Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: parallels

39 Historical Analysis of the First Lady of the Silent Screen: Exploring Parallels between Media Portrayals and Fan Letters to Film Star Lillian Gish

Authors: Annette Davies

Abstract:

This paper examines a collection of four fan letters written by two fans to the early film star, Lillian Gish. The letters were sent to Gish between 1929 and 1962 and were later archived at the New York Library of Performing Arts in Manhattan, New York. This paper also analyzes the media's portrayal of Gish during the time period of these written letters in order to identify parallels between the portrayal of Gish in the media and the perception of Gish by her fans, which is espoused in these fan letters. The media analyzed includes newspapers, fan magazines, Paine's 1932 biography Life and Lillian Gish, a film publicity poster for Gish's film Intolerance, and the film roles performed by Gish. Several parallels are found and assessed using the four processes of audience involvement with a media persona-transportation, parasocial interaction, identification, and worship.

Keywords: celebrity, congruency, fan, persona

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38 New Coordinate System for Countries with Big Territories

Authors: Mohammed Sabri Ali Akresh

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The modern technologies and developments in computer and Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) and total station TS. This paper presents a new proposal for coordinates system by a harmonic equations “United projections”, which have five projections (Mercator, Lambert, Russell, Lagrange, and compound of projection) in one zone coordinate system width 14 degrees, also it has one degree for overlap between zones, as well as two standards parallels for zone from 10 S to 45 S. Also this paper presents two cases; first case is to compare distances between a new coordinate system and UTM, second case creating local coordinate system for the city of Sydney to measure the distances directly from rectangular coordinates using projection of Mercator, Lambert and UTM.

Keywords: harmonic equations, coordinate system, projections, algorithms, parallels

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37 Muhammad`s Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures

Authors: Vladimir A. Rozov

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Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.

Keywords: hadith, Prophet Muhammad, ritual, supernatural beings

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36 A Comparative Study of European Terrazzo and Tibetan Arga Floor Making Techniques

Authors: Hubert Feiglstorfer

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The technique of making terrazzo has been known since ancient times. During the Roman Empire, known as opus signinum, at the time of the Renaissance, known as composto terrazzo marmorino or at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the use of terrazzo experienced a common use in Europe. In Asia, especially in the Himalayas and the Tibetan highlands, a particular floor and roof manufacturing technique is commonly used for about 1500 years, known as arga. The research question in this contribution asks for technical and cultural-historical synergies of these floor-making techniques. The making process of an arga floor shows constructive parallels to the European terrazzo. Surface processing by grinding, burnishing and sealing, in particular, reveals technological similarities. The floor structure itself, on the other hand, shows differences, for example in the use of hydraulic aggregate in the terrazzo, while the arga floor is used without hydraulic material, but the result of both techniques is a tight, water-repellent and shiny surface. As part of this comparative study, the materials, processing techniques and quality features of the two techniques are compared and parallels and differences are analysed. In addition to text and archive research, the methods used are results of material analyses and ethnographic research such as participant observation. Major findings of the study are the investigation of the mineralogical composition of arga floors and its comparison with terrazzo floors. The study of the cultural-historical context in which both techniques are embedded will give insight into technical developments in Europe and Asia, parallels and differences. Synergies from this comparison let possible technological developments in the production, conservation and renovation of European terrazzo floors appear in a new light. By making arga floors without cement-based aggregates, the renovation of historical floors from purely natural products and without using energy by means of a burning process can be considered.

Keywords: European and Asian crafts, material culture, floor making technology, terrazzo, arga, Tibetan building traditions

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35 Parallels between the Glass and Lavender Ceilings

Authors: Paul E. Olsen

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Researchers, businesses, and governments study the glass ceiling faced by women and members of minority groups at work, but the experiences of gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women with the lavender ceiling have not received similar attention. This qualitative research traces similarities between the lavender ceiling and the glass ceiling. More specifically, it presents a study designed to elucidate the experiences of gay men at work and compare them with those of women and minority group members, as reported in research literature on the glass ceiling. This research asked: 1) What have gay men experienced in the workplace? 2) What experiences have they had with recruitment, mentors, corporate climate, advancement opportunities, performance evaluation, social activities, harassment, and task force and committee assignments? 3) How do these experiences compare with those of women and minorities who have described their experiences with the glass ceiling? Purposeful and convenience sampling were used as participant selection strategies. Participants were diverse in terms of age, education, and industry. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with eight self-identified gay men working in human services, manufacturing, marketing, finance, government, the nonprofit sector, and retail. The gay men in the study described workplace experiences similar to descriptions of the glass ceiling faced by women and minorities. The lavender ceiling parallels the glass ceiling in corporate climates, harassment, mentors, social activities, promotions and performance appraisal, and task force and committee assignments at work. Women and most minorities do not, however, face the disclosure dilemma: Should one reveal his sexual orientation at work?

