Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 255

Search results for: race

255 Transcending or Going beyond the Concept of Race

Authors: Ovett Nwosimiri

Abstract:

Historically the concept of race has played a significant part in the existence of African philosophy. Race, as part of the historical events, has been used as a reason for colonization. In recent years, there has been a numerous work on the concept of race. Some philosophers have devoted their time to the discourse of race and to understand the ascription of the race. These philosophers have dedicated their time and energy to the concept of race. Philosophers, like Joshua Glasgow, W. E. B. Du Bois, Lucius Outlaw, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Naomi Zack, Emmanuel C. Eze and many others took up the task to explain the concept of race, and also to explain in their view whether the concept of race should be conserved or eliminated. According to the eliminativists, the concept of race should be eliminated. According to the conservationists, the concept of race should be conserved. The aim of this paper is to look at the possibility of transcending the concept of race. In order to do this, the paper will briefly explain Joshua Glasgow’ idea theory of ‘racial reconstructionism’, and it will propose a theory of ‘racial transcendentalism’ as a way of transcending the concept of race. The paper will argue that we should see the concept of race as a concept that has a future beyond the mere meaning and ideas that call for its elimination or conservation.

Keywords: conservationists, eliminativists, race, transcending

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254 The Impact of the Cross Race Effect on Eyewitness Identification

Authors: Leah Wilck

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Eyewitness identification is arguably one of the most utilized practices within our legal system; however, exoneration cases indicate that this practice may lead to accuracy and conviction errors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the cross-race effect, the phenomena in which people are able to more easily and accurately identify faces from within their racial category, on the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Participants watched three separate videos of a perpetrator trying to steal a bicycle. In each video, the perpetrator was of a different race and gender. Participants watched a video where the perpetrator was a Black male, a White male, and a White female. Following the completion of watching each video, participants were asked to recall everything they could about the perpetrator they witnessed. The initial results of the study did not find the expected cross-race effect impacted the eyewitness identification accuracy. These surprising results are discussed in terms of cross-race bias and recognition theory as well as applied implications.

Keywords: cross race effect, eyewitness identification, own-race bias, racial profiling

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253 Race, Class, Gender, and the American Welfare State (1930s-1990s)

Authors: Tahar Djebbar Aziza

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The American society, like all societies, is fractured by social divisions between different groups of people. It is divided by race, class, gender, and other social and cultural characteristics. Social divisions affect the way and the manner welfare is delivered for citizens within the American society. The welfare state exists to guarantee the promotion of well –being for all the different components within a society without taking into account their age, gender, their ethnicity/race, or their social belonging (class). Race, class, and even gender issues are the main factors that affected the formal structure, the nature, as well as the evolution of the American welfare state and led to its uniqueness. They have affected the structure and the evolution of the American welfare state since its creation in the 1930s, and led to its uniqueness in an international level. This study aims therefore at enhancing the readers’ awareness of social divisions: race, class, gender and their implications for the distribution of welfare resources and life chances in the USA from the early 1930s to the late 1990s.

Keywords: African Americans, class, gender, minority groups, race, social divisions, social policy, U.S. welfare state

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
252 Studies on Race Car Aerodynamics at Wing in Ground Effect

Authors: Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, K. E. Shanjay, H. Sujith Kumar, N. A. Abhilash, D. Aswin Ram, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

Numerical studies on race car aerodynamics at wing in ground effect have been carried out using a steady 3d, double precision, pressure-based, and standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Through various parametric analytical studies we have observed that at a particular speed and ground clearance of the wings a favorable negative lift was found high at a particular angle of attack for all the physical models considered in this paper. The fact is that if the ground clearance height to chord length (h/c) is too small, the developing boundary layers from either side (the ground and the lower surface of the wing) can interact, leading to an altered variation of the aerodynamic characteristics at wing in ground effect. Therefore a suitable ground clearance must be predicted throughout the racing for a better performance of the race car, which obviously depends upon the coupled effects of the topography, wing orientation with respect to the ground, the incoming flow features and/or the race car speed. We have concluded that for the design of high performance and high speed race cars the adjustable wings capable to alter the ground clearance and the angles of attack is the best design option for any race car for racing safely with variable speeds.

Keywords: external aerodynamics, external flow choking, race car aerodynamics, wing in ground effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
251 Biopolitics and Race in the Age of a Global Pandemic: Interactions and Transformations

Authors: Aistis ZekevicIus

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Biopolitical theory, which was first developed by Michel Foucault, takes into consideration the administration of life by implying a style of government based on the regulation of populations as its subject. The intensification of the #BlackLivesMatter movement and popular outcries against racial discrimination in the US health system have prompted us to reconsider the relationship between biopolitics and race in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on works by Foucault, Achille Mbembe and Nicholas Mirzoeff that transcend the boundaries of poststructuralism, critical theory and postcolonial studies, the paper suggests that the global pandemic has highlighted new aspects of the interplay between biopower and race by encouraging the search for scapegoats, deepening the structural racial inequality, and thus producing necropolitical regimes of exclusion.

