Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 305

Search results for: French

305 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
304 Canadian French as an Additional Language Teacher Candidates' Proficiency and Confidence Pre- and Post-Francophone Home-Stay: Practicum Experience as Revealed through Questionnaire and Interviews

Authors: Callie Mady

Abstract:

This study investigated the Canadian French as an additional language teacher candidates’ confidence and language maintenance strategies by means of questionnaires and interviews pre- and post- a Francophone home-stay practicum experience. Teacher French language proficiency is one of the components of teacher knowledge that can influence students’ French as an additional language acquisition. Although advantageous, seeking opportunities to use French in a French milieu comes with challenges. Teachers, for example, have been found to be hesitant to speak French with native speakers for fear of judgment. Another identified challenge to spending time in a French milieu is finances; while teachers have recognized the value of such an experience, cost is prohibitive. In recognition of the potential barriers and the need to maintain/improve the French proficiency of 'French as an additional language' teachers, this study provided a two-week home stay in a Francophone environment for teacher candidates of French as an additional language with financial subsidies for their participation. Through the post-experience interviews, the French as an additional language teacher candidates revealed an improvement in French proficiency. Similarly, the teacher candidates cited an increase in confidence in the interviews and through the questionnaire. They linked this increase in proficiency and confidence to their experiences with their host families and other Francophone members of the community. This study highlights the provision of immersion experiences as means to support teachers’ language confidence and proficiency.

Keywords: French as an additional language education, teacher language confidence, teacher language maintenance, teacher language proficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
303 Contextual Distribution for Textual Alignment

Authors: Yuri Bizzoni, Marianne Reboul

Abstract:

Our program compares French and Italian translations of Homer’s Odyssey, from the XVIth to the XXth century. We focus on the third point, showing how distributional semantics systems can be used both to improve alignment between different French translations as well as between the Greek text and a French translation. Although we focus on French examples, the techniques we display are completely language independent.

Keywords: classical receptions, computational linguistics, distributional semantics, Homeric poems, machine translation, translation studies, text alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
302 The Integration of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of French Language in Some Selected Schools in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Oluyomi A. Abioye

Abstract:

The 21st century has been witnessing a lot of technological advancements and innovations, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) happens to be one of them. Education is the cornerstone of any nation and the language in which it is delivered is the bedrock of any development. The French language is our choice in this study. French is a language of reference on the national and international scenes; however its teaching is clouded with myriads of problems. The output of students’ academic performance depends on to a large extent on the teaching and learning the process. The methodology employed goes a long way in contributing to the effectiveness of the teaching and learning the process. Therefore, with the integration of ICT, French teaching has to align with and adapt to this new digital era. An attempt is made to define the concept of ICT. Some of the challenges encountered in the teaching of French language are highlighted. Then it discusses the existing methods of French teaching and the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of the same language. Then some prospects and challenges of ICT in the teaching and learning of French are discussed. Data collected from questionnaires administered among some students of some selected schools are analysed. Our findings revealed that only very few schools in Nigeria have the electronic and computer-mediated facilities to teach the French language. The paper concludes by encouraging 'savoir-faire' of ICT by the French teachers, an openness of students to this digital technology and adequate provision of electronic and computer-mediated gadgets by the Nigerian government to its educational institutions.

Keywords: French language in Nigeria, integration of ICT, prospects and challenges, teaching and learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
301 Acquisition of the Attributive Adjectives and the Noun Adjuncts by the L3 Learners of French and German: Further Evidence for the Typological Proximity Model

Authors: Ali Akbar Jabbari

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of the prior acquired languages, Persian and English, concerning the acquisition of the third language (L3) French and German at the initial stages. The data were collected from two groups of L3 learners: 28 learners of L3 French and 21 learners of L3 German, in order to test the placement of the attributive adjectives and the noun adjuncts through a grammaticality judgment task and an element rearrangement task. The aim of the study was to investigate whether any of the models proposed in the L3 acquisition could account for the case of the present study. The results of the analysis revealed that the learners of L3 German and French were both affected by the typological similarity of the previous languages. The outperformance of the German learners is an indication of the facilitative effect of L2 English (which is typologically more similar to the German than that of French). English had also a non-facilitative role in the acquisition of French and this is proved in the lower performance of the French learners. This study provided evidence for the TPM as the most accepted model of L3 acquisition.

