten years. The stream studies are part of the advanced placement environmental science and aquatic science courses that are offered as electives to juniors and seniors at the Downingtown High School West Campus in Downingtown, Pennsylvania. Physical data collected includes: temperature, turbidity, width, depth, velocity, and volume of flow or discharge. The chemical tests conducted are: dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, nitrates, alkalinity and phosphates. Macroinvertebrates are collected with a kick net, identified and then released. Students collect the data from several locations while traveling by canoe. In the classroom, students prepare a water quality data analysis and interpretation report based on their collected data. The summary of the results from longitudinal water quality data collection by students, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of student data collection will be presented.

Keywords: place-based, student data collection, sustainability, water quality monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
12 Modern Scotland Yard: Improving Surveillance Policies Using Adversarial Agent-Based Modelling and Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Olaf Visker, Arnout De Vries, Lambert Schomaker


Predictive policing refers to the usage of analytical techniques to identify potential criminal activity. It has been widely implemented by various police departments. Being a relatively new area of research, there are, to the author’s knowledge, no absolute tried, and true methods and they still exhibit a variety of potential problems. One of those problems is closely related to the lack of understanding of how acting on these prediction influence crime itself. The goal of law enforcement is ultimately crime reduction. As such, a policy needs to be established that best facilitates this goal. This research aims to find such a policy by using adversarial agent-based modeling in combination with modern reinforcement learning techniques. It is presented here that a baseline model for both law enforcement and criminal agents and compare their performance to their respective reinforcement models. The experiments show that our smart law enforcement model is capable of reducing crime by making more deliberate choices regarding the locations of potential criminal activity. Furthermore, it is shown that the smart criminal model presents behavior consistent with popular crime theories and outperforms the baseline model in terms of crimes committed and time to capture. It does, however, still suffer from the difficulties of capturing long term rewards and learning how to handle multiple opposing goals.

Keywords: adversarial, agent based modelling, predictive policing, reinforcement learning

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11 Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration

Authors: Assem M. F. Sallam, Ah. El-S. Makled


In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.

Keywords: orbit determination, STK, Matlab-GUI, satellite tracking

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10 Behavior of Common Philippine-Made Concrete Hollow Block Structures Subjected to Seismic Load Using Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Arwin Malabanan, Carl Chester Ragudo, Jerome Tadiosa, John Dee Mangoba, Eric Augustus Tingatinga, Romeo Eliezer Longalong


Concrete hollow blocks (CHB) are the most commonly used masonry block for walls in residential houses, school buildings and public buildings in the Philippines. During the recent 2013 Bohol earthquake (Mw 7.2), it has been proven that CHB walls are very vulnerable to severe external action like strong ground motion. In this paper, a numerical model of CHB structures is proposed, and seismic behavior of CHB houses is presented. In modeling, the Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element method (RBS-DEM)) is used wherein masonry blocks are discretized into rigid elements and connected by nonlinear springs at preselected contact points. The shear and normal stiffness of springs are derived from the material properties of CHB unit incorporating the grout and mortar fillings through the volumetric transformation of the dimension using material ratio. Numerical models of reinforced and unreinforced walls are first subjected to linearly-increasing in plane loading to observe the different failure mechanisms. These wall models are then assembled to form typical model masonry houses and then subjected to the El Centro and Pacoima earthquake records. Numerical simulations show that the elastic, failure and collapse behavior of the model houses agree well with shaking table tests results. The effectiveness of the method in replicating failure patterns will serve as a basis for the improvement of the design and provides a good basis of strengthening the structure.