Keywords: biopolitics, biopower, necropolitics, pandemic, race

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250 Identity Formation of Mixed-Race Children in Japan

Authors: Shuko Takeshita

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This study investigates the identity formation of mixed-race children in Japan. From the latter half of the 1980s to the mid-2000s, Japan experienced an 'intermarriage boom,' which was soon followed by a fairly significant number of children born to these unions. These children are now coming of age. Among mixed-race children, some embraced both cultural traditions, while others chose a monocultural path despite exposure to two cultural traditions as they grew up. What factors are involved in shaping the identity of mixed-race children? How does identity formation actually occur in these children? This study addresses these questions through an interview survey of 139 cross-cultural families since 1999, including 23 Pakistani-Japanese families, 20 Turkish-Japanese families, 26 families comprising other international Muslim husbands and Japanese wives, 33 Filipino-Japanese families, and 37 Brazilian-Japanese families. The results of this two-decade-long study reveal that in cases where one cannot tell at first glance that children are mixed race, there is a tendency for them to hide their mixed background due to fear of bullying at school, as well as for their parents to encourage them to do this. To pass as a Japanese is one strategy for avoiding discrimination and prejudice, and it can provide a measure of ethnic security or a way of coping with social intolerance. Certainly, among my informants, there are some children who were bullied or teased at school, and as a result, they stopped attending or transferred to other schools. But the mixed-race experience is not always a negative thing in Japan. There is clearly a double standard involved in that mixed-race children of a Caucasian parent are more readily accepted by society than those of a non-Caucasian parent. The perceived social status of mixed-race individuals is usually understood in relation to the hierarchical positionings of monoracial groups. Mixed-race children could be guaranteed the right to enjoy the benefit of maintaining and developing an identity as a Japanese, in addition to one more identity. We need to encourage a new awareness of the children as agents for a transition from a monocultural system to a multicultural system in Japanese society.

Keywords: identity formation, intermarriage, mixed race, multicultural children

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249 Comparison of Carcass Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Namebar 30-Day Squabs

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare carcass weight of pure and mixed races Namebar 30-day pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 68 pieces of pigeons as 34 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were slaughtered at 30 days age after 12 hours hunger. Then their carcasses were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of carcass in pure race (Namebar-Namebar) with 8 records, 219.5±61.3 gr and mixed races of Kabood-Namebar, Parvazy-Namebar, Tizpar-Namebar, Namebar-Kabood, Namebar-Tizpar, and Namebar-Parvazy with 8, 10, 8, 12, 12, and 10 records were 369.9±54.6, 338.3±52.7, 224.5±73.6, 142.3±67.8, 155.6±56.2, and 170.2±55 gr, respectively.. Difference carcass weight of 30-day of Namebar-Namebar race with Namebar-Kabood, Namebar-Parvazy, Namebar-Tizpar, Parvazy-Namebar and Tizpar-Namebar mixed races was not significant, and was significant in level 5% with Kabood- Namebar (P < 0.05). Effect of sex and age were also significant in 1% level (P < 0.01), but mutual effect of sex and race was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights of carcass belonged to Kabood-Namebar and Namebar-Kabood.

Keywords: squab, Namebar race, 30-day carcass weight, pigeons

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248 Effect of Sex and Breed on Live Weight of Adult Iranian Pigeons

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

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This study is to evaluate the live weight of adult pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, their mutual effects and some auxiliary variables in 4 races of Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy, and Namebar. In this paper, 152 pieces of pigeons as 76 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. Then the birds were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. Software was used for statistical analysis. Mean live weight of adult male and female pigeons in 4 races (Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy and Namebar with (15, 20, 20, 21) and (20, 21, 18, 17) records were, (530±56, 388.75±32, 392±34, 552±48) and (446±34, 342±32, 341±46, 457±57) gr, respectively. Difference weight of adult live of male with female was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of male adult pigeon was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05). Different live weight of female adult pigeon between Kabood, Parvazy and Tizpar races were significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) but mean live weight Kabood race with Namebar race and Parvazy with Tizpar were not significant. The results showed that most and least mean live weights belonged to Namebar of the male pigeon race and Parvazy of the female pigeon race.

Keywords: Iranian Native Pigeons, adult weight, live weight, adult pigeons

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247 Comparison of Live Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Tizpar 30-Day Squabs

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare live weight of pure and mixed races Tizpar 30-day pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 70 pieces of pigeons as 35 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were weighted at 30 days age before and after hunger by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of live in pure race (Tizpar-Tizpar) with 12 records, 182.3±60.9 gr and mixed races of Tizpar-Kabood, Tizpar-Parvazy, Tizpar-Namebar, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Tizpar, and Parvazy-Tizpar with 10, 10, 8, 6, 12, and 12 records were 114.3±71.6, 210.6±71.7, 353.2±86, 520.8±81.5, 288.3±65.6, and 382.6±70.4 gr, respectively. Effects of sex, race and some auxiliary variables were also significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of 30-day of Tizpar-Tizpar race with Tizpar-Namebar and Parvazi-Tizpar mixed races was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) and with Kabood-Tizpar mixed races was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01) but with Tizpar-Kabood, Nmaebar-Tizpar and Tizpar-Parvazy mixed races was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights of live belonged to Kabood-Tizpar and Tizpar-Kabood.