Keywords: discrimination, diversity, gay and lesbian, human resource

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34 A Kierkegaardian Reading of Iqbal's Poetry as a Communicative Act

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

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The overall aim of this paper is to present a Kierkegaardian approach to Iqbal’s use of literature as a form of communication. Despite belonging to different historical, cultural, and religious backgrounds, the philosophical approaches of Soren Kierkegaard, ‘the father of existentialism,' and Muhammad Iqbal ‘the spiritual father of Pakistan’ present certain parallels. Both Kierkegaard and Iqbal take human existence as the starting point for their reflections, emphasise the subject of becoming genuine religious personalities, and develop a notion of the self. While doing these they both adopt parallel methods, employ literary techniques and poetical forms, and use their literary works as a form of communication. The problem is that Iqbal does not provide a clear account of his method as Kierkegaard does in his works. As a result, Iqbal’s literary approach appears to be a collection of contradictions. This is mainly because despite he writes most of his works in the poetical form, he condemns all kinds of art including poetry. Moreover, while attacking on Islamic mysticism, he, at the same time, uses classical literary forms, and a number of traditional mystical, poetic symbols. This paper will argue that the contradictions found in Iqbal’s approach are actually a significant part of Iqbal’s way of communicating his reader. It is the contention of this paper that with the help of the parallels between the literary and philosophical theories of Kierkegaard and Iqbal, the application of Kierkegaard’s method to Iqbal’s use of poetry as a communicative act will make it possible to dispel the seeming ambiguities in Iqbal’s literary approach. The application of Kierkegaard’s theory to Iqbal’s literary method will include an analysis of the main principles of Kierkegaard’s own literary technique of ‘indirect communication,' which is a crucial term of his existentialist philosophy. Second, the clash between what Iqbal’s says about art and poetry and what he does will be highlighted in the light of Kierkegaardian theory of indirect communication. It will be argued that Iqbal’s literary technique can be considered as a form of ‘indirect communication,' and that reading his technique in this way helps on dispelling the contradictions in his approach. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between those who work in the fields of comparative philosophy Kierkegaard studies, existentialism, contemporary Islamic thought, Iqbal studies, and literary criticism.

Keywords: comparative philosophy, existentialism, indirect communication, intercultural philosophy, literary communication, Muhammad Iqbal, Soren Kierkegaard

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33 Reflections on Opportunities and Challenges for Systems Engineering

Authors: Ali E. Abbas

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This paper summarizes some of the discussions that occurred in a workshop in West Virginia, U.S.A which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in February 2016. The goal of the workshop was to explore the opportunities and challenges for applying systems engineering in large enterprises, and some of the issues that still persist. The main topics of the discussion included challenges with elaboration and abstraction in large systems, interfacing physical and social systems, and the need for axiomatic frameworks for large enterprises. We summarize these main points of discussion drawing parallels with decision making in organizations to instigate research in these discussion areas.

Keywords: decision analysis, systems engineering, framing, value creation

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32 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed

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Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: sport development, sport policy, personnel, program, facilities, funding, sponsorship

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31 COVID-19 Teaches Probability Risk Assessment

Authors: Sean Sloan

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Probability Risk Assessments (PRA) can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. So in searching for different ways to describe PRA to relate it to their lives; COVID-19 came up. The parallels are amazing. Soon students began analyzing acceptable risk with the virus. This helped them to quantify just how dangerous is dangerous. The original lesson was dismissed and for the remainder of the period, the probability of risk, and the lethality of risk became the topic. Spreading events such as a COVID carrier on an airline became analogous to single fault casualties such as a Tsunami. Odds of spreading became odds of backup-diesel-generator failure – like with Fukashima Daiichi. Fatalities of the disease became expected fatalities due to radiation spread. Quantification from this discussion took it from hyperbole and emotion into one where we could rationally base guidelines. It has been one of the most effective educational devices observed.

Keywords: COVID, education, probability, risk

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30 Approaches To Counseling As Done By Traditional Cultural Healers In North America

Authors: Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Barbara Mainguy

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We describe the type of counseling done by traditional cultural healers in North America. We follow an autoethnographic course development through the first author’s integration of mainstream training and Native-American heritage and study with traditional medicine people. We assemble traditional healing elders from North America and discuss with them their practices and their philosophies of healing. We draw parallels for their approaches in some European-based philosophies and religion, including the work of Heidegger, Levin, Fox, Kierkegaard, and others. An example of the treatment process with a depressed client is provided and similarities and differences with conventional psychotherapies are described.