Keywords: cross-linguistic influence, multilingualism, third language acquisition, transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
300 An Investigation into Problems Confronting Pre-Service Teachers of French in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

Abstract:

French, as a foreign language in Nigeria, is pronounced to be the second official language and a compulsory subject in the primary school level; hence, colleges of education across the nation are saddled with the responsibility of training teachers for the subject. However, it has been observed that this policy has not been fully implemented, for French teachers in training, do face many challenges, of which translation is chief. In a bid to investigate the major cause of the perceived translation problem, this study examined French translation problems of pre-service teachers in selected colleges of education in the southwest, Nigeria. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The simple random sampling technique was used to select four colleges of education in the southwest, where 100 French students were randomly selected by selecting 25 from each school. The pre-service teachers’ French translation problems’ questionnaire (PTFTPQ) was used as an instrument while four research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were tested. Among others, the findings revealed that students do have problems with false friends, though mainly with its interpretation when attempting French-English translation and vice versa; majority of the students make use of French dictionary as a way out and found the material very useful for their understanding of false friends. Teachers were, therefore, urged to attend in-service training where they would be exposed to new and emerging strategies, approaches and methodologies of French language teaching that will make students overcome the challenge of translation in learning French.

Keywords: false friends, French language, pre-service teachers, source language, target language, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
299 French Language Teaching in Nigeria and Future with Technology

Authors: Chidiebere Samuel Ijeoma

Abstract:

The impact and importance of technology in all domains of existence cannot be overemphasized. It is like a double-edged sword which can be both constructive and destructive. The paper, therefore, tends to evaluate the impact of technology so far in the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. According to the study, the traditional methods of teaching French as a Foreign Language and recognized as our cultural methods of knowledge transfer are being fast replaced by digitalization in teaching. This, the research tends to portray and suggest the best way forward. In the Nigerian Primary Education System, the use of some local and cultural Instructional materials (teaching aids) is now almost history which the paper frowns at. Consequently, the study has these questions to ask?; Where are the chalks and blackboards? Where are the ‘Handworks’ (local brooms) submitted by school children as part of their Continuous Assessment? Finally, the research is in no way against the application of technology in the Nigerian French Language Teaching System but tries to draw a curtain between Technological methods of teaching French as a Foreign Language and the Original Nigerian System of teaching the language before the arrival of technology.

Keywords: French language teaching, future, impact, importance of technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
298 Hijabs, Burqas and Burqinis: Freedom of Religious Expression In The French Public Sphere

Authors: John Tate

Abstract:

In 2004, the French Parliament banned the “hijab” in public schools, and in 2010 it prohibited the “burqa” and “niqab” in “public places.” The result was a “secular” outcome involving the removal of these garments, often identified with Islamic religious and cultural practice, from the French public sphere. Yet in 2016, the French local council bans on the “burqini” were overruled by France’s highest administrative court, the Conseil d’État, allowing for their retention in the public sphere. Unlike the burqa and hijab bans, the burqini bans produced significant divisions at the highest echelons of the French political class, with the Prime Minister, Manuel Valls, and the President, François Hollande, finding themselves at odds on the issue. This article seeks to achieve four aims. It seeks to (a) explain the contrary outcomes between key French state institutions, such as the Conseil d’État and the French Parliament, concerning the hijab and burqa bans, and the Conseil d’État and French local councils, concerning the burqini bans; (b) to do so by identifying two qualitatively distinct, and at times incompatible, conceptions of laïcité, present within official French public discourse, and applied by these French state institutions to underwrite these respective outcomes; (c) explain why, given these contrary conceptions of laïcité, and these contrary outcomes, the widespread identification of laïcité with “secularism” is both misleading and inaccurate; and (d) provide an explanation why senior members of the French political class were divided on the burqini bans when they were not divided on the nation-wide prohibitions of the hijab in public schools and the burqa in public places. In regard to this last question, the article seeks to ask why the Burqini was “different”?

Keywords: liberalism, republicanism, laïcité, citizenship

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
297 Evaluation of Three Potato Cultivars for Processing (Crisp French Fries)

Authors: Hatim Bastawi

Abstract:

Three varieties of potatoes, namely Agria, Alpha and Diamant were evaluated for their suitability for industrial production of French fries. The evaluation was under taken after testing quality parameters of specific gravity, dry matter, peeling ratio, and defect after frying and panel test. The variety Agria ranked the best followed by Alpha with regard to the parameters tested. On the other hand, Diamant showed significantly higher defect percentage than the other cultivars. Also, it was significantly judged of low acceptance by panelists.