Keywords: squabs, Tizpar race, 30-day live weight, pigeons

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246 Gender, Age, and Race Differences in Self-Reported Reading Attitudes of College Students

Authors: Jill Villarreal, Kristalyn Cooksey, Kai Lloyd, Daniel Ha

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Little research has been conducted to examine college students' reading attitudes, including students' perceptions of reading behaviors and reading abilities. This is problematic, as reading assigned course material is a critical component to an undergraduate student's academic success. For this study, flyers were electronically disseminated to instructors at 24 public and 10 private U.S. institutions in “Reading-Intensive Departments” including Psychology, Sociology, Education, Business, and Communications. We requested the online survey be completed as an in-class activity during the fall 2019 and spring 2020 semesters. All participants voluntarily completed the questionnaire anonymously. Of the participants, 280 self-identified their race as Black and 280 self-identified their race as White. Of the participants, 177 self-identified their gender as Male and 383 self-identified their Gender as Female. Participants ranged in age from 18-24. Factor analysis found four dimensions resulting from the questions regarding reading. The first we interpret as “Reading Proficiency”, accounted for 19% of the variability. The second dimension was “Reading Anxiety” (15%), the third was “Textbook Reading Ability” (9%), and the fourth was “Reading Enjoyment” (8%). Linear models on each of these dimensions revealed no effect of Age, Gender, Race, or Income on “Reading proficiency”. The linear model of “Reading Anxiety” showed a significant effect of race (p = 0.02), with higher anxiety in white students, as well as higher reading anxiety in female students (p < 0.001). The model of “Textbook Reading Ability” found a significant effect of race (p < 0.001), with higher textbook problems in white students. The model of “Reading Enjoyment” showed significant effects of race (p = 0.013) with more enjoyment for white students, gender (p = 0.001) with higher enjoyment for female students, and age (p = 0.033) with older students showing higher enjoyment. These findings suggest that gender, age, and race are important factors in many aspects of college students' reading attitudes. Further research will investigate possible causes for these differences. In addition, the effectiveness of college-level programs to reduce reading anxiety, promote the reading of textbooks, and foster a love of reading will be assessed.

Keywords: age, college, gender, race, reading

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245 Comparison of Chest Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Kabood 30-Day Squab

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare chest weight of pure and mixed races Kabood 30-day Pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 62 pieces of pigeons as 31 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were slaughtered at 30 days age after 12 hours hunger. Then their chests were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of chests in pure race (Kabood-Kabood) with 8 records, 123.8±32.3g and mixed races of Kabood-Namebar, Kabood-Parvazy, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Kabood, Tizpar-Kabood, and Parvazi-Kabood with 8, 8, 6, 12, 10, and 10 records were 139.4±23.5, 7/122±23.8, 124.7±30.1, 50.3±29.3, 51.4±26.4, and 137±28.6 gr, respectively. Mean weight of 30-day chests in male and female sex were 87.3±2.5 and 82.7±2.6g, respectively. Difference chest weight of 30-day chests of Kabood-Kabood race with Kabood-Namebar, Kabood-Parvazi, Tizpar-Kabood, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Kabood and Parvazi-Kabood mixed races was not significant. Effect of sex was also significant in 5% level (P<0.05), but mutual effect of sex and race was not significant. Auxiliary variable of father weight was significant in 1% level (p < 0.01), but auxiliary variable of mother weight was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights belonged to Kabood-Namebar and Namebar-Kabood.

Keywords: squab, Kabood race, 30-day chest weight, pigeons

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244 Preparing Curved Canals Using Mtwo and RaCe Rotary Instruments: A Comparison Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Vito Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino, Irene Malagnino

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Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments, in cleaning and shaping root canals curvature. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 160 simulated canals in resin blocks, with an angle curvature 15°-30°. These 160 simulated canals were divided into two groups, where each group consisted of 80 blocks. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=40 canals each). The simulated canals subgroups were prepared with Mtwo and RaCe rotary nickel-titanium instruments. The root canals were measured at four different points of reference, starting at 13 mm from the orifice. In the first group, the canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany). The Mtwo files used were: 10/0.04, 15/0.05, 20/0.06, and 25/0.06. These instruments entered in the full length of the canal. Each file was rotated in the canal until it reached the apical point. In the second group, the canals were prepared using RaCe instruments (La Chaux-De-Fonds, Switzerland), performing the crown down technique, using the torque electric control motor (VDWCO, Munich, Germany), with 600 RPM and 2n/cm as follow: ≠40/0.10, ≠35/0.08, ≠30/0.06, ≠25/0.04, ≠25/0.02. The data were recorded using SPSS version 23 software (Microsoft, IL, USA). Data analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: The results obtained by using the Mtwo rotary instruments, showed that these instruments were able to clean and shape in the right-to-left motion curved canals, at different levels, without any deviation, and in perfect symmetry, with a P-value=0.000. The data showed that the greater the depth of the root canal, the greater the deviations of the RaCe rotary instruments. These deviations occurred in three levels, which are: S2(P=0.004), S3( P=0.007), S4(P=0.009). The Mtwo files can go deeper and create a greater angle in S4 level (21°-28°), compared to RaCe instruments with an angle equal to 19°-24°. Conclusion: The present study noted a clinically significant difference between Mtwo rotary instruments and RaCe rotary files used for the canal preparation and indicated that Mtwo instruments are a better choice for the curved canals.