Keywords: indigenous approaches to counseling, indigenous bodywork, indigenous healing, North American indigenous people

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29 The Performance of Modern Eugenics: Ballroom of the Skies as a Method of Understanding American Social Eugenics

Authors: Michael Stokes

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Using a disability studies approach, this paper analyzes the American science fiction novel Ballroom of the Skies as way to address and access narratives of American exceptionalism in relation to global struggle. Combined with a critical race studies analysis of identity and cultural practice, this essay seeks to find parallels between the treatment of disability and the treatment of the racialized body in literature to forcibly reread potential for multiple assemblages of identity in the speculated futures of science fiction. Thinking through this relationship, the essay constructs a thematic understanding of social eugenics as practiced in American culture.

Keywords: disability studies, science fiction, eugenics, cultural studies

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28 An Exploration of Early Cinematic Technology (1890s-1920s) and Shifting Cinematic Styles

Authors: Adam L. Miller

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The aim of this paper is to look back to the very beginning of cinematic history and explore the connection between the differing technology used, and the varying styles adopted by early filmmakers. The paper will be structured chronologically, first looking at the advances that predated Thomas Edison and his Kinetograph and Kinetogram. This paper will then explore how Edison’s technology and films varied from the Lumiere brothers and their Cinematograph. Finally, the paper will go on to draw parallels and differences between French filmmakers such as Alice Guy and George Melies, and American filmmakers like Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith.

Keywords: film studies, early cinema, silent cinema, early cinematic technology, Thomas Edison, Alice Guy, George Melies, Edwin S. Porter, Lumiere brothers, D. W. Griffith

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27 How to Perform Proper Indexing?

Authors: Watheq Mansour, Waleed Bin Owais, Mohammad Basheer Kotit, Khaled Khan

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Efficient query processing is one of the utmost requisites in any business environment to satisfy consumer needs. This paper investigates the various types of indexing models, viz. primary, secondary, and multi-level. The investigation is done under the ambit of various types of queries to which each indexing model performs with efficacy. This study also discusses the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each indexing model and how indexing models can be chosen based on a particular environment. This paper also draws parallels between various indexing models and provides recommendations that would help a Database administrator to zero-in on a particular indexing model attributed to the needs and requirements of the production environment. In addition, to satisfy industry and consumer needs attributed to the colossal data generation nowadays, this study has proposed two novel indexing techniques that can be used to index highly unstructured and structured Big Data with efficacy. The study also briefly discusses some best practices that the industry should follow in order to choose an indexing model that is apposite to their prerequisites and requirements.

Keywords: indexing, hashing, latent semantic indexing, B-tree

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26 A Theoretical and Corpus-Based Analysis of English and Spanish Syntax Derived from Método de Los Relojes Verb Types According to Systemic-Functional Grammar as a Foundation for Methodological Adaption

Authors: Timothy William Lawrence

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The goal of this paper is to research and categorize the four basic verb types found in the Spanish descriptive grammar book Método de los Relojes using verb clauses as representation as found in M.A.K. Halliday's Systemic-Functional Grammar with the purpose of establishing theoretical along with syntactical parallels and deviations between English and Spanish. Results confirm theoretical correlations exist therefore leading to an analysis of English grammar syntax resulting in delineating commonalities and differences from Spanish. Corpora searches were carried out on different patterns of syntactical structures confirming divergences in verb syntax, making it possible to establish parameters to adapt English verbs to the criteria of the four basic Método de los Relojes verb types.

Keywords: corpus studies, Método de los Relojes, structural-functional grammar, verb syntax

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25 Evolution of Fashion Design in the Era of High-Tech Culture

Authors: Galina Mihaleva, C. Koh

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Fashion, like many other design fields, undergoes numerous evolutions throughout the ages. This paper aims to recognize and evaluate the significance of advance technology in fashion design and examine how it changes the role of modern fashion designers by modifying the creation process. It also touches on how modern culture is involved in such developments and how it affects fashion design in terms of conceptualizing and fabrication. The methodology used is through surveying the various examples of technological applications to fashion design and drawing parallels between what was achievable then and what is achievable now. By comparing case studies, existing fashion design examples and crafting method experimentations; we then spot patterns in which to predict the direction of future developments in the field. A breakdown on the elements of technology in fashion design helps us understand the driving force behind such a trend. The results from explorations in the paper have shown that there is an observed pattern of a distinct increase in interest and progress in the field of fashion technology, which leads to the birth of hybrid crafting methods. In conclusion, it is shown that as fashion technology continues to evolve, their role in clothing crafting becomes more prominent and grows far beyond the humble sewing machine.