Keywords: cultivars, crisps, French fries

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
296 The French, the Yoruba, and the H-Thing: Sharing and Realising Same Phenomenon Differently

Authors: Rose-Juliet Anyanwu

Abstract:

The principal objective of this paper is to investigate whether some sort of phonological processes, such as elision, aspiration, glottalisation, and hardening can be used to account for the behaviour of the glottal fricative (or approximant, as the case may be) ‘h’ in both French and Yoruba. French and Yoruba speakers generally tend to say, for instance ‘ockey’ and ‘amburger’, instead of ‘hockey’ and ‘hamburger’, respectively. Whereas the Yoruba conversely say, for instance ‘hadd’ for ‘add’, ‘heat’ for ‘eat’ on the one hand and ‘ard’ for ‘hard’, ‘eat’ for ‘heat’ on the other hand, on a similar note, it is not quite clear whether the French, however, if not at least in rare instances, would tend to force themselves to pronounce (in any form whatsoever) the h-sound. Recorded sentences containing h-initial as well as vowel-initial words will be used for the investigation. The present paper is meant to contribute to work on aspiration, compensation, elision, and glottalisation, as well as hardening.

Keywords: aspiration, compensation, glottalisation, hardening

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
295 Error Analysis of Pronunciation of French by Sinhala Speaking Learners

Authors: Chandeera Gunawardena

Abstract:

The present research analyzes the pronunciation errors encountered by thirty Sinhala speaking learners of French on the assumption that the pronunciation errors were systematic and they reflect the interference of the native language of the learners. The thirty participants were selected using random sampling method. By the time of the study, the subjects were studying French as a foreign language for their Bachelor of Arts Degree at University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The participants were from a homogenous linguistics background. All participants speak the same native language (Sinhala) thus they had completed their secondary education in Sinhala medium and during which they had also learnt French as a foreign language. A battery operated audio tape recorder and a 120-minute blank cassettes were used for recording. A list comprised of 60 words representing all French phonemes was used to diagnose pronunciation difficulties. Before the recording process commenced, the subjects were requested to familiarize themselves with the words through reading them several times. The recording was conducted individually in a quiet classroom and each recording approximately took fifteen minutes. Each subject was required to read at a normal speed. After the completion of recording, the recordings were replayed to identify common errors which were immediately transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Results show that Sinhala speaking learners face problems with French nasal vowels and French initial consonants clusters. The learners also exhibit errors which occur because of their second language (English) interference.

Keywords: error analysis, pronunciation difficulties, pronunciation errors, Sinhala speaking learners of French

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
294 A Mixed Method Design to Studying the Effects of Lean Production on Job Satisfaction and Health Work in a French Context

Authors: Gregor Bouville, Celine Schmidt

Abstract:

This article presents a French case study on lean production drawing on a mixed method design which has received little attention in French management research-especially in French human resources research. The purpose is to show that using a mixed method approach in this particular case overstep the limitations of previous studies in lean production studies. The authors use the embedded design as a special articulation of mixed method to analyse and understand the effects of three organizational practices on job satisfaction and workers’ health. Results show that low scheduled autonomy, quality management, time constraint have deleterious effects on job satisfaction. Furthermore, these three practices have ambivalent effects on health work. Interest in the subjects of mixed method has been growing up among French health researchers and practioners, also recently among French management researchers. This study reinforces and refines how mixed methods may offer interesting perspectives in an integrated framework included human resources, management, and health fields. Finally, potentials benefits and limits for those interdisciplinary researches programs are discussed.

Keywords: lean production, mixed method, work organization practices, job satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
293 The Different Types of French Language in the Processes of Acquisition: Specifically about The Humor

Authors: Akbarnejad Neda

Abstract:

A foreign language acquisition occurs when we can tell a joke and understand it. Most jokes are told in slang and common language. In the process of foreign language acquisition, an autonomous learner try to learn the standard language. But there is a colossal divergence between the usage of the different types of language in society. Here, we investigate the french slang and common language and examine the accurate perception of their usage. We illuminate the slang language in the french literature that provide considerably different types of language for an autonomous learner. We provide furthermore evidence from the french novels that demonstrate properly the different types of language and give in one sentence its social meanings. For example, the famous Queneau expression « Doukipudonktant » present the impact of slang language in society. The characters in the novel transfer the slang and the common language and their accurate usages. We present that the language of the autonomous learner depends on the language of the text that is read. Because literature is a vehicle of the culture and the expression demonstrate their real significations and usage in the culture, slang and common language have a crucial role in the culture and all of them are manifested in the oral language.