Keywords: canal curvature, canal preparation, Mtwo, RaCe, resin blocks

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243 Horse Race Model of Communication

Authors: Ariyaratna Athugala

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Mass media play a significant role in democratic societies. The Political Economy of the Mass Media postulates that elite media interlock with other institutional sectors in ownership, and editorial management effectively circumscribing their ability to remain analytically detached from other dominant institutional sectors. The production of meaning in news discourse is not valued neutral, but part of a larger process of presenting a hegemonic understanding of the world to audiences as the “production of consent.” The horse race model argues that “the raw material of news” pressures six bands that ultimately shape the news audiences receive. The six bands are as follows: Crown piece (raw material), brow band (professionalism), throat latch (gatekeeper), a bit (construction), nose band (perception), and reins (ownership). dThe horse race model suggests that media ultimately serve to “manufacture consent” for a range of self-serving elite opinion options. These bands determine what events are deemed newsworthy, how they are covered, where they are placed within the media and how much coverage they receive. Highly descriptive in nature, the horse race model of communication is concerned with the question of whether media can be seen to play a hegemonic role in the society oriented towards legitimization, hegemonic pressures and ideological construction.

Keywords: hegemonic pressures, horse race, ideological construction, six bands

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242 An Unbiased Profiling of Immune Repertoire via Sequencing and Analyzing T-Cell Receptor Genes

Authors: Yi-Lin Chen, Sheng-Jou Hung, Tsunglin Liu

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Adaptive immune system recognizes a wide range of antigens via expressing a large number of structurally distinct T cell and B cell receptor genes. The distinct receptor genes arise from complex rearrangements called V(D)J recombination, and constitute the immune repertoire. A common method of profiling immune repertoire is via amplifying recombined receptor genes using multiple primers and high-throughput sequencing. This multiplex-PCR approach is efficient; however, the resulting repertoire can be distorted because of primer bias. To eliminate primer bias, 5’ RACE is an alternative amplification approach. However, the application of RACE approach is limited by its low efficiency (i.e., the majority of data are non-regular receptor sequences, e.g., containing intronic segments) and lack of the convenient tool for analysis. We propose a computational tool that can correctly identify non-regular receptor sequences in RACE data via aligning receptor sequences against the whole gene instead of only the exon regions as done in all other tools. Using our tool, the remaining regular data allow for an accurate profiling of immune repertoire. In addition, a RACE approach is improved to yield a higher fraction of regular T-cell receptor sequences. Finally, we quantify the degree of primer bias of a multiplex-PCR approach via comparing it to the RACE approach. The results reveal significant differences in frequency of VJ combination by the two approaches. Together, we provide a new experimental and computation pipeline for an unbiased profiling of immune repertoire. As immune repertoire profiling has many applications, e.g., tracing bacterial and viral infection, detection of T cell lymphoma and minimal residual disease, monitoring cancer immunotherapy, etc., our work should benefit scientists who are interested in the applications.

Keywords: immune repertoire, T-cell receptor, 5' RACE, high-throughput sequencing, sequence alignment

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241 Exploring the Association between Race and Attitudes toward Physician-Assisted Death; An Analysis of the Gss Dataset

Authors: Seini G. Kaufusi

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Background. Physician-assisted death (PAD) has and continues to be a controversial issue in the U.S. Dying with dignity statutes exists in 9 U.S. jurisdictions that permit competent adults diagnosed with a terminal illness and given a prognosis of 6 month or less to live to request medication to hasten death. Robust advocacy for and against PAD influences policy, and opinions vary. Aim. This study aims to explore the association between race and the attitudes toward physician-assisted death in the U.S. Methods. Data for this study derives from the General Social Survey (GSS) dataset, a national survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) that focuses on the opinions and values of American’s. A cross-sectional design and probability sample from the 2018 data set was used to randomly select respondents. Results. The results indicated that race is significantly associated with attitudes towards physician-assisted death. The level of significance suggests a strong positive association, and the direction indicated that Black and Other racial groups have higher rates of positive decision about PAD. Conclusion. Although attitudes towards PAD varied, Black and other racial groups had favorable decisions for PAD. Further research is crucial in the continuous debate on PAD and understanding the influences of predictors for or against PAD.

Keywords: attitudes, euthanasia, physician-assisted death, race

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240 An Evaluation of a Psychotherapeutic Service for Engineering Students: The Role of Race, Gender and Language

Authors: Nazeema Ahmed

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Mental health in higher education has received increasing attention over the past few decades. The high academic demands of the engineering degree, coupled with students’ mental health challenges, have led to higher education institutions offering psychotherapeutic services to students. This paper discusses an evaluation of the psychotherapy service at the University of Cape Town. The aim was to determine (i) the efficacy of the service; and (ii) the impact of race, gender, and language of the therapist on the students’ therapeutic process. An online survey was sent to 109 students who attended psychotherapy. The majority expressed favorable experiences of psychotherapy, with reports of increased capacity to engage with their academic work. Most students did not experience the gender, race, or language of the psychologists to be barriers to their therapy. The findings point to a need for ongoing psychological support for students.