Keywords: fashion design, functional aesthetics, smart textiles, 3D printing

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24 Dynamical Relation of Poisson Spike Trains in Hodkin-Huxley Neural Ion Current Model and Formation of Non-Canonical Bases, Islands, and Analog Bases in DNA, mRNA, and RNA at or near the Transcription

Authors: Michael Fundator

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Groundbreaking application of biomathematical and biochemical research in neural networks processes to formation of non-canonical bases, islands, and analog bases in DNA and mRNA at or near the transcription that contradicts the long anticipated statistical assumptions for the distribution of bases and analog bases compounds is implemented through statistical and stochastic methods apparatus with addition of quantum principles, where the usual transience of Poisson spike train becomes very instrumental tool for finding even almost periodical type of solutions to Fokker-Plank stochastic differential equation. Present article develops new multidimensional methods of finding solutions to stochastic differential equations based on more rigorous approach to mathematical apparatus through Kolmogorov-Chentsov continuity theorem that allows the stochastic processes with jumps under certain conditions to have γ-Holder continuous modification that is used as basis for finding analogous parallels in dynamics of neutral networks and formation of analog bases and transcription in DNA.

Keywords: Fokker-Plank stochastic differential equation, Kolmogorov-Chentsov continuity theorem, neural networks, translation and transcription

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23 Mirrors and Lenses: Multiple Views on Recognition in Holocaust Literature

Authors: Kirsten A. Bartels

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There are a number of similarities between survivor literature and Holocaust fiction for children and young adults. The paper explores three facets of the parallels of recognition found specifically between Livia Bitton-Jackson’s memoir of her experience during the Holocaust as an inmate in Auschwitz, I Have Lived a Thousand Years (1999) and Morris Glietzman series of Holocaust fiction. While Bitton-Jackson reflects on her past and Glietzman designs a fictive character, both are judicious with what they are willing to impart, only providing information about their appearance or themselves when it impacts others or when it serves a necessary purpose to the story. Another similarity lies in another critical aspect of many works of Holocaust literature – the idea of being ‘representatively Jewish’. The authors come to this idea from different angles, perhaps best explained as the difference between showing and telling, for Bitton-Jackson provides personal details, and Gleitzman constructed Felix arguably with this idea in mind. Interwoven through their journeys is a shift in perspectives on being recognized -- from wanting to be seen as individuals to being seen as Jew. With this, being Jewish takes on different meaning, both youths struggle with being labeled as something they do not truly understand, and may have not truly identified with, from a label, to a death warrant. With survivor literature viewed as the most credible and worthwhile type of Holocaust literature and Holocaust fiction is often seen as the least (with children’s and young-adult being the lowest form) the similarities in approaches to telling the stories may go overlooked or be undervalued. This paper serves as an exploration in the some of parallel messages shared between the two.

Keywords: holocaust fiction, Holocaust literature, representatively Jewish, survivor literature

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22 Foreign Elements In The Methodologies of USUL Fiqh: Analysing The Orientalist Thought

Authors: Ariyanti Mustapha

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The development of Islamic jurisprudence since the first century of hijra has fascinated many orientalists to explore the historiography of Islamic legislation. The practice of uÎËl fiqh began during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and was continued by the companions as the legal reasoning due to the absence of the legal injunction in the QurÉn and Sunnah. The orientalists propagated that the Roman and Jewish legislation were transplanted in Islamic jurisprudence and it was the primary reason for its progression. This article focuses on the analysis of foreign elements transplanted in the uÎËl fiqh as mentioned by Ignaz Goldziher and Joseph Schacht. They insisted the methodology of Sunna and IjtihÉd were authentically from Roman and Jewish legislation, known as Mishnah and Ha-Kol were invented and transplanted as the principles in uÎËl fiqh. The author used qualitative and comparative methods to analyze the orientalists’ views. The result showed that many erroneous facts were propagated by Goldziher and Schacht by claiming the parallels between the principles, methodologies, and fundamental concepts in uÎËl fiqh and Roman Provincial law. They insisted Sunna and IjtihÉd as an invention from the corpus of Jewish Mishnah and Ha-kol and further affirmed by Schacht that Islamic jurisprudence began in the second century of hijra. These judgments are used by the orientalists to prove the inferiority of Islamic jurisprudence. Nevertheless, many evidences has proven that Islamic legislation is capable of developing independently without any foreign transplant.

Keywords: foreign transplant, ijtihad, orientalist, USUL Fiqh

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21 China's BRI and Germany's Baghdad Railroad – a Realist Analysis of Hegemonic Conflict and the Circumvention of Maritime Power

Authors: Kamen Kirov

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In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Britain dominated global trade and finance in large part due to its maritime superiority. Germany, a land power, sought to undermine Britain’s position as the primary hegemon but ultimately could not challenge Britain’s maritime position or capabilities. This drove Germany to seek alternative strategies to weaken Britain’s position. Notably, it pushed Germany to create a reliable overland link through the Balkans to the Middle East via railroad. This article will seek to draw parallels between the German-British hegemonic conflict of the early 20th century and the Chinese-American hegemonic conflict taking place today using both secondary historical sources and current scholarly discussions of the changing international sphere. In doing so, it will provide useful insights into how China might attempt to outflank American power. The article will demonstrate that in many ways, the strategic positions and approaches of the early-20th century Germany and modern China are similar. Both countries were faced with a vastly superior foe with respect to maritime and economic power, and in both cases, their response was to undermine their rival hegemon by creating new overland infrastructure. Furthermore, in both cases, a major goal of creating new overland links was to gain further access to and control over Middle Eastern energy markets. It seems that in the modern day, China is conducting such a policy on a much grander scale than Germany did in the early 20th century—which may result in negative consequences for the US strategic position.