Keywords: common language, french, humor, slang language

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
292 Communicative Competence in French Language for Nigerian Teacher-Trainees in the New-Normal Society Using Mobile Apps as a Lifelong Learning Tool

Authors: Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

Learning is natural for living. One stops learning when life ends. Hence, there is no negotiating life-long learning. An individual has the innate ability to learn as many languages as he/she desires as long as life exists. French language education to every Nigerian teacher-trainee is a necessity. Nigeria’s geographical location requires that the French language should be upheld for economic and cultural co-operations between Nigeria and the francophone countries sharing borders with her. The French language will enhance the leadership roles of the teacher-trainees and their ability to function across borders. The 21st century learning tools are basically digital, and many apps are complementing the actual classroom interactions. This study examined the communicative competence in the French language to equip Nigerian teacher-trainees in the new-normal society using mobile apps as a lifelong learning tool. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study, and the researcher adopted a pre-test, a post-test experimental design, using a sample size of 87 teacher-trainees in South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Results showed that the use of mobile apps is effective for learning the French language. One of the recommendations is that the use of mobile apps should be encouraged for all Nigerian youths to learn the French language for enhancing leadership roles in the world of work and for international interactions for socio-economic co-operations with Nigerian neighboring countries.

Keywords: communicative competence, french language, life long learning, mobile apps, new normal society, teacher trainees

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
291 Using “Eckel” Model to Measure Income Smoothing Practices: The Case of French Companies

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

Income smoothing represents an attempt on the part of the company's management to reduce variations in earnings through the manipulation of the accounting principles. In this study, we aimed to measure income smoothing practices in a sample of 30 French joint stock companies during the period (2007-2009), we used Dummy variables method and “ECKEL” model to measure income smoothing practices and Binomial test accourding to SPSS program, to confirm or refute our hypothesis. This study concluded that there are no significant statistical indicators of income smoothing practices in the sample studied of French companies during the period (2007-2009), so the income series in the same sample studied of is characterized by stability and non-volatility without any intervention of management through accounting manipulation. However, this type of accounting manipulation should be taken into account and efforts should be made by control bodies to apply Eckel model and generalize its use at the global level.

Keywords: income, smoothing, 'Eckel', French companies

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
290 Teaching Attentive Literature Reading in Higher Education French as a Foreign Language: A Pilot Study of a Flipped Classroom Teaching Model

Authors: Malin Isaksson

Abstract:

Teaching French as a foreign language usually implies teaching French literature, especially in higher education. Training university students in literary reading in a foreign language requires addressing several aspects at the same time: the (foreign) language, the poetic language, the aesthetic aspects of the studied works, and various interpretations of them. A pilot study sought to test a teaching model that would support students in learning to perform competent readings and short analyses of French literary works, in a rather independent manner. This shared practice paper describes the use of a flipped classroom method in two French literature courses, a campus course and an online course, and suggests that the teaching model may provide efficient tools for teaching literary reading and analysis in a foreign language. The teaching model builds on a high level of student activity and focuses on attentive reading, meta-perspectives such as theoretical concepts, individual analyses by students where said concepts are applied, and group discussions of the studied texts and of possible interpretations.

Keywords: attentive reading, flipped classroom, literature in foreign language studies, teaching literature analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
289 Fama French Four Factor Model: A Study of Nifty Fifty Companies

Authors: Deeksha Arora

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the applicability of the widely used asset pricing models, namely, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Fama-French Four Factor Model in the Indian equity market. The study will be based on the companies that form part of the Nifty Fifty Index for a period of five years: 2011 to 2016. The asset pricing model is examined by forming portfolios on the basis of three variables – market capitalization (size effect), book-to-market equity ratio (value effect) and profitability. The study provides a basis to test the presence of the Fama-French Four factor model in Indian stock market. This study may provide a basis for future research in the generalized asset pricing model comprising of multiple risk factors.