Keywords: psychotherapy, efficacy, engineering, education

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239 Racial Bias by Prosecutors: Evidence from Random Assignment

Authors: CarlyWill Sloan

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Racial disparities in criminal justice outcomes are well-documented. However, there is little evidence on the extent to which racial bias by prosecutors is responsible for these disparities. This paper tests for racial bias in conviction by prosecutors. To identify effects, this paper leverages as good as random variation in prosecutor race using detailed administrative data on the case assignment process and case outcomes in New York County, New York. This paper shows that the assignment of an opposite-race prosecutor leads to a 5 percentage point (~ 8 percent) increase in the likelihood of conviction for property crimes. There is no evidence of effects for other types of crimes. Additional results indicate decreased dismissals by opposite-race prosecutors likely drive my property crime estimates.

Keywords: criminal justice, discrimination, prosecutors, racial disparities

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238 Against the Philosophical-Scientific Racial Project of Biologizing Race

Authors: Anthony F. Peressini

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The concept of race has recently come prominently back into discussion in the context of medicine and medical science, along with renewed effort to biologize racial concepts. This paper argues that this renewed effort to biologize race by way of medicine and population genetics fail on their own terms, and more importantly, that the philosophical project of biologizing race ought to be recognized for what it is—a retrograde racial project—and abandoned. There is clear agreement that standard racial categories and concepts cannot be grounded in the old way of racial naturalism, which understand race as a real, interest-independent biological/metaphysical category in which its members share “physical, moral, intellectual, and cultural characteristics.” But equally clear is the very real and pervasive presence of racial concepts in individual and collective consciousness and behavior, and so it remains a pressing area in which to seek deeper understanding. Recent philosophical work has endeavored to reconcile these two observations by developing a “thin” conception of race, grounded in scientific concepts but without the moral and metaphysical content. Such “thin,” science-based analyses take the “commonsense” or “folk” sense of race as it functions in contemporary society as the starting point for their philosophic-scientific projects to biologize racial concepts. A “philosophic-scientific analysis” is a special case of the cornerstone of analytic philosophy: a conceptual analysis. That is, a rendering of a concept into the more perspicuous concepts that constitute it. Thus a philosophic-scientific account of a concept is an attempt to work out an analysis of a concept that makes use of empirical science's insights to ground, legitimate and explicate the target concept in terms of clearer concepts informed by empirical results. The focus in this paper is on three recent philosophic-scientific cases for retaining “race” that all share this general analytic schema, but that make use of “medical necessity,” population genetics, and human genetic clustering, respectively. After arguing that each of these three approaches suffers from internal difficulties, the paper considers the general analytic schema employed by such biologizations of race. While such endeavors are inevitably prefaced with the disclaimer that the theory to follow is non-essentialist and non-racialist, the case will be made that such efforts are not neutral scientific or philosophical projects but rather are what sociologists call a racial project, that is, one of many competing efforts that conjoin a representation of what race means to specific efforts to determine social and institutional arrangements of power, resources, authority, etc. Accordingly, philosophic-scientific biologizations of race, since they begin from and condition their analyses on “folk” conceptions, cannot pretend to be “prior to” other disciplinary insights, nor to transcend the social-political dynamics involved in formulating theories of race. As a result, such traditional philosophical efforts can be seen to be disciplinarily parochial and to address only a caricature of a large and important human problem—and thereby further contributing to the unfortunate isolation of philosophical thinking about race from other disciplines.

Keywords: population genetics, ontology of race, race-based medicine, racial formation theory, racial projects, racism, social construction

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237 Ethnic-Racial Breakdown in Psychological Research among Latinx Populations in the U.S.

Authors: Madeline Phillips, Luis Mendez

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The 21st century has seen an increase in the amount and variety of psychological research on Latinx, the largest minority group in the U.S., with great variability from the individual’s cultural origin (e.g., ethnicity) to region (e.g., nationality). We were interested in exploring how scientists recruit, conduct and report research on Latinx samples. Ethnicity and race are important components of individuals and should be addressed to capture a broader and deeper understanding of psychological research findings. In order to explore Latinx/Hispanic work, the Journal of Latinx Psychology (JLP) and Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences (HJBS) were analyzed for 1) measures of ethnicity and race in empirical studies 2) nationalities represented 3) how researchers reported ethnic-racial demographics. The analysis included publications from 2013-2018 and revealed two common themes of reporting ethnicity and race: overrepresentation/underrepresentation and overgeneralization. There is currently not a systematic way of reporting ethnicity and race among Latinx/Hispanic research, creating a vague sense of what and how ethnicity/race plays a role in the lives of participants. Second, studies used the Hispanic/Latinx terms interchangeably and are not consistent across publications. For the purpose of this project, we were only interested in publications with Latinx samples in the U.S. Therefore, studies outside of the U.S. and non-empirical studies were excluded. JLP went from N = 118 articles to N = 94 and HJBS went from N = 174 to N = 154. For this project, we developed a coding rubric for ethnicity/race that reflected the different ways researchers reported ethnicity and race and was compatible with the U.S. census. We coded which ethnicity/race was identified as the largest ethnic group in each sample. We used the ethnic-racial breakdown numbers or percentages if provided. There were also studies that simply did not report the ethnic composition besides Hispanic or Latinx. We found that in 80% of the samples, Mexicans are overrepresented compared to the population statistics of Latinx in the US. We observed all the ethnic-racial breakdowns, demonstrating the overrepresentation of Mexican samples and underrepresentation and/or lack of representation of certain ethnicities (e.g., Chilean, Guatemalan). Our results showed an overgeneralization of studies that cluster their participants to Latinx/Hispanic, 23 for JLP and 63 for HJBS. The authors discuss the importance of transparency from researchers in reporting the context of the sample, including country, state, neighborhood, and demographic variables that are relevant to the goals of the project, except when there may be an issue of privacy and/or confidentiality involved. In addition, the authors discuss the importance to recognize the variability within the Latinx population and how it is reflected in the scientific discourse.

