Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5370

Search results for: food security

5370 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova


This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: food security, national security, agriculture, public resources, economic security

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
5369 Tenure Security, Agricultural Diversity and Food Security

Authors: Amanuel Hadera Gebreyesus


In the literature, the study of tenure and food security has largely involved separate lines of inquiry. In effect, the nexus among these has received little attention; and the underinvestment in research related to the relationship between tenure and food security deters generation of tenure-related knowledge and policy guidance for improving food and nutrition security. Drawing from this motivation, we study the relationship among tenure security, agricultural diversity and food security and dietary diversity. We employ IV approaches to examine the effect of tenure security and agricultural diversity on food security and dietary diversity. We find tenure security is inversely related with food insecurity as shown by its negative association with hunger scale, hunger index and hunger category. On the other hand, results suggest that tenure security improves minimum dietary diversity of women while we find no association with child dietary diversity. Moreover, agricultural diversity is positively related with minimum dietary diversity of women, which may point to higher accessibility and consumption of dietary food groups by women. Also, findings suggest that farmers use their human (knowledge and skills) and resource (land) endowments to improve food security and dietary diversity. An implication from this is the importance of not only improving access to land but also long-term tenure security to promote agricultural diversity, food security and dietary diversity.

Keywords: tenure security, food security, agricultural diversity, dietary diversity, women

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5368 Considering Climate Change in Food Security: A Sociological Study Investigating the Modern Agricultural Practices and Food Security in Bangladesh

Authors: Hosen Tilat Mahal, Monir Hossain


Despite being a food-sufficient country after revolutionary changes in agricultural inputs, Bangladesh still has food insecurity and undernutrition. This study examines the association between agricultural practices (as social practices) and food security concentrating on the potential impact of sociodemographic factors and climate change. Using data from the 2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS), this study shows how modifiedagricultural practices are strongly associated with climate change and different sociodemographic factors (land ownership, religion, gender, education, and occupation) subsequently affect the status of food security in Bangladesh. We used linear and logistic regression models to analyze the association between modified agricultural practices and food security. The findings indicate that socioeconomic statuses are significant predictors of determining agricultural practices in a society like Bangladesh and control food security at the household level. Moreover, climate change is adversely impactingeven the modified agricultural and food security association version. We conclude that agricultural practices must consider climate change while boosting food security. Therefore, future research should integrate climate change into the agriculture and food-related mitigation and resiliency models.

Keywords: food security, agricultural productivity, climate change, bangladesh

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5367 Can Empowering Women Farmers Reduce Household Food Insecurity? Evidence from Malawi

Authors: Christopher Manyamba


Women in Malawi produce perform between 50-70 percent of all agricultural tasks and yet the majority remain food insecure. The aim of his paper is to build on existing mixed evidence that indicates that empowering women in agriculture is conducive to improving food security. The WEAI is used to provide evidence on the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture and household food security. A multinomial logistic regression is applied to the Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) components and the Household Hunger Scale. The overall results show that the WEAI can be used to determine household food insecurity; however it has to be contextually adapted. Assets ownership, credit, group membership and leisure time are positively associated with food security. Contrary to other literature, empowerment in having control and decisions on income indicate negative association with household food security. These results could potentially better inform public, private and civil society stakeholders’ dialogues in creating the most effective and sustainable interventions to help women attain long-term food security.

Keywords: food security, gender, empowerment, agriculture index, framework for African food security, household hunger scale

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5366 A Review of Food Security Policy Research in Central Asia

Authors: Mergen Dyussenov


Food security has become a prominent issue on the global policy agenda. Yet, one particular region that remains understudied is a cohort of Central Asian countries. To shed light onto the issue, the paper looks into a review of existing literature related to food security policies in Central Asia. In so doing, it seeks to systematize the context analyzed, key findings, and recommendations. Furthermore, it analyzes the role of key actors in promoting the food security policies across Central Asian nations. Finally, the paper attempts to set the agenda for further research.