Keywords: book to market equity, Fama French four factor model, market capitalization, profitability, size effect, value effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
288 Analyzing the Sociolinguistic Profile of the Algerian Community in the UK in terms of French Language Use: The Case of Émigré Ph.D. Students

Authors: Hadjer Chellia

Abstract:

the present study reports on second language use among Algerian international students in the UK. In Algeria, French has an important status among the Algerian verbal repertoires due to colonial reasons. This has triggered many language conflicts and many debates among policy makers in Algeria. In higher education, Algerian English students’ sociolinguistic profile is characterised by the use of French as a sign of prestige. What may leave room for debate is the effect of crossing borders towards the UK as a result of international mobility programmes, a transition which could add more complexity since French, is not so significant as a language in the UK context. In this respect, the micro-objective is to explore the fate of French use among Ph.D. students in the UK as a newly established group vis-à-vis English. To fulfill the purpose of the present inquiry, the research employs multiple approaches in which semi-structured interview is a primary source of data to know participants’ attitudes about French use, targeting both their pre-migratory experience and current one. Web-based questionnaires are set up to access larger population. Focus group sessions are further procedures of scrutiny in this piece of work to explore the actual linguistic behaviours. Preliminary findings from both interviews and questionnaires reveal that students’ current experience, particularly living in the UK, affects their pre-migratory attitudes towards French language and its use. The overall findings are expected to bring manifold contributions to the field of research among which is setting factors that influence language use among newly established émigrés communities. The research is also relevant to international students’ experience of study abroad in terms of language use in the guise of internationalization of higher education, mobility and exchange programmes. It could contribute to the sociolinguistics of the Algerian diaspora: the dispersed residence of non-native communities - not to mention its significance on the Algerian research field abroad.

Keywords: Algerian diaspora, French language, language maintenance, language shift, mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
287 ‘Non-Legitimate’ Voices as L2 Models: Towards Becoming a Legitimate L2 Speaker

Authors: M. Rilliard

Abstract:

Based on a Multiliteracies-inspired and sociolinguistically-informed advanced French composition class, this study employed autobiographical narratives from speakers traditionally considered non-legitimate models for L2 teaching purposes of inspiring students to develop an authentic L2 voice and to see themselves as legitimate L2 speakers. Students explored their L2 identities in French through a self-inspired fictional character. Two autobiographical narratives of identity quest by non-traditional French speakers provided them guidance through this process: the novel Le Bleu des Abeilles (2013) and the film Qu’Allah Bénisse la France (2014). Written and French oral productions for different genres, as well as metalinguistic reflections in English, were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that ideas and materials that were relatable to students, namely relatable experiences and relatable language, were most useful to them in developing their L2 voices and achieving authentic and legitimate L2 speakership. These results point towards the benefits of using non-traditional speakers as pedagogical models, as they serve to legitimize students’ sense of their own L2-speakership, which ultimately leads them towards a better, more informed, mastery of the language.

Keywords: foreign language classroom, L2 identity, L2 learning and teaching, L2 writing, sociolinguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
286 Professional Competences of E-Learning Lecturers: Case of Russian National Platforms of Open Education

Authors: Polina Pekker

Abstract:

This work analyzes the role of lecturers in e-learning in Russia. It is based on qualitative research of lecturers who conduct courses on Russian national platforms of open education. The platform is based on edx software (provider of massive open online courses). The interviews with e-learning lecturers were conducted: from December 2015 till January 2016 and from April 2016 till May 2016. The results of interviews (face-to-face, telephone, skype) show, firstly, the difference between the role of lecturers in e-learning and in traditional education and, secondly, that the competition between lecturers is high in Russia. The results of interviews in Russia show that e-learning lecturer should have several special professional competences: the ability to keep attention of audiences without real contact, the ability to work on camera and competences related with e-learning course support (test, forum, communication on forum and etc.) It is concluded that lecturers need special course on acting and speech skills and on conducting and organizing of e-learning course in Russia. It is planned to conduct French study. When results from French research will be totally ready, they will be compared to Russian. As well French platform, France Universite Numerique, was launched earlier, in January 2014, so Russian lecturers should get best practice from the French colleagues.