Keywords: Latinx, Hispanic, race and ethnicity, diversity

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236 An Investigation Of Student Beliefs About Gender, Race and Ethnicity, Disability, And Intersectionality

Authors: Naomi Yukimaru, Fiona Creaser

Abstract:

This paper is an investigation into student beliefs about gender, race and ethnicity, disability, and intersectionality. The authors of this paper are involved in a project called ‘Unity in Diversity,’ which aim is to introduce a bilingual (Japanese/English) workshop style course about diversity and inclusion into the curriculum of the Faculty of Foreign Studies at the University of Kitakyushu. The research is currently being funded by the President’s Special Research Fund (2020-2021) and brings together the research fields of education, gender, and diversity and covers the topics of gender, race and ethnicity, and disability. The course is accompanied by an interactive workbook which allows for student’s self-reflection on the topics covered in the workshops. A pilot course is being run in the 2nd semester of 2021, with a control group of fifteen students from the faculty of Foreign Studies. At the beginning of the course, students will be asked a series of questions about gender, race and ethnicity, disability, and intersectionality; next, students will be asked to keep a reflective journal of their beliefs during the course, finally, at the end of the pilot course, students will once again be asked a series of questions about their beliefs. It is hoped that throughout the course, students’ beliefs about gender, race and ethnicity, disability, and intersectionality will change, and student awareness of diversity will increase. In preparation for the pilot course, the authors have invited several guest speakers to talk about gender, race, and ethnicity, and disability and have elicited feedback from students about these topics. In addition to this, a trial class was conducted in January 2021 to students from the authors’ seminars about gender, specifically about the LGBTQ+ community, and feedback was also elicited with positive results. The authors intend to use the results of the pilot course to establish 1) a new accredited workshop based, bilingual (Japanese/ English) course in the Faculty of Foreign Studies 2) a university wide diversity training program for students. Both initiatives complement the University’s own endeavours in creating a more diverse university campus based on principle two of the Sustainable Development Goals of ‘leave no-one behind.’

Keywords: gender, disability, nationality, intersectionality

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235 Acoustic Analysis of Ball Bearings to Identify Localised Race Defect

Authors: M. Solairaju, Nithin J. Thomas, S. Ganesan

Abstract:

Each and every rotating part of a machine element consists of bearings within its structure. In particular, the rolling element bearings such as cylindrical roller bearing and deep groove ball bearings are frequently used. Improper handling, excessive loading, improper lubrication and sealing cause bearing damage. Hence health monitoring of bearings is an important aspect for radiation pattern of bearing vibration is computed using the dipole model. Sound pressure level for defect-free and race defect the prolonged life of machinery and auto motives. This paper presents modeling and analysis of Acoustic response of deep groove ball bearing with localized race defects. Most of the ball bearings, especially in machine tool spindles and high-speed applications are pre-loaded along an axial direction. The present study is carried out with axial preload. Based on the vibration response, the orbit motion of the inner race is studied, and it was found that the oscillation takes place predominantly in the axial direction. Simplified acoustic is estimated. Acoustic response shows a better indication in identifying the defective bearing. The computed sound signal is visualized in diagrammatic representation using Symmetrised Dot Pattern (SDP). SDP gives better visual distinction between the defective and defect-free bearing

Keywords: bearing, dipole, noise, sound

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234 Manufacturing of Race Car Case Study AGH Racing

Authors: Hanna Faron, Wojciech Marcinkowski, Daniel Prusak

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to familiarize with the activity of AGH Racing scientific circle, pertaining to the international project -Formula Student, giving the opportunity to young engineers from all around the world to validate their talent and knowledge in the real world conditions, under the pressure of time, and the design requirements. Every year, the team begins the process of building a race car from the formation of human resources. In case of the public sector, to which public universities can be included, the scientific circles represent the structure uniting students with the common interests and level of determination. Due to the scientific nature of the project which simulates the market conditions, they have a chance to verify previously acquired knowledge in practice. High level of the innovation and competitiveness of participating in the project Formula Student teams, requires an intelligent organizational system, which is characterized by a high dynamics. It is connected with the necessity of separation of duties, setting priorities, selecting optimal solutions which is often a compromise between the available technology and a limited budget. Proper selection of the adequate guidelines in the design phase allows an efficient transition to the implementation stage, which is process-oriented implementation of the project. Four dynamic and three static competitions are the main verification and evaluation of year-round work and effort put into the process of building a race car. Acquired feedback flowing during the race is a very important part while monitoring the effectiveness of AGH Racing scientific circle, as well as the main criterion while determining long-term goals and all the necessary improvements in the team.