Keywords: food security, central Asia, the role of actors, policy analysis

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5365 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan


About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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5364 Beyond the Economics of Food: Household Food Strategies in Clusters of the Umkhanyakude District Municipality

Authors: Mduduzi Nhlozi


Food insecurity continues to persist in rural areas of South Africa today. A number of factors can be attributed to this including declining rural economies, rising unemployment, natural disasters such as drought as well as shifting cultural norms, values, traditions and beliefs. This paper explores mechanisms used by rural households to achieve food security in the midst of various threats and risks to their livelihoods. The study used semi-structured questionnaire to collect information on lived experiences of households in their quest to access and ensure availability of food. The paper finds that households use a number of food strategies namely economy-related, culture-related and rite-of-passage related strategies to achieve food security. The thrust of argument in the paper is that there is a need for food security studies to move beyond the orthodox, economic analytic framework, towards new institutional economics, focusing on local governance and socio-cultural systems supporting households to achieve food security. It advocates for localised food security plans to be developed by local municipalities to improve food security status for rural households.

Keywords: household, food insecurity, food strategies, new institutional economics, umkhanyakude

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5363 Food Security of Migrants in a Regional Area of Australia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Rosa McManamey


Food security indicates the ability of individuals, households and communities to acquire food that is healthy, sustainable, affordable, appropriate and accessible. Despite Australia’s current ability to produce enough food to feed a population larger than its current population, there has been substantial evidence over the last decades to demonstrate many Australians struggle to feed themselves, including those from a cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The study aimed to investigate migrants’ perceptions and experiences on food security in Tasmania. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 migrants residing in North, South and North West Tasmania, who were recruited through purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Four main themes were identified from the interview data: (1) Understanding of food security; (2) Experiences with the food security in Tasmania; (3) Factors that influence migrants’ food security in Tasmania; and (4) Acculturation strategies. Various sub-themes have emerged under each of these four major themes. Though the findings indicate participants are satisfied with their current food security in Tasmania, they still encounter some challenges in food availability, accessibility, and affordability in Tasmania. Factors that influence migrants’ food security were educational background, language barrier, socioeconomic status, geographical isolation, and cultural background. By using different acculturation strategies, migrants managed to adapt to the new food culture. In addition, social and cultural capitals were also treated as vital roles in improving migrants’ food security. The findings indicate migrants residing in Tasmania face different challenges on food security. They use different strategies for food security while acculturating into a new environment. The findings may provide useful information for migrants in Australia and various private organisations or relevant government departments that address food security for migrants.

Keywords: experiences, food security, migrants, perceptions

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5362 Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine, Obidigbo Chizoba


As a basic physiology need, the threat to sufficient food production is the threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier period of the study. Commercial bank credit to the agricultural sector, foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit available to the smallholder farmer. The government should further control and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by the people.

Keywords: food, accessibility, availability, security

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5361 How to Ensure Environmental Sustainability and Food Security through the Use of Payments for Environmental Services in Developing Countries

Authors: Carlos Alves


This research paper demonstrates how payments for environmental services (PES) can be an effective mechanism to combat food insecurity and reduce environmental degradation in developing countries. The paper begins by discussing how environmental services affect each one of the pillars of food security: availability, access, and utilization of food. However, due to numerous global environmental challenges, a new pillar of food security based on environmental sustainability is proposed and discussed. An argument is then made that PES can usefully combat food insecurity. It can provide an extra income to those who take on environmental service and help them to have a better access to food. In order to be successful in addressing food insecurity, PES schemes should target on the poor and redress issues that can prevent their effectiveness. Finally, the research presents a case study that discusses how several developing countries addressed problems and successfully developed PES programs.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, food security, nutrition, payments for environmental services

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
5360 Innovative Technology to Sustain Food Security in Qatar