Keywords: e-courses lecturer, e-learning, professional competences of lecturers, national Russian and French platforms of open education

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
285 Effect of Pulsed Electrical Field on the Mechanical Properties of Raw, Blanched and Fried Potato Strips

Authors: Maria Botero-Uribe, Melissa Fitzgerald, Robert Gilbert, Kim Bryceson, Jocelyn Midgley

Abstract:

French fry manufacturing involves a series of processes in which structural properties of potatoes are modified to produce crispy french fries which consumers enjoy. In addition to the traditional french fry manufacturing process, the industry is applying a relatively new process called pulsed electrical field (PEF) to the whole potatoes. There is a wealth of information on the technical treatment conditions of PEF, however, there is a lack of information about its effect on the structural properties that affect texture and its synergistic interactions with the other manufacturing steps of french fry production. The effect of PEF on starch gelatinisation properties of Russet Burbank potato was measured using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. Cation content (K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry. Firmness, and toughness of raw and blanched potatoes were determined in an uniaxial compression test. Moisture content was determined in a vacuum oven and oil content was measured using the soxhlet system with hexane. The final texture of the french fries – crispness - was determined using a three bend point test. Triangle tests were conducted to determine if consumers were able to perceive sensory differences between French fries that were PEF treated and those without treatment. The concentration of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased significantly in the raw potatoes after the PEF treatment. The PEF treatment significantly increased modulus of elasticity, compression strain, compression force and toughness in the raw potato. The PEF-treated raw potato were firmer and stiffer, and its structure integrity held together longer, resisted higher force before fracture and stretched further than the untreated ones. The strain stress relationship exhibited by the PEF-treated raw potato could be due to an increase in the permeability of the plasmalema and tonoplasm allowing Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations to reach the cell wall and middle lamella, and be available for cross linking with the pectin molecule. The PEF-treated raw potato exhibited a slightly higher onset gelatinisation temperatures, similar peak temperatures and lower gelatinisation ranges than the untreated raw potatoes. The final moisture content of the french fries was not significantly affected by the PEF treatment. Oil content in the PEF- treated potatoes was lower than the untreated french fries, however, not statistically significant at 5 %. The PEF treatment did not have an overall significant effect on french fry crispness (modulus of elasticity), flexure stress or strain. The triangle tests show that most consumers could not detect a difference between French fries that received a PEF treatment from those that did not.

Keywords: french fries, mechanical properties, PEF, potatoes

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
284 Cross Cultural Challenges in International Projects: A Comparative Study between Indian and French

Authors: Niranjani Ruba Pandian

Abstract:

In today’s multicultural global business community, most of the businesses and industries are linked with various countries in which different nationalities have different roles and responsibilities throughout the project. The purpose of this research is to examine the cross-cultural challenges between Indian and French and the ways to minimize these challenges to manage effectively the cross-cultural aspect of human resources for the success of global business in an automotive industry. The conducted study utilized quantitative methodology to analyze the data on Indian and French employees' perceptions of 6 cultural dimensions such as power versus distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty versus avoidance, pragmatic versus normative and indulgence versus restraint. Employees of 4 multinational companies filled in the questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale to present quantitative results. The data was analysed with the correlation and multiple regression statistical analyses. It was found that Indian and French have major gap in uncertainty versus avoidance followed by individualism versus collectivism. However, this article highlights the way to minimize these gaps by adopting certain sequenced methodologies.

Keywords: automotive industry, cross cultural challenges, globalization, global business

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
283 Teaching Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC): Hybrid French/English Courses and their Dual Impact on Interdisciplinarity and L2 Competency

Authors: M. Caporale

Abstract:

French Curricula across the US have recently suffered low enrollment and have experienced difficulties with retention, thus resulting in fewer students minoring and majoring in French and enrolling in upper-level classes. Successful undergraduate programs offer French courses with a strong cultural and interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary component. The World Language Curriculum in liberal arts colleges in America needs to take into account the cultural aspects of the language and encourage students to think critically about the country or countries they are studying. Limiting the critical inquiry to language or literature narrowly defined provides and incomplete and stagnant picture of France and the Francophone world in today's global community. This essay discusses the creation and implementation of a hybrid interdisciplinary L1/L2 course titled "Topics in Francophone Cinema" (subtitle "Francophone Women on Screen and Behind the Camera"). Content-based interdisciplinary courses undoubtedly increase the profile of French and Francophone cultural Studies by introducing students of other disciplines to fundamental questions relating to the French and Francophone cultures (in this case, women's rights in the Francophone world). At the same time, this study determines that through targeted reading and writing assignments, sustained aural exposure to L2 through film,and student participation in a one-credit supplementary weekly practicum (creative film writing workshop), significant advances in L2 competence are achieved with students' oral and written production levels evolving from Advanced Low to Advanced-mid, as defined by the ACFL guidelines. Use of differentiated assessment methods for L1/L2 and student learning outcomes for both groups will also be addressed.