Keywords: belt and road Initiative, hegemonic conflict, maritime power, realism

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20 Quest for Literary Past: A Study of Byatt’s Possession

Authors: Chen Jun

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Antonia Susan Byatt’s Possession: A Romance has been misread as a postmodern pastiche novel since its publication because there are epics, epigraphs, lyrics, fairy tales, epistles, and even critical articles swollen in this work. The word ‘pastiche’ suggests messy, disorganized, and chaotic, which buries its artistic excellence while overlooking its subtitle, A Romance. The center of romance is the quest that the hero sets forth to conquer the adversity, hardship, and danger to accomplish a task to prove his identity or social worth. This paper argues that Byatt’s Possession is not a postmodern pastiche novel but rather a postmodern romance in which the characters in the academic world set forth their quest into the Victorian literary past that is nostalgically identified by Byatt as the Golden Age of English literature. In doing so, these five following issues are addressed: first, the origin of the protagonist Roland, and consequently, the nature of his quest; second, the central image of the dragon created by the fictional Victorian poet Henry Ash; third, Melusine as an image of female serpent created by the fictional Victorian poet Christabel LaMotte; fourth, the images of the two ladies; last, the image of water that links the dragon and the serpent. In Possession, the past is reinvented not as an unfortunate fall but as a Golden Age presented in the imaginative academic adventure. The dragon, a stereotypical symbol of evil, becomes the symbol of life in Byatt’s work, which parallels with the image of the mythical phoenix that can resurrect from its own ash. At the same time, the phoenix symbolizes Byatt’s efforts to revive the Victorian poetic art that is supposed to be dead in the post-capitalism society when the novel is the dominating literary genre and poetry becomes the minority. The fictional Victorian poet Ash is in fact Byatt’s own poetic mask through which she breathes life into the lost poetic artistry in the postmodern era.

Keywords: Byatt, possession, postmodern romance, literary past

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19 The Significance of Ernest Hemingway's Writing Style in the Development of Georgian Prose of 1950-1960s

Authors: Natia Kvachakidze

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The given research aims to study and analyze the influence of Ernest Hemingway’s writing style on Georgian prose of 1950s and 1960s. It is universally known that Ernest Hemingway’s unique writing style has had an enormous effect on various writers. His work remains highly relevant and influential even today. This is especially true about the works written in English, but literary prose created in other languages is not an exception. Certain stylistic peculiarities characteristic for Hemingway’s writing can be traced in literary works written in various languages. It is particularly interesting for us, Georgians, how all these aspects were reflected in Georgian prose of the second-half of XX century. This particular paper (which is a part of a larger research) focuses on major significant peculiarities of Georgian prose of 1950-1960s that might be connected to Hemingway's writing. In this respect, GuramRcheulishvili’s (1934-1960) works should be particularly distinguished (especially his short fiction), but literary works of other Georgian authors are not at all less important. The research involves the analysis of the prose works of some Georgian writers of the given period in the context of tracing similarities and parallels between them and the characteristic features of Ernest Hemingway’s writing style. The use of everyday language as well as short and simple sentences, a concise and sparse style, repetitions, intense dialogues are some of the essential traits in question. Themes like birth and death, war and violence, family, nature, disillusionment also prove to be vitally important for this research. Complex interconnections between the author, the narrator, and the protagonist (often autobiographical) provide another interesting subject to study. At the same time, this paper aims at studying and revealing how Hemingway’s method was reflected and transformed in Georgian prose. In this respect, it is interesting to trace not only the direct effect of Hemingway’s style but also the role of certain Georgian translations of the works of this American writer.

Keywords: hemingway, prose, georgian writers, writing style

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18 A Comparative Analysis: Cultural Reflections of Mexicans in the United States and Turks in Germany