Authors: Sana Abusin


Food security in Qatar is a research priority of Qatar University (2021-2025) and all national strategies, including the Qatar National Vision 2030 and food security strategy (2018-2023). Achieving food security requires three actions: 1) transforming surplus food to those who are insecure; 2) reducing food loss and waste by recycling food into valuable resources such as compost (“green fertilizer”) that can be used in growing food; and, finally, 3) establishing strong enforcement agencies to protect consumers from outdated food and promote healthy food. Currently, these objectives are approached separately and not in a sustainable fashion. Food security in Qatar is a research priority of Qatar University (2021-2025) and all national strategies, including the Qatar National Vision 2030 and food security strategy (2018-2023). The study aims to develop an innovative mobile application that supports a sustainable solution to food insecurity and food waste in Qatar. The application will provide a common solution for many different users. For producers, it will facilitate easy disposal of excess food. For charities, it will notify them about surplus food ready for redistribution. The application will also benefit the second layer of end-users in the form of food recycling companies, who will receive information about available food waste that is unable to be consumed. We will use self-exoplanetary diagrams and digital pictures to show all the steps to the final stage. The aim is to motivate the young generation toward innovation and creation, and to encourage public-private collaboration in this sector.

Keywords: food security, innovative technology, sustainability, food waste, Qatar

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5359 Safety, Healthy, Intact, and Halal as New Indonesia Policy on Food Security and Safety to Support SDG'S: Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Ramadhan Febriansyah, Sarah Novianti, Santi Agustini


Indonesia is a big country with Moslem population. The government must fulfill all needs of the people. However, we do not have a good policy yet especially on healthy, safety and halal food. We try to offer a new solution to overcome this with ASUH (Aman, Sehat, Utuh, Halal) or in English is SHIH (Safe, Healthy, Intact, Halal) as alternative Indonesian policy on food security. This policy is Indonesian Government’s commitment to support Sustainability Development Goals program for the zero hunger (end hunger, to achieve food security and improved nutrition for Indonesian people, of course, to promote sustainable agriculture). Hopefully, it not only can increasing quality on food especially on livestock goods (meat, egg, milk) but also to guarantee the halal food. However, this policy can be an example to others country especially Moslem countries to support SDG’s programs. This research conducted means of the descriptive method; the authors find compare the secondary data obtained from journals, textbook and scientific articles in order to determine the factors that influence food safety and food security. Relevant data used and contain a description of SDG’s as well as about the system food safety and food security that SHIH (Safe, Healthy, Intact and Halal) so these ideas can be implemented.

Keywords: food safety, food security, food sovereignty, halal SDG's

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5358 Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

Authors: Sara D. Garduno-Diaz, Philippe Y. Garduno-Diaz


To date, one of the few comprehensive indicators for the measurement of food security is the Global Food Security Index. This index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative bench marking model, constructed from 28 unique indicators, that measures drivers of food security across both developing and developed countries. Whereas the Global Food Security Index has been calculated across a set of 109 countries, in this paper we aim to present and compare, for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), 1) the Food Security Index scores achieved and 2) the data available on affordability, availability, and quality of food. The data for this work was taken from the latest (2014) report published by the creators of the GFSI, which in turn used information from national and international statistical sources. According to the 2014 Global Food Security Index, MENA countries rank from place 17/109 (Israel, although with resent political turmoil this is likely to have changed) to place 91/109 (Yemen) with household expenditure spent in food ranging from 15.5% (Israel) to 60% (Egypt). Lower spending on food as a share of household consumption in most countries and better food safety net programs in the MENA have contributed to a notable increase in food affordability. The region has also however experienced a decline in food availability, owing to more limited food supplies and higher volatility of agricultural production. In terms of food quality and safety the MENA has the top ranking country (Israel). The most frequent challenges faced by the countries of the MENA include public expenditure on agricultural research and development as well as volatility of agricultural production. Food security is a complex phenomenon that interacts with many other indicators of a country’s well-being; in the MENA it is slowly but markedly improving.