Keywords: interdisciplinary, Francophone cultural studies, language competency, content-based

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
282 The Analysis of Indian Culture through the Lexicographical Discourse of Hindi-French Dictionary

Authors: Tanzil Ansari

Abstract:

A dictionary is often considered as a list of words, arranged in alphabetical orders, providing information on a language or languages and it informs us about the spelling, the pronunciation, the origin, the gender and the grammatical functions of new and unknown words. In other words, it is first and foremost a linguistic tool. But, the research across the world in the field of linguistic and lexicography proved that a dictionary is not only a linguistic tool but also a cultural product through which a lexicographer transmits the culture of a country or a linguistic community from his or her ideology. It means, a dictionary does not present only language and its metalinguistic functions but also its culture. Every language consists of some words and expressions which depict the culture of its language. In this way, it is impossible to disassociate language from its culture. There is always an ideology that plays an important role in the depiction of any culture. Using the orientalism theory of Edward Said to represent the east, the objective of the present research is to study the representation of Indian culture through the lexicographical discourse of Hindi-French Dictionary of Federica Boschetti, a French lexicographer. The results show that the Indian culture is stereotypical and monolithic. It also shows India as male oriented country where women are exploited by male-dominated society. The study is focused on Hindi-French dictionary, but its line of argument can be compared to dictionaries produced in other languages.

Keywords: culture, dictionary, lexicographical discourse, stereotype image

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
281 Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chardonnay Wines Produced in Different Oak Barrels

Authors: Valentina Obradović, Josip Mesić, Maja Ergović Ravančić, Kamila Mijowska, Brankica Svitlica

Abstract:

French oak and American oak barrels are most famous all over the world, but barrels of different origin can also be used for obtaining high quality wines. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of different Slavonian (Croatian) and French oak barrels on the quality of Chardonnay wine. Grapes were grown in Croatian wine growing region of Kutjevo in 2015. Chardonnay wines were tested for basic oenological parameters (alcohol, extract, reducing sugar, SO2, acidity), total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method) and color density. Sensory evaluation was performed by students of viticulture/oenology. Samples produced by classical fermentation and ageing in French oak barrels, had better results for polyphenols and sensory evaluation (especially low toasting level) than samples in Slavonian barrels. All tested samples were scored as a “quality” or “premium quality” wines. Sur lie method of fermentation and ageing in Slavonian oak barrel had very good extraction of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity with the usage of authentic yeasts, while commercial yeast strain resulted in worse chemical and sensory parameters.

Keywords: chardonnay, French oak, Slavonian oak, sur lie

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
280 Corporate Societal Disclosure and Corporate Governance: A By-Contextual Analysis

Authors: Zineb Meniaoui, Fatma Zehri, Kamoussi Halioui

Abstract:

The amplified awareness of companies towards the social and environmental concerns has nowadays become a challenge for firms around the globe. Our study investigates the effects of corporate governance mechanisms on voluntarily social and environmental information disclosure in Canada and France. The study use the content analysis approach, applied on a total of 245 year-observation for the Canadian sample and 245 year-observation for the French sample from 2005 to 2011. Our results show a significant correlation between the board's independence, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) committee and expertise as well as the audit quality along with the extent of the social and environmental disclosure. The French firms are found disclosing more societal information than Canadian firms, which might be due to the stakeholders' pressure put on French companies to disclose such societal information.

Keywords: Canada, corporate governance, disclosure determinants , France, social and environmental disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
279 Newly-Rediscovered Manuscripts Talking about Seventeenth-Century French Harpsichord Pedagogy

Authors: David Chung

Abstract:

The development of seventeenth-century French harpsichord music is enigmatic in several respects. Although little is known about the formation of this style before 1650 (we have names of composers, but no surviving music), the style has attained a high degree of refinement and sophistication in the music of the earliest known masters (e.g. Chambonnières, Louis Couperin and D’Anglebert). In fact, how the seventeenth-century musicians acquired the skills of their art remains largely steeped in mystery, as the earliest major treatise on French keyboard pedagogy was not published until 1702 by Saint Lambert. This study fills this lacuna by surveying some twenty recently-rediscovered manuscripts, which offer ample materials for revisiting key issues pertaining to seventeenth-century harpsichord pedagogy. By analyzing the musical contents, the verbal information and explicit notation (such as written-out ornaments and rhythmic effects), this study provides a rich picture of the process of learning at the time, with engaging details of performance nuances often lacking in tutors and treatises. Of even greater significance, that creative skills (such as continuo and ornamentation) were taught alongside fundamental knowledge (solfèges, note values, etc.) at the earliest stage of learning offers fresh challenge for modern pedagogues to rethink how harpsichord pedagogy can be revamped to cater for our own pedagogical and aesthetic needs.