Keywords: concrete hollow blocks, discrete element method, earthquake, rigid body spring model

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9 A Mixed-Methods Approach to Developing and Evaluating an SME Business Support Model for Innovation in Rural England

Authors: Steve Fish, Chris Lambert


Cumbria is a geo-political county in Northwest England within which the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site is located. Whilst the area has a formidable reputation for natural beauty and historic assets, the innovation ecosystem is described as ‘patchy’ for a number of reasons. The county is one of the largest in England by area and is sparsely populated. This paper describes the needs, development and delivery of an SME business-support programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund, Lancaster University and the University of Cumbria. The Cumbria Innovations Platform (CUSP) Project has been designed to respond to the nuanced needs of SMEs in this locale, whilst promoting the adoption of research and innovation. CUSP utilizes a funnel method to support rural businesses with access to university innovation intervention. CUSP has been built on a three-tier model: Communicate, Collaborate and Create. The paper describes this project in detail and presents results in terms of output indicators achieved, a beneficiary telephone survey and wider economic forecasts. From a pragmatic point-of-view, the paper provides experiences and reflections of those people who are delivering and evaluating knowledge exchange. The authors discuss some of the benefits, challenges and implications for both policy makers and practitioners. Finally, the paper aims to serve as an invitation to others who may consider adopting a similar method of university-industry collaboration in their own region.

Keywords: regional business support, rural business support, university-industry collaboration, collaborative R&D, SMEs, knowledge exchange

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8 Memory-Guided Oculomotor Task in High School Football Players with ADHD, Post-Concussive Injuries, and Controls

Authors: B. McGovern, J. F. Luck, A. Gade, I. V. Lake, D. O’Connell, H. C. Cutcliffe, K. P. Shah, E. E. Ginalis, C. M. Lambert, N. Christian, J. R. Kait, A. W. Yu, C. P. Eckersley, C. R. Bass


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the form of post-concussive injuries and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share similar cognitive impairments, including impaired working memory and executive function. The memory-guided oculomotor task separates working memory and inhibitory components to provide further information on the nature of these deficits in each pathology. Eleven subjects with ADHD, fifteen control subjects, and ten subjects with recent concussive injury were matched on age, gender, and education (all high school-age males). Eye movements were recorded during memory-guided oculomotor tasks with varying delays using EyeLink 1000 (SR Research). The percentage of premature saccades and the latency of correct response are the analyzed measures for response inhibition and working memory, respectively. No significant differences were found in latencies between controls subjects and subjects with ADHD or post-concussive injuries, in accordance with previous studies. Subjects with ADHD and post-concussive injuries both demonstrated a trend of increased percentages of premature saccades compared to control subjects in the same oculomotor task. This trend reached statistical significance between the post-concussive and control groups (p < 0.05). These findings support the primary nature of the executive function deficits in response inhibition in ADHD and mTBI. The interpretation of results is limited by the small sample size and the exploratory nature of the study. Further investigation into oculomotor performance differences in mTBI and ADHD may help in differentiating these pathologies in consequent diagnoses and provide insight into the interaction of these deficits in mTBI.

Keywords: attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion, diagnosis, oculomotor, pediatrics

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7 A Study on Thermal and Flow Characteristics by Solar Radiation for Single-Span Greenhouse by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Jonghyuk Yoon, Hyoungwoon Song


Recently, there are lots of increasing interest in a smart farming that represents application of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into agriculture since it provides a methodology to optimize production efficiencies by managing growing conditions of crops automatically. In order to obtain high performance and stability for smart greenhouse, it is important to identify the effect of various working parameters such as capacity of ventilation fan, vent opening area and etc. In the present study, a 3-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation for single-span greenhouse was conducted using the commercial program, Ansys CFX 18.0. The numerical simulation for single-span greenhouse was implemented to figure out the internal thermal and flow characteristics. In order to numerically model solar radiation that spread over a wide range of wavelengths, the multiband model that discretizes the spectrum into finite bands of wavelength based on Wien’s law is applied to the simulation. In addition, absorption coefficient of vinyl varied with the wavelength bands is also applied based on Beer-Lambert Law. To validate the numerical method applied herein, the numerical results of the temperature at specific monitoring points were compared with the experimental data. The average error rates (12.2~14.2%) between them was shown and numerical results of temperature distribution are in good agreement with the experimental data. The results of the present study can be useful information for the design of various greenhouses. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Advanced Production Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA)(315093-03).