Keywords: diet, food insecurity, global food security index, nutrition, sustainability

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5357 Impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on Food Security in South Africa

Authors: Fiyinfoluwa Giwa, Nicholas Ngepah


This paper investigates the relationship between the Fourth Industrial Revolution and food security in South Africa. The Ordinary Least Square was adopted from 2012 Q1 to 2021 Q4. The study used artificial intelligence investment and the food production index as the measure for the fourth industrial revolution and food security, respectively. Findings reveal a significant and positive coefficient of 0.2887, signifying a robust statistical relationship between AI adoption and the food production index. As a policy recommendation, this paper recommends the introduction of incentives for farmers and agricultural enterprises to adopt AI technologies -and the expansion of digital connectivity and access to technology in rural areas.

Keywords: Fourth Industrial Revolution, food security, artificial intelligence investment, food production index, ordinary least square

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5356 Tribal Food Security Assessment and Its Measurement Index: A Study of Tribes and Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in Jharkhand, India

Authors: Ambika Prasad Gupta, Harshit Sosan Lakra


Food security is an important issue that has been widely discussed in literature. However, there is a lack of research on the specific food security challenges faced by tribal communities. Tribal food security refers to the ability of indigenous or tribal communities to consistently access and afford an adequate and nutritious supply of food. These communities often have unique cultural, social, and economic contexts that can impact their food security. The study aims to assess the food security status of all thirty-two major tribes, including Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) people living in various blocks of Jharkhand State. The methodology of this study focuses on measuring the food security index of indigenous people by developing and redefining a new Tribal Food Security Index (TFSI) as per the indigenous community-level indicators identified by the Global Food Security Index and other indicators relevant to food security. Affordability, availability, quality and safety, and natural resources were the dimensions used to calculate the overall Tribal Food Security Index. A survey was conducted for primary data collection of tribes and PVTGs at the household level in various districts of Jharkhand with a considerable tribal population. The result shows that due to the transition from rural to urban areas, there is a considerable change in TFSI and a decrease in forest dependency of tribal communities. Socioeconomic factors like occupation and household size had a significant correlation with TFSI. Tribal households living in forests have a higher food security index than tribal households residing in urban transition areas. The study also shows that alternative methodology adopted to measure specific community-level food security creates high significant impact than using commonly used indices.

Keywords: indigenous people, tribal food security, particularly vulnerable tribal groups, Jharkhand

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5355 Assessment of Pastoralist-Crop Farmers Conflict and Food Security of Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Salau, I. F. Ayanda, I. Afe, M. O. Adesina, N. B. Nofiu


Food insecurity is still a critical challenge among rural and urban households in Nigeria. The country’s food insecurity situation became more pronounced due to frequent conflict between pastoralist and crop farmers. Thus, this study assesses pastoralist-crop farmers’ conflict and food security of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to measure the food security status of the respondents, quantify pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict, determine the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers conflict on food security and describe the effective coping strategies adopted by the respondents to reduce the effect of food insecurity. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques will be used to select 250 farming households for the study. The analytical tools include descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, logistic regression, and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the percentage of households that were food secure and insecure will be known. Pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict will be measured empirically by quantifying loses due to the conflict. The logistic regression will indicate if pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict is a critical determinant of food security among farming households in the study area. The coping strategies employed by the respondents in cushioning the effects of food insecurity will also be revealed. Empirical studies on the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict on food security are rare in the literature. This study will quantify conflict and reveal the direction as well as the extent of the relationship between conflict and food security. It could contribute to the identification and formulation of strategies for the minimization of conflict among pastoralist and crop farmers in an attempt to reduce food insecurity. Moreover, this study could serve as valuable reference material for future researches and open up new areas for further researches.