Authors: Gülşen Kocaevli

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This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis on the reflections of cultural elements such as language, festival, and food both in the case of Turkish immigrants in Germany and Mexican immigrants in the United States within a historical perspective. These reflections will be studied first by giving a certain background information on the migratory history of the two nations, Mexican immigration to the US, and Turkish immigration to Germany, respectively. These two cases were picked as the analytical subjects of this paper because both nations first migrated to the related country to constitute a labor force since there was a huge need for that due to several reasons such as the loss of manpower after certain wars or revolutions. At the end of this comparative study, it is speculated to be found that there are certain parallels between these two immigrant societies in the way that they reflect their cultures in the receiving country since both nations have a conventionalist nature which makes them tend more to protect their cultures and pay less effort to integrate into the society in which they are living. Even though this integration might be realized in certain fields like economic status and exogamy, it does not cover all segments nor is there any desire of the receiving government to integrate the immigrants but rather they make policies to assimilate them. This research paper will use a qualitative method which is fundamentally based on the interpretative data drawn from several sociological or ethnographic studies conducted in the related field. The primary and secondary resources of this paper will cover academic books, journal articles, particularly those reporting interviews with the immigrants, and certain governmental documents as well as publicized statistics regarding the subject of analysis. By the use of the aforementioned methodology and resources, the conventionalist nature of the two immigrant nations is aimed to be presented as the unifying factor in the way that Mexicans in the US and Turks in Germany reflect and protect their cultures in the form of language, festivals, and food.

Keywords: assimilation, culture, German-Turks, immigration, Mexican Americans

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17 Ba'albakī's Influence on 1950s and 1960s Lebanese Women Writers

Authors: Khaled Igbaria

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While Ba'albakī ceased writing or publishing since 1964, it is considerable and significant to investigate Ba'albakī's influence on others. This paper examines her influence on three Lebanese women writers: Emily Nasrallah, Muná Jabbūr, and Hanan al-Shaykh. However, the aim is not simply to examine the influence of the writer on these three authors, but rather to note similarities and differences in the challenges they faced and the agendas they followed in their fiction writing. For each of these writers, this article will describe elements of their literature, and then sketch out the influence which Ba'albakī has had on them. This paper relies on material from Sidawi because it includes interviews with the female writers discussed that are relevant to the current discussion. Sidawi asked them about Ba'albakī and her influence on them, the challenges they faced, and how they coped with them. This paper points out their comments using their own words. To be clear, examining these writers' notes and works is beyond the scope of this paper. To sum up, there are significant parallels between the life and work of Ba'albakī, and other Lebanese women writers such as Nasrallah, Jabbūr and al-Shaykh. Like Ba'albakī, Nasrallah and al-Shaykh also suffered in their struggle against their families. Nasrallah and al-Shaykh, like Ba'albakī, suffered because their society did not trust in their abilities and creativity. Ba'albakī opted for isolation because of her conflict with patriarchal society including the Lebanese women’s groups, while Nasrallah's isolation was because she preferred individualism and autonomy, and Jabbūr, as could be speculated, was not able to cope with the suffering caused by her role as a woman writer within Lebanese society. Whereas Ba'albakī isolated herself from the Lebanese women’s groups, focusing instead on her feminist writing and joining the Shi'r group, Al-Shaykh and the Lebanese women’s groups are able to cooperate in harmony. Furthermore, while Nasrallah and Al-Shaykh continued to publish fiction, Ba'albakī stopped publishing fiction in 1964. All of the above confirms not only that it is worthy to investigate deeply and academically both the biography and the works of Ba'albakī, but also that she deserves to include her throughout the top great Arab female writers, at the time, like Al-Shaykh and Nawal El Saadawi.

Keywords: feminist writing, Hanan Al-Shaykh, Laylá Ba'albakī, Lebanese women writers, Muná Jabbūr

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16 The Musician as the Athlete: Psychological Response to Injury

Authors: Shulamit Sternin

Abstract:

Athletes experience injuries that can have both a physical and psychological impact on the individual. In such instances, athletes are able to rely on the established field of sports psychology to facilitate holistic rehabilitation. Musicians, like athletes rely on their bodies to perform in much the same way athletes do and are also susceptible to injury. Due to the similar performative nature of succeeding as an athletes or a musician, these careers share many of the same primary psychological concerns and therefore it is reasonable that athletes and musicians may require similar rehabilitation post-injury. However, musicians face their own unique psychological challenges and understanding the needs of an injured athlete can serve as a foundation for understanding the injured musician but is not enough to fully rehabilitate an injured musician. The current research surrounding musicians and their injuries is primarily focused on physiological aspects of injury and rehabilitation; the psychological aspects have not yet received adequate attention resulting in poor musician rehabilitation post- injury. This review paper uses current models of psychological response to injury in athletes to draw parallels with the psychological response to injury in musicians. Search engines such as Medline and PsycInfo were systematically searched using specific key words, such as psychological response, injury, athlete, and musician. Studies that focused on post-injury psychology of either the musician or the athlete were included. Within the literature there is evidence to support psychological responses, unique to the musician, that are not accounted for by current models of response in athletes. The models of psychological response to injury in athletes are inadequate tools for application to the musician. Future directions for performance arts research that can fill the gaps in our understanding and modeling of musicians’ response to injury are discussed. A better understanding of the psychological impact of injuries on musicians holds significant implications for health care practitioners working with injured musicians. Understanding the unique barriers musicians face post-injury, and how support for this population must be tailored to properly suit musicians’ needs will aid in more holistic rehabilitation and a higher likelihood of musician’s returning to pre-injury performance levels.