Keywords: SAE, formula student, race car, public sector, automotive industry

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233 Mindfulness, Reinvestment, and Rowing under Pressure: Evidence for Moderated Moderation of the Anxiety-Performance Relationship

Authors: Katherine Sparks, Christopher Ring

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate whether dispositional sport-specific mindfulness moderated the moderation effect of conscious processing on the relationship between anxiety and rowing race performance. Using a sport-specific (Rowing-Specific) Reinvestment Scale (RSRS) to measure state conscious processing, we examined the effects of trait sport-related mindfulness on the conscious processes of rowers under competitive racing pressure at a number of UK regattas. 276 rowers completed a survey post competitive race. The survey included the RSRS, mindfulness, a perceived performance rating scale, demographic and race information to identify and record the rower’s actual race performance. Results from the research demonstrated that high levels of dispositional mindfulness are associated with a superior performance under pressure. In relation to the moderating moderation effect, conscious processing amplifies the detrimental effects of anxiety on performance. However, mindfulness, mindful awareness, and mindful non-judgement all proved to attenuate this amplification effect by moderating the conscious processing moderation on the anxiety-performance relationship. Therefore, this study provides initial support for the speculation that dispositional mindfulness can help prevent the deleterious effects of rowing-specific reinvestment under pressure.

Keywords: mindful, reinvestment, under pressure, performance, rowing

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232 'It’s a Very, Very New Old South Africa…': Exploring Some Race, Corruption and Protest Issues in Zakes Mda’s 'Our Lady of Benoni'

Authors: Bongani Clearance Thela

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It seems that theatre remains a practical method for mobilising people and their ideologies; and South African literature has strengthened over the years as a result of the events which took place during both the Apartheid and Post-Apartheid eras. Hence, the problem noted in this study is that, generally, many people seem to believe that the issues which were a concern during Apartheid times in South Africa no longer exist in Post-Apartheid South Africa, whereas, it is seems that they still do. Post-Apartheid playwrights such as Zakes Mda among others, explore these issues in their works. There are common themes between the two periods, for this reason, distinction can only be drawn in terms of the context. Therefore, this study explores solutions offered by the themes of protest, corruption and race in Zakes Mda’s Our Lady of Benoni. The study uses real events and Mda’s play to reveal that there is a reinvention of Apartheid times’ issues into Post-Apartheid times’ issues. Moreover, the theme of race is explored with reference to class issues. Also, the study aims at highlighting some distinctions between the Apartheid period and Post-Apartheid period as shown by the playwright, Zakes Mda’s fictitious version as seen in some of his characters in the play. Theatre in general has always protested, it is either against an issue or for an issue; therefore, this paper will also explore the various ways in which the theme of protest is undertaken in the study of theatre. Respectively, the paper looks in the literal protest found in Mda’s Our Lady of Benoni in order to provide critical understanding with regard to the notion undertaken in this study. The paper goes on to provide an alternative discussion of the theme of protest; it critically evaluates issues such as corruption and race in terms of class that the playwright, Mda addresses in his play. In conclusion, this paper will use other relevant examples other than Mda’s drama, Our Lady of Benoni, in order to prove that there is a reinvention of Apartheid issues in Post-Apartheid issues in South Africa.

Keywords: protest, corruption, race, class

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231 Disparate Use of Chemical and Physical Restraints in the Emergency Department by Race/Ethnicity

Authors: Etta Conteh, Tracy Macintosh

Abstract:

Introduction: Restraints are often used in the Emergency Department when it is necessary for a patient to be restrained in order to decrease their agitation and better treat them. Chemical and physical restraints may be used on these patients at the discretion of the medical provider. Racism and injustice are rampant within our country, and medicine and healthcare are not spared. While racism and racial bias in medicine and healthcare have been studied, information on the differences in the use of restraints by race are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine if African Americans and Hispanic-American patients are restrained at higher rates compared to their White counterparts. Methods: This study will be carried out through a retrospective analysis utilizing the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) national Emergency Department (ED) and inpatient database with patient visits from 2016-2019. All patient visits, with patients aged 18 years or older, will be reviewed, looking specifically for the race and the use and type of restraints. Other factors, such a pre-existing psychiatric condition, will be used for sub-analysis. Rationale: The outcome of this project will demonstrate the absence or presence of a racial disparity in the use of restraints in the Emergency Department. These results can be used as a foundation for improving racial equity in healthcare treatment.

Keywords: emergency medicine, public health, racism, restraint use

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230 The Relation Between Social Class, Race Homophily and Mental Health Outcomes of Black College Students

Authors: Omari W. Keeles

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Attention to social class and race processes could illuminate within- group differences in Black students' experiences that help explain variation in adjustment. Of interest is how social class relates to development of intragroup connections with other Black students on campus in ways that promote or inhibit well-being. The present study’s findings suggest that students from lower class backgrounds may be more restrictive or limited in opportunities around their intragroup friendship networks than more affluent students. Furthermore, Black social relationship networks were related to positive mental health adjustment important to healthy psychological functioning and development.