Keywords: agriculture, conflict, coping strategies, food security, logistic regression

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5354 Food Security Model and the Role of Community Empowerment: The Case of a Marginalized Village in Mexico, Tatoxcac, Puebla

Authors: Marco Antonio Lara De la Calleja, María Catalina Ovando Chico, Eduardo Lopez Ruiz


Community empowerment has been proved to be a key element in the solution of the food security problem. As a result of a conceptual analysis, it was found that agricultural production, economic development and governance, are the traditional basis of food security models. Although the literature points to social inclusion as an important factor for food security, no model has considered it as the basis of it. The aim of this research is to identify different dimensions that make an integral model for food security, with emphasis on community empowerment. A diagnosis was made in the study community (Tatoxcac, Zacapoaxtla, Puebla), to know the aspects that impact the level of food insecurity. With a statistical sample integrated by 200 families, the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) was applied, finding that: in households composed by adults and children, have moderated food insecurity, (ELCSA scale has three levels, low, moderated and high); that result is produced mainly by the economic income capacity and the diversity of the diet on its food. With that being said, a model was developed to promote food security through five dimensions: 1. Regional context of the community; 2. Structure and system of local food; 3. Health and nutrition; 4. Information and technology access; and 5. Self-awareness and empowerment. The specific actions on each axis of the model, allowed a systemic approach needed to attend food security in the community, through the empowerment of society. It is concluded that the self-awareness of local communities is an area of extreme importance, which must be taken into account for participatory schemes to improve food security. In the long term, the model requires the integrated participation of different actors, such as government, companies and universities, to solve something such vital as food security.

Keywords: community empowerment, food security, model, systemic approach

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5353 Enhancing Food Security through Cabbage Production by Local Fammers in Nkokobe Municipality

Authors: Sipumle Qapeshu, Bongiwe Mcata, Ajuruchukwu Obi


Subsistence farmers practice farming for survival while commercial farmers produce to feed themselves and larger society with the motive to achieve highest profit. These types of farmers are characterised by growing what they eat, live without making regular purchases in the markets. The main objective of subsistence/peasant farmers is to ensure food security at household level. Cabbage is a crop that has been identified to have vital food nutrient sources like Vitamin A, B and C, protein, calcium, iron and antioxidative compounds beneficial for preventing cancer. This paper, therefore, looks at the potential that cabbage production has in enhancing household food security and also the challenges encountered by these cabbage producers. Primary data was obtained from 50 respondents, and linear regression model was used to analyse the data used. Income was used as food security measure. The results showed that three variables were statistically significant and they are gender (10%), education (5%) and household size (5%). Meaning that these are variables that influenced cabbage production by these households, and it also affects their food security status since income is affected.

Keywords: subsistence farmers, food security, cabbage, farming

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5352 The Effort of Good Governance in Enhancing Foods Security for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Egboja Simon Oga


One of the most important keys to the success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self-sufficiency and independence. It is therefore in this regard that this paper is designed to identify food security to be crucial to all nations’ effort toward sustainable national development. Nigeria as a case study employed various effort by the successive government towards food security. Emphasis were placed on the extent to which government has boosted food security situation on the basis of the identified limitations, conclusion was drawn, recommendation/suggestions proffered, that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seeds and agrochemical, education of farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of village-based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produces are necessary.

Keywords: food, governance, development, security

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5351 Challenges of Good Government in Enhancing Food Security for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Egboja Simon, Agi Sunday


One of the most important key to success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self - sufficiency and independence. There have been challenges in food security related issues in many developing nations. The problems may be as a result of rise in food price across the globe diminishing global food reserve and erratic weather patterns among other factors. In Nigeria several Agricultural politics have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the deserved results of increase food production. This paper is designed to identify the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that accounting for these problems. This paper also suggests ways of addressing these challenges and concludes by saying that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seed and agro chemicals education of the farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of villages based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produce should be encouraged.