Keywords: French, harpsichord, pedagogy, seventeenth century

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
278 Design and Emotion: The Value of 1970s French Children’s Books in the Middle East

Authors: Tina Sleiman

Abstract:

In the early 1970s, a graphics revolution - in quantity and quality - marked the youth publications sector in France. The increased interest in youth publications was supported with the emergence of youth libraries and major publishing houses. In parallel, the 'Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique' (currently the International Organization of the Francophonie) was created, and several Arab countries had joined as members. In spite of political turmoil in the Middle East, French schools in Arab countries were still functioning and some even flourishing. This is a testament that French culture was, and still is, a major export to the region. This study focuses on the aesthetic value of the graphic styles that characterize French children’s books from the 1970s, and their personal value to Francophone people who have consumed these artifacts, in the Middle East. The first part of the study looks at the artifact itself: starting from the context of creation and consumption of these books, and continuing to the preservation and remaining collections. The aesthetic value is studied and compared to similar types of visuals of juxtaposed time periods. The second part examines the audience’s response to the visuals in terms of style recognition or identification, along with emotional significance or associations, and the personal value the artifacts might hold to their consumers. The methods of investigation consist of a literature review, a survey of book collections, and a visual questionnaire, supported by personal interviews. As an outcome, visual patterns will be identified: elements from 1970s children’s books reborn in contemporary youth-based publications. Results of the study shall inform us directly on the aesthetic and personal value of illustrated French children’s books in the Middle East, and indirectly on the capacity of youth-targeted design to create a long-term emotional response from its audience.

Keywords: children’s books, French visual culture, graphic style, publication design, revival

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
277 Corporate Social Responsibility Practices and Financial Performance: The Case of French Unlisted SMEs

Authors: Zineb Abidi, Marc-Arthur Diaye

Abstract:

There exists a large empirical literature concerning the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance. This literature, however, applies mainly to large corporations and/or listed firms. To the best of our knowledge, the question of whether meeting CSR requirements impacts the financial performance of small and medium-sized unlisted SMEs has not so far been analyzed. This paper aims to analyze, for the first time, the effect of CSR on the financial performance of SMEs. Using an original database including 5,257 French SMEs, we show that adopting CSR practices has a positive but weak effect on a firm’s financial performance. To develop this further, we analyzed CSR practices interactions assessing the best combination of CSR components that positively influence SME financial performance. Our results show that French SMEs benefit more from their pro-social behavior when they choose a combination of CSR components best adapted to their individual characteristics.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, financial performance, unlisted firms, SMEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
276 Factors Promoting French-English Tweets in France

Authors: Taoues Hadour

Abstract:

Twitter has become a popular means of communication used in a variety of fields, such as politics, journalism, and academia. This widely used online platform has an impact on the way people express themselves and is changing language usage worldwide at an unprecedented pace. The language used online reflects the linguistic battle that has been going on for several decades in French society. This study enables a deeper understanding of users' linguistic behavior online. The implications are important and allow for a rise in awareness of intercultural and cross-language exchanges. This project investigates the mixing of French-English language usage among French users of Twitter using a topic analysis approach. This analysis draws on Gumperz's theory of conversational switching. In order to collect tweets at a large scale, the data was collected in R using the rtweet package to access and retrieve French tweets data through Twitter’s REST and stream APIs (Application Program Interface) using the software RStudio, the integrated development environment for R. The dataset was filtered manually and certain repetitions of themes were observed. A total of nine topic categories were identified and analyzed in this study: entertainment, internet/social media, events/community, politics/news, sports, sex/pornography, innovation/technology, fashion/make up, and business. The study reveals that entertainment is the most frequent topic discussed on Twitter. Entertainment includes movies, music, games, and books. Anglicisms such as trailer, spoil, and live are identified in the data. Change in language usage is inevitable and is a natural result of linguistic interactions. The use of different languages online is just an example of what the real world would look like without linguistic regulations. Social media reveals a multicultural and multilinguistic richness which can deepen and expand our understanding of contemporary human attitudes.

Keywords: code-switching, French, sociolinguistics, Twitter

Procedia PDF Downloads 33