Keywords: black students, social class, homophily, psychological adjustment

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
229 Influence of Race and Lactation Stage on the Composition of Traditional Cheese Goat Type Kamaria Manufactured by Protease of Original Replacement Goat, Statistical Approach

Authors: Bounmediene Farida, Nouani Abdelouahab, Bellal Mouloud

Abstract:

The present study examined the influence of two production parameters namely genetic factor (race) and physiological factors (stage of lactation) on the composition of the traditional goat cheese made using the enzyme extract of caprine origin and commercial rennet. The results obtained show that the goat cheese of the Alpine race is richer in fat and protein than Saanen and Local breeds. Similar variations were observed depending on the stage of lactation for the third stage. Thus, analysis of the products obtained show that there is no difference in quality between the cheeses obtained with rennet and those obtained with goat coagulase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) made from individuals (races and stages of lactation) and variables (physicochemical parameters goat cheese) divides people into two groups: The first group includes cheeses races Alpine, Saanen and local third stages of lactation. This group corresponds to samples of the richest cheese in a useful matter. The second group includes cheeses from the three races in the second stage of lactation. This group corresponds to cheeses that have low contents in a useful matter.

Keywords: goat cheese, goat coagulase, rennet, coagulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
228 Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Investigation of the Relationship between Race, Ethnicity, Health Care Access, and Health Status

Authors: Dorcas Matowe

Abstract:

Inequality in health care for racial and ethnic minorities continues to be a growing concern for many Americans. Some of the barriers hindering the elimination of health disparities include lack of insurance, socioeconomic status (SES), and racism. This study will specifically focus on the association between some of these factors- health care access, which includes insurance coverage and frequency of doctor visits, race, ethnicity, and health status. The purpose of this study will be to address the following questions: is having health insurance associated with increased doctor visits? Are racial and ethnic minorities with health insurance more or less likely to see a doctor? Is the association between having health insurance moderated by being an ethnic minority? Given the current implications of the 2010 Affordable Care Act, this study will highlight the need to prioritize health care access for minorities and confront institutional racism. Critical Race Theory (CRT) will demonstrate how racism has reinforced these health disparities. This quantitative study design will analyze secondary data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) questionnaire, a telephone survey conducted annually in all 50 states and three US territories by state health departments in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Non-identifying health-related data is gathered annually from over 400,000 adults 18 years and above about their health status and use of preventative services. Through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relationship between the predictor variables of health care access, race, and ethnicity, the criterion variable of health status, and the latent variables of emotional support and life satisfaction will be examined. It is hypothesized that there will be an interaction between certain racial and ethnic minorities who went to see a doctor, had insurance coverage, experienced racism, and the quality of their health status, emotional support, and life satisfaction.

Keywords: ethnic minorities, health disparities, health access, racism

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
227 Psychological and Ethical Factors in African American Custody Litigation

Authors: Brian Carey Sims

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The current study examines psychological factors relevant to child custody litigation among African American fathers. Thirty-seven fathers engaged in various stages of custody litigation involving their children were surveyed about their perceptions of racial stereotypes, parental motivations, and racialized dynamics of the court/ legal process. Data were analyzed using a Critical Race Theory model designed to statistically isolate fathers’ perceptions of the existence and maintenance of structural racism through the legal process. Results indicate significant correlations between fathers’ psychological measures and structural outcomes of their cases. Findings are discussed in terms of ethical implications for family court judicial systems and attorney practice.

Keywords: ethics, family, legal psychology, policy, race

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
226 Control Strategy for a Solar Vehicle Race

Authors: Francois Defay, Martim Calao, Jean Francois Dassieu, Laurent Salvetat

Abstract:

Electrical vehicles are a solution for reducing the pollution using green energy. The shell Eco-Marathon provides rules in order to minimize the battery use for the race. The use of solar panel combined with efficient motor control and race strategy allow driving a 60kg vehicle with one pilot using only the solar energy in the best case. This paper presents a complete modelization of a solar vehicle used for the shell eco-marathon. This project called Helios is cooperation between non-graduated students, academic institutes, and industrials. The prototype is an ultra-energy-efficient vehicle based on one-meter square solar panel and an own-made brushless controller to optimize the electrical part. The vehicle is equipped with sensors and embedded system to provide all the data in real time in order to evaluate the best strategy for the course. A complete modelization with Matlab/Simulink is used to test the optimal strategy to increase the global endurance. Experimental results are presented to validate the different parts of the model: mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, solar panel. The major finding of this study is to provide solutions to identify the model parameters (Rolling Resistance Coefficient, drag coefficient, motor torque coefficient, etc.) by means of experimental results combined with identification techniques. One time the coefficients are validated, the strategy to optimize the consumption and the average speed can be tested first in simulation before to be implanted for the race. The paper describes all the simulation and experimental parts and provides results in order to optimize the global efficiency of the vehicle. This works have been started four years ago and evolved many students for the experimental and theoretical parts and allow to increase the knowledge on electrical self-efficient vehicle.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, endurance, optimization, shell eco-marathon

Procedia PDF Downloads 166