Keywords: governance, security, food, development, conflict, hunger, society, sustainability

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5350 Examining the Extent and Magnitude of Food Security amongst Rural Farming Households in Nigeria

Authors: Ajibade T., Omotesho O. A., Ayinde O. E, Ajibade E. T., Muhammad-Lawal A.


This study was carried out to examine the extent and magnitude of food security amongst farming rural households in Nigeria. Data used for this study was collected from a total of two hundred and forty rural farming households using a two-stage random sampling technique. The main tools of analysis for this study include descriptive statistics and a constructed food security index using the identification and aggregation procedure. The headcount ratio in this study reveals that 71% of individuals in the study area were food secure with an average per capita calorie and protein availability of 4,213.92kcal and 99.98g respectively. The aggregated household daily calorie availability and daily protein availability per capita were 3,634.57kcal and 84.08g respectively which happens to be above the food security line of 2,470kcal and 65g used in this study. The food insecure households fell short of the minimum daily per capita calorie and protein requirement by 2.1% and 24.9%. The study revealed that the area is food insecure due to unequal distribution of the available food amongst the sampled population. The study recommends that the households should empower themselves financially in order to enhance their ability to afford the food during both on and off seasons. Also, processing and storage of farm produce should be enhanced in order to improve on availability throughout the year.

Keywords: farming household, food security, identification and aggregation, food security index

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5349 The Nexus between Downstream Supply Chain Losses and Food Security in Nigeria: Empirical Evidence from the Yam Industry

Authors: Alban Igwe, Ijeoma Kalu, Alloy Ezirim


Food insecurity is a global problem, and the search for food security has assumed a central stage in the global development agenda as the United Nations currently placed zero hunger as a goal number in its sustainable development goals. Nigeria currently ranks 107th out of 113 countries in the global food security index (GFSI), a metric that defines a country's ability to furnish its citizens with food and nutrients for healthy living. Paradoxically, Nigeria is a global leader in food production, ranking 1st in yam (over 70% of global output), beans (over 41% of global output), cassava (20% of global output) and shea nuts, where it commands 53% of global output. Furthermore, it ranks 2nd in millet, sweet potatoes, and cashew nuts. It is Africa's largest producer of rice. So, it is apparent that Nigeria's food insecurity woes must relate to a factor other than food production. We investigated the nexus between food security and downstream supply chain losses in the yam industry with secondary data from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAOSTAT) and the National Bureau of Statics for the decade 2012-2021. In analyzing the data, multiple regression techniques were used, and findings reveal that downstream losses have a strong positive correlation with food security (r = .763*) and a 58.3% variation in food security is explainable by post-downstream supply chain food losses. The study discovered that yam supply chain losses within the period under review averaged 50.6%, suggestive of the fact that downstream supply chain losses are the drainpipe and the major source of food insecurity in Nigeria. Therefore, the study concluded that there is a significant relationship between downstream supply chain losses and food insecurity and recommended the establishment of food supply chain structures and policies to enhance food security in Nigeria.

Keywords: food security, downstream supply chain losses, yam, nigeria, supply chain

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5348 Migration, Food Security, Rapid Urbanization and Population Rise in Nigeria: A Wake-Up Call to Policy-Makers

Authors: A. E. Obayelu, S. O. Olubiyo


Food is different from other commodities because everybody needs food for survival. This has led to a shift in focus to food security in the global policy arena. However, there is paucity of studies on the interactions between food security, migration, urbanization and population rise. This paper therefore look at the linkages between migration and food security in the context of rapid urbanization and population rise of Nigeria. The study obtained data and information from both secondary sources and primary method through the voice of some selected Nigerians through telephone interview. The findings revealed that, the primary factor for the rapid urbanization in Nigeria is migration; most foods are still produced by peasant farmers who are scattered all over the rural areas and not multinational companies who produce on large scale. The country is still characterized with inadequate infrastructural facilities and services to cater for growing population. There are no protective policies enforced by the Nigeria government. In most cases, the migrants are left entirely on mercy of what they can find to due for survival. The most common coping mechanisms by migrants from rural to urban areas are changing food intake in terms of quantity, quality, diversity and frequency and prioritizing children. Policies that address urban food security need to consider the complex relationship between rapid population rise and migration and appropriate transformations that will be able to manage urbanization. With increasing rate of urbanization, the focus of food security should no longer be that of rural only