Keywords: athlete, injury, musician, psychological response

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15 Destruction of Coastal Wetlands in Harper City-Liberia: Setting Nature against the Future Society

Authors: Richard Adu Antwako

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Coastal wetland destruction and its consequences have recently taken the center stage of global discussions. This phenomenon is no gray area to humanity as coastal wetland-human interaction seems inevitably ingrained in the earliest civilizations, amidst the demanding use of its resources to meet their necessities. The severity of coastal wetland destruction parallels with growing civilizations, and it is against this backdrop that, this paper interrogated the causes of coastal wetland destruction in Harper City in Liberia, compared the degree of coastal wetland stressors to the non-equilibrium thermodynamic scale as well as suggested an integrated coastal zone management to address the problems. Literature complemented the primary data gleaned via global positioning system devices, field observation, questionnaire, and interviews. Multi-sampling techniques were used to generate data from the sand miners, institutional heads, fisherfolk, community-based groups, and other stakeholders. Non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory remains vibrant in discerning the ecological stability, and it would be employed to further understand the coastal wetland destruction in Harper City, Liberia and to measure the coastal wetland stresses-amplitude and elasticity. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics postulates that the coastal wetlands are capable of assimilating resources (inputs), as well as discharging products (outputs). However, the input-output relationship exceedingly stretches beyond the thresholds of the coastal wetlands, leading to coastal wetland disequilibrium. Findings revealed that the sand mining, mangrove removal, and crude dumping have transformed the coastal wetlands, resulting in water pollution, flooding, habitat loss and disfigured beaches in Harper City in Liberia. This paper demonstrates that the coastal wetlands are converted into developmental projects and agricultural fields, thus, endangering the future society against nature.

Keywords: amplitude, crude dumping, elasticity, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, wetland destruction

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14 The Contribution of Corpora to the Investigation of Cross-Linguistic Equivalence in Phraseology: A Contrastive Analysis of Russian and Italian Idioms

Authors: Federica Floridi

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The long tradition of contrastive idiom research has essentially been focusing on three domains: the comparison of structural types of idioms (e.g. verbal idioms, idioms with noun-phrase structure, etc.), the description of idioms belonging to the same thematic groups (Sachgruppen), the identification of different types of cross-linguistic equivalents (i.e. full equivalents, partial equivalents, phraseological parallels, non-equivalents). The diastratic, diachronic and diatopic aspects of the compared idioms, as well as their syntactic, pragmatic and semantic properties, have been rather ignored. Corpora (both monolingual and parallel) give the opportunity to investigate the actual use of correlating idioms in authentic texts of L1 and L2. Adopting the corpus-based approach, it is possible to draw attention to the frequency of occurrence of idioms, their syntactic embedding, their potential syntactic transformations (e.g., nominalization, passivization, relativization, etc.), their combinatorial possibilities, the variations of their lexical structure, their connotations in terms of stylistic markedness or register. This paper aims to present the results of a contrastive analysis of Russian and Italian idioms referring to the concepts of ‘beginning’ and ‘end’, that has been carried out by using the Russian National Corpus and the ‘La Repubblica’ corpus. Beyond the digital corpora, bilingual dictionaries, like Skvorcova - Majzel’, Dobrovol’skaja, Kovalev, Čerdanceva, as well as monolingual resources, have been consulted. The study has shown that many of the idioms that have been traditionally indicated as cross-linguistic equivalents on bilingual dictionaries cannot be considered correspondents. The findings demonstrate that even those idioms, that are formally identical in Russian and Italian and are presumably derived from the same source (e.g., conceptual metaphor, Bible, classical mythology, World literature), exhibit differences regarding usage. The ultimate purpose of this article is to highlight that it is necessary to review and improve the existing bilingual dictionaries considering the empirical data collected in corpora. The materials gathered in this research can contribute to this sense.

Keywords: corpora, cross-linguistic equivalence, idioms, Italian, Russian

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13 Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules

Authors: Ilirian Laçi, Alketa Spahiu

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Big strums of thyroid glandule observed by a simple viewing can be witnessed in everyday life. Medical cabinets evidence patients withpalpablenodes of thyroid glandule, mainly nodes of the size of 10 millimeters. Further, more cases which have resulted in negative under palpation have resulted in positive at ultrasound examination. Therefore, the use of ultrasound for diagnosing has increased the number of patients with nodes of thyroid glandule in the last couple of decades in all countries, Albania included. Thus, there has been evidence of an increased number of patients affected by this pathology, where female patients dominate. Demographically, the capital shows high numbers due to the high population, but of interest is the high incidence of those areas distanced from the sea. While regarding related pathologies, no significant link was evidenced, an element of ancestry was evident in the nodes of the thyroid glandule. When we talk of nodes of the thyroid glandule, we should consider hyperplasia, neoplasia, and inflammatory diseases that cause nodes of the thyroid glandule. This increase parallels the world’s increase of the incidence of thyroid glandule, with malign cases, which are at about 5% and are not depended on size. Given the numbers, with most thyroid glandule nodes being benign, the main objective of the examination of the nodes was the determination of benign and malign cases to avoid undue surgery. Subject of this study were 212 patients that underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound guidance at the Medical University Center of Tirana. All the patients came to the Mother Teresa University Hospital from public and private hospitals and other polyclinics. These patients had an ultrasound examination before visiting the Center of Nuclear Medicine for a scintigraph of thyroid glandule in the period September 2016 and September 2017. To correlate, all patients had been examined via ultrasound of the thyroid glandule prior to the scintigraph. The ultrasound included evaluation of the number of nodes, their size, their solid, cystic, or solid-cystic structure, echogenicity according to the gray scale, the presence of calcification, the presence of lymph nodes, the presence of adenopathy, and the correlation of the cytology results from the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy of Medical University Center of Tirana.

Keywords: thyroid nodes, fine needle aspiration, ultrasound, scintigraphy

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12 Stereotyping of Non-Western Students in Western Universities: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis to Undermine Educational Hegemony

Authors: Susan Lubbers

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This study applies critical discourse analysis to the language used by educators to frame international students of Asian backgrounds in Anglo-Western universities as quiet, shy, passive and unable to think critically. Emphasis is on the self-promoted ‘internationalised’ Australian tertiary context, where negative stereotypes are commonly voiced not only in the academy but also in the media. Parallels are drawn as well with other Anglo-Western educational contexts. The study critically compares the discourse of these persistent negative stereotypes, with in-class and interview discourses of international students of Asian and Western language, cultural and educational backgrounds enrolled in a Media and Popular Culture unit in an Australian university. The focus of analysis of the student discourse is on their engagement in critical dialogic interactions on the topics of culture and interculturality. The evidence is also drawn from student interviews and focus groups and from observation of whole-class discussion participation rates. The findings of the research project provide evidence that counters the myth of student as problem. They point rather to the widespread lack of intercultural awareness of Western educators and students as being at the heart of the negative perceptions of students of Asian backgrounds. The study suggests the efficacy of an approach to developing intercultural competence that is embedded, or integrated, into tertiary programs. The presentation includes an overview of the main strategies that have been developed by the tertiary educator (author) to support the development of intercultural competence of and among the student cohort. The evidence points to the importance of developing intercultural competence among tertiary educators and students. The failure by educators to ensure that the diverse voices, ideas and perspectives of students from all cultural, educational and language backgrounds are heard in our classrooms means that our universities can hardly be regarded or promoted as genuinely internationalised. They will continue as undemocratic institutions that perpetrate persistent Western educational hegemony.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical thinking, embedding, intercultural competence, interculturality, international student, internationalised education

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11 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang

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The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

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10 Parallels between Training Parameters of High-Performance Athletes Determining the Long-Term Adaptation of the Body in Various Sports: Case Study on Different Types of Training and Their Gender Conditioning

Authors: Gheorghe Braniste

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Gender gap has always been in dispute when comparing records and has been a major factor influencing best performances in various sports. Consequently, our study registers the evolution of the difference between men's and women’s best performances within either cyclic or acyclic sports, considering the fact that the training sessions of high performance athletes prove both similarities and differences in long-term adaptation of their body to stress and effort in breaking limits and records. Firstly, for a correct interpretation of the data and tables included in this paper, we must point out that the intense muscular activity has a considerable impact on the structural organization of the organs and systems of the performer's body through the mechanism of motor-visceral reflexes, forming a high working capacity suitable for intense muscular activity. The opportunity to obtaine high sports results during the official competitions is due, on the one hand, to the genetic characteristics of the athlete's body, and on the other hand, to the fact that playing professional sports leaves its mark on the vital morphological and functional parameters. The aim of our research is to study the landmarking differences between male and female athletes and their physical development, together with their growing capacity to stand up to the functional training during the competitive period of their annual training cycle. In order to evaluate the physical development of the athletes, the data of the anthropometric screenings obtained at the Olympic Training Center of the selected teams of the Republic of Moldova were interpreted and rated. During the study of physical development in terms of body height and weight, vital capacity, thoracic excursion, maximum force (Fmax), dynamometry of the hand and back, a further evaluation of the physical development indices that allow an evaluation of complex physical development were registered. The interdependence of the results obtained in performance sports with the morphological and functional particularities of the athletes' body is firmly determined and cannot be disputed. Nevertheless, registered data proved that with the increase of the training capacity, the morphological and functional abilities of the female body increase and, in some respects, approach and even slightly surpass the men in certain sports.

Keywords: physical development, indices, parameters, active body weight, morphological maturity, physical performance

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