Keywords: single-span greenhouse, CFD (computational fluid dynamics), solar radiation, multiband model, absorption coefficient

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6 Prevalence of Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy: Examining the Pediatric Cohort in the Eastern Cape

Authors: Shannon Glaspy, Gerald Boon, Jack Lambert


Studies on AE of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children and adolescents are rare. The aim of this study is to observe the frequency of treatment limiting adverse drug reactions against years on ARVs and specific ARV regimen. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in East London, South Africa. All patient files in the pediatric (0 – 18 years) ARV cohort were examined, selecting only those patients started on HAART. ARV regimen changes explicitly due to AE, age on ARV treatment onset, age of AE onset, and gender were extrapolated. Eligible subjects were obtained from patient folders, anonymized and cross-referenced with data obtained from electronic records. A total of 1120 patients [592 male (52.9%) and 528 female (47.1%)] were charted by incidence and year. Additional information was extrapolated in cases where the patient experienced lipodystrophy and lipoatrophy to include the number of years on ARVs prior to the onset of the AE. Results: Of the 1120 HIV infected children of the hospital cohort, a total of 105 (9.37%) AE (53.3% male) observed were deemed eligible for the study due to completeness of medical history and agreement between electronic records and paper files. The AE cited were as follows: lipoatrophy 62 (5.53% of all subjects), lipodystrophy 27 (2.41%), neuropathy 9 (0.8%), anemia 2 (0.17%), Steven Johnsons Syndrome 1 (0.08%), elevated LFTs 1 (0.8%), breast hypertrophy (0.08%), gastritis 1 (0.08%) and rash 1 (0.08%). The most prevalence ARV regimens associated with the onset of the AE are: D4T/3TC/EFV 72 cases (64.86% of all AE), D4T/3TC/LOPr 24 cases (21.62%). Lipoatrophy and lipodystrophy combined represent 84.76% (89 cases) of all adverse events documented in this cohort. Within the 60 cases of lipoatrophy, the average number of years on ARVs associated with an AE is 3.54, with 14 cases experiencing an AE between 0-2 years of HAART. Within the 29 cases of lipodystrophy, the average number of years on ARVs associated with an AE is 3.89, with 4 cases experiencing an AE between 0-2 years on HAART. The regimen D4T/3TC/EFV is associated with 43 cases (71.66%) of lipoatrophy and 21 cases (72.41%) of lipodystrophy. D4T/3TC/LOPr is associated with 15 cases (25%) of lipoatrophy and 7 cases (24.14%) of lipodystrophy. The frequency of AE associated with ARV regimens could be misrepresented due to prevalence of different 1st line regimens which were not captured in this study, particularly with the systematic change of 1st line drugs from D4T to ABC in 2010. Conclusion: In this descriptive study we found a 9.37% prevalence of AE were significant enough to be treatment limiting among our cohort. Lipoatrophy accounted for 59.04% of all documented AE. Overall, D4T/3TC/EFV was associated with 64.86% of all AE, 71.66% of lipoatrophy cases and 72.41% of lipodystrophy cases.

Keywords: ARV, adverse events, HAART, pediatric

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5 The Academic Importance of the Arts in Fostering Belonging

Authors: Ana Handel, Jamal Ellerbe, Sarah Kanzaki, Natalie White, Nathan Ousey, Sean Gallagher