Keywords: agricultural commercialization, agricultural transformation, food security, urban, urbanization

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5347 A Study on Household Food Security and Dietary Diversity in Urban Centers of Thrissur

Authors: Sandra Thomas


This study tries to analyse the level of food security and dietary diversity among households of different socio-economic classes in the urban centers of Thrissur. The study revealed that there is no much difference in purchasing patterns of food articles among the socio-economic classes indicating a very high level of both physical and economic accessibility of food. On analysing the dietary diversity of the households none of the households scored below five and fifty-three per cent of the households scored eleven or twelve indicating higher diversity in diet. It was also found that income and education are the two important factors that influence the level of household food security.

Keywords: food security, dietary diversity, household level, socio-economic classes

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5346 Standards of Toxicity and Food Security in Brazil

Authors: Ana Luiza Da Gama E Souza


This article aims to discuss the problem of food insecurity in Brazil in what it refers to contamination of food by chemical substances such as herbicides, pesticides, and other contaminants. The issue will be faced by analyzing, on the one hand, the standards that guide the food system in the world and, on the other hand, human rights indicators whose purpose is to provide an effective monitoring of the State's obligations to guarantee food security, analyzing the implications of the former for the success of the latter. The methodology adopted in this article was bibliographic-documentary and consists of three moments of analysis. The first moment consists in the analysis of the reports of the Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States to identify the set of progress indicators developed by the Commission. This analysis will involve the new methodology used to evaluate the efficiency in monitoring food security in Brazil the case of using pesticides in the production of food at levels of toxicity not admitted by the inspection bodies. The second moment consists in evaluating the mechanism for monitoring food security in Brazil, which was initially established by the National Food Security Plan (PLANSAN) for 2012-2015 and improved by the II National Food Security Plan for 2016-2019. Those mechanisms were prepared by the Chamber (CAISAN), and have the function to compare the monitoring proposals with the results presented by CAISAN on the Indicators and Results Report of the National Plan for Food and Nutrition Security 2012-2015. The third moment was intended to understand, analyze and evaluate the standardization process of the agri-food system, especially regarding the level of toxicity standards, that is related to food safety monitoring as a guarantee of pesticide-free food. The results show the dependence between private standards of toxicity and the indicators of food safety that leads to inefficiency on monitoring that mechanism in Brazil.

Keywords: standards, indicators, human rights, food security

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5345 Modern Conditions and Tendencies of Development of Agro-Industrial Complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: А. А. Yessekeyeva, А. S. Moldagaliyeva, G. K. Shulanbekova


The purpose of this article is to describe challenges associated with enhancement of government control over agro industrial sector in order to maintain food security. The need for government control over agricultural industry stems from the fact that the State is accountable to its citizens for establishing their standard living conditions, food and other agricultural product supplies. Agro industrial sector is in a special position within the market place preventing its full and equal participation in an interdisciplinary competition. Low-profit agricultural industry that is dependent on the natural and strongly marked seasonal and cyclical production factors is more underdeveloped in terms of technology and relatively static industry as compared to the manufacturing industry. Therefore, agricultural industry development directly affects food security of the country.

Keywords: food security, agro-industry, Kazakhstan, food security

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5344 Securing Land Rights for Food Security in Africa: An Appraisal of Links Between Smallholders’ Land Rights and the Right to Adequate Food in Ethiopia

Authors: Husen Ahmed Tura


There are strong links between secure land rights and food security in Africa. However, as land is owned by governments, land users do not have adequate legislative protection. This article explores normative and implementation gaps in relation to small-scale farmers’ land rights under the Ethiopia’s law. It finds that the law facilitates eviction of small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples from their land without adequate alternative means of livelihood. It argues that as access to land and other natural resources is strongly linked to the right to adequate food, Ethiopia should reform its land laws in the light of its legal obligations under international human rights law to respect, protect and fulfill the right to adequate food and ensure freedom from hunger.

Keywords: smallholder, secure land rights , food security, right to food, land grabbing, forced evictions

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5343 Food Security Indicators in Deltaic and Coastal Research: A Scoping Review

Authors: Sylvia Szabo, Thilini Navaratne, Indrajit Pal, Seree Park


Deltaic and coastal regions are often strategically important both from local and regional perspectives. While deltas are known to be bread baskets of the world, delta inhabitants often face the risk of food and nutritional insecurity. These risks are highly exacerbated by the impacts of climate and environmental change. While numerous regional studies examined the prevalence and the determinants of food security in specific delta and coastal regions, there is still a lack of a systematic analysis of the most widely used scientific food security indicators. In order to fill this gap, a systematic review was carried out using Covidence, a Cochrane-adopted systematic review processing software. Papers included in the review were selected from the SCOPUS, Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases. Both scientific papers and grey literature (e.g., reports by international organizations) were considered. The results were analyzed by food security components (access, availability, quality, and strategy) and by world regions. Suggestions for further food security, nutrition, and health research, as well as policy-related implications, are also discussed.

Keywords: delta regions, coastal, food security, indicators, systematic review

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5342 Effective Strategies Migrants Adopted to Improve Food Security in a Regional Area of Australia

Authors: Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Daniel R. Terry, Rosa Mc Manamey


Food security is a global issue and one of the concerns in Australia, particularly in regional and rural areas. Despite Australia’s current ability to produce enough food to feed more than its current population, evidence has been accumulating over the last decade to demonstrate many Australians struggle to feed themselves, including immigrants from cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. This study aims to identify the acculturation strategies used by migrants to enhance their approach to food security in Tasmania. The study employed a mixed methods approach that used both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with migrants living in Tasmania. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse data collected from questionnaire, whereas, thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Migrants (n=301) completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 50.2% and 33 follow-up interviews were conducted. We found that majority of the migrants (70.0%) replaced food ingredients and went without the food they could not buy from shops with similar ingredients. Support and advice from friends were effective ways to improve their food access. Additionally, length of stays in Tasmania and region of origin were significantly associated with the ways migrants dealing with food security. The interview results revealed that migrants managed to adapt to the new food culture by using different acculturation strategies, including access food ingredients from other country; adjusting or adapting; home gardening and access to technology. In addition, social and cultural capitals were also treated as vital roles in improving migrants’ food security. To summarize, migrants employed different strategies for food security while acculturating into the new environment. Our findings could become the guidelines for migrants and relevant government or private sectors that address food security.

Keywords: food security, migrants, strategies, inferential statistics

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5341 Sustainable Food Systems in Community Development: Integrating Urban Food Security into a Growing Population

Authors: Opal Giulianelli, Pegah Zamani


Sustainable food has become a frequently debated topic in recent years due to a consumer push for environmentally sustainable food. While some research works on improving the monoculture farm systems that are currently in use, others focus on expanding the definition of sustainable food systems. This research looks at those concepts of alternative food systems applied to a more extensive city system. The goal is to create a theoretical site plan that could be implemented in emerging cities and other urban environments. This site plan combines the ideas of environmentally sustainable food development, such as food forests, urban farming, and community gardens. This would represent one part of a larger sustainable food system that can be altered depending on the environment or the people it is serving. However, this research is being carried out with the southeast United States in mind and, therefore, may prove difficult to apply to other regions, especially those of radically different climates.

Keywords: alternative food systems, urban design, food forests, aquaponics, hydroponics, food security, food system design

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