A sense of belonging is the ability for individuals to feel they are a necessary part of whatever organization or community they find themselves in. In an academic setting, a sense of belonging is key to a student’s success. The collected research points to this sense of belonging in academic settings as a significant contributor of students’ levels of engagement and trust. When universities leverage the arts, students are provided with more opportunities to engage and feel confident in their surroundings. This allows for greater potential to develop within academic and social settings. The arts also call for the promotion of diversity, equity, and inclusion by showcasing works of artists from all different backgrounds, thus allowing students to gain cultural knowledge and be able to embrace differences. Equity, diversity, and inclusion are all emotional facets of belonging. Equity relates to the concept of making the conscious choice to recognize opportunities to incorporate inclusive and diverse ideals into different thought processes and collaboration. Inclusion involves providing equal access to opportunities and resources for people of all ‘ingroups. In an inclusive culture, individuals are able to maximize their potential with the confidence they have gained through an accepting environment. A variety of members in academic communities have noted it may be beneficial to make certain events surrounding the arts to be built into course requirements in order to ensure students are expanding their horizons and exposing themselves to the arts. These academics also recommend incorporating the arts into extracurricular activities, such as Greek life, in order to appeal to large groups of students. Once students have an understanding of the rich knowledge cultivated through exploring the arts, they will feel more comfortable in their surroundings and thus more confident to become involved in other areas of their university. A number of universities, including West Chester and Carnegie Mellon, have instituted programs aiming to provide students with the necessary tools and resources to feel comfortable in their educational settings. Different programs include references to hotlines for discrimination and office for diversity, equity, and inclusion. Staff members have also been provided with means of combating biases and increasing feelings of belongingness in order to properly support and communicate with students. These tools have successfully allowed universities to foster inviting environments for students of all backgrounds to feel belong as well as strengthening the community’s diversity, equity, and inclusion. Through demonstrating concepts of diversity, equity, and inclusion by introducing the arts into learning spaces, students can find a sense of belonging within their academic environments. It is essential to understand these topics and how they work together to achieve a common goal. The efforts of universities have made much progress in shedding light on different cultures and ideas to show students their full potential and opportunities. Once students feel more comfortable within their organizations, engagement will increase substantially.

Keywords: arts, belonging, engagement, inclusion

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4 After Schubert’s Winterreise: Contemporary Aesthetic Journeys

Authors: Maria de Fátima Lambert


Following previous studies about Writing and Seeing, this paper focuses on the aesthetic assumptions within the concept of Winter Journey (Voyage d’Hiver/Winterreise) both in Georges Perec’s Saga and the Oulipo Group vis-à-vis with the creations by William Kentridge and Michael Borremans. The aesthetic and artistic connections are widespread. Nevertheless, we can identify common poetical principles shared by these different authors, not only according to the notion of ekphrasis, but also following the procedures of contemporary creation in literature and visual arts. The analysis of the ongoing process of the French writers as individuals and as group and the visual artists’ acting might contribute for another crossed definition of contemporary conception. The same title/theme was a challenge and a goal for them. Let’s wonder how deep the concept encouraged them and which symbolic upbringings were directing their poetical achievements. The idea of an inner journey became the main point, and got “over” and “across” a shared path worth to be followed. The authors were chosen due to the resilient contents of their visual and written images, and looking for the reasons that might had driven their conceptual basis to be. In Pérec’s “Winter Journey” as for the following fictions by Jacques Roubaud, Hervé le Tellier, Jacques Jouet and Hugo Vernier (that emerges from Perec’s fiction and becomes a real author) powerful aesthetic and enigmatic reflections grow connected with a poetic (and aesthetic) understanding of Walkscapes. They might be assumed as ironic fictions and poetical drifts. Outstanding from different logics, the overwhelming impact of Winterreise Lied by Schubert after Wilhelm Müller’s poems is a major reference in present authorship creations. Both Perec and Oulipo’s author’s texts are powerfully ekphrastic, although we should not forget they follow goals, frameworks and identities. When acting as a reader, they induce powerful imageries - cinematic or cinematographic - that flow in our minds. It was well-matched with William Kentridge animated video Winter Journey (2014) and the creations (sharing the same title) of Michael Borremans (2014) for the KlaraFestival, Bozar, Cité de la musique, in Belgium. Both were taken by the foremost Schubert’s Winterreise. Several metaphors fulfil new Winter Journeys (or Travels) that were achieved in contemporary art and literature, as it once succeeded in the 19th century. Maybe the contemporary authors and artists were compelled by the consciousness of nothingness, although outstanding different aesthetics and ontological sources. The unbearable knowledge of the road’s end, and also the urge of fulfilling the void might be a common element to all of them. As Schopenhauer once wrote, after all, Art is the only human subjective power that we can call upon in life. These newer aesthetic meanings, released from these winter journeys are surely open to wider approaches that might happen in other poetic makings to be.

Keywords: Aesthetic, voyage D’Hiver, George Perec & Oulipo, William Kentridge & Michael Borreman, Schubert's Winterreise

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