Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 716

Search results for: orthognathic surgery

716 Patient Reported Experience of in-Patient Orthognathic Care in an NHS Hospital, in Comparison to a Private Hospital

Authors: R. Litt, A. Kana, K. House

Abstract:

The primary aim of this patient-related experience questionnaire was to gain a better understanding of our patients' experience as inpatients when they undergo orthognathic surgery. The secondary aim of this study was to identify ways in which we can improve the orthognathic inpatient experience and to share this with other units. All patients who received orthognathic surgery at an NHS hospital - Bristol Royal Infirmary, England, over the course of 6 months were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their care. This data was then analysed and compared to the same questionnaire given to patients treated in a private hospital where orthognathic surgery was completed. All treatment was completed by the same surgeon. The design of the questions took into account NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidance on improving the experience of patient care. Particularly taking into account patients' essential requirements of care, for example, assessing and managing pain, ensuring adequate and appropriate nutrition, and ensuring the patients' personal needs are regularly reviewed and addressed. Overall the patient-related experience after orthognathic surgery was comparable in both the NHS and private hospitals. However, the questionnaire highlighted aspects of inpatient care after orthognathic surgery that can easily be improved in order to provide our patients with the best possible care.

Keywords: orthognathic surgery, patient feedback, jaw surgery, inpatient experience

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715 Aesthetic Modification with Combined Orthognathic Surgery and Closed Rhinoplasty

Authors: Alessandro Marano

Abstract:

Aim: The author describes the aesthetic modification using orthognathic surgery and closed rhinoplasty. Methods: Series of case study. After orthognathic surgery we can observe a dramatical change of aesthetic especially in the mid-face and nose projection. The advancement of maxillary bone through Le Fort I osteotomy will change the nasal tip projection and lips roundness; combining orthognathic surgery with closed approach rhinoplasty will manage both function and aesthetic of all mid face district. Results: Combining Le Fort I osteotomy with closed approach rhinoplasty resulted in good objective results with high patient satisfaction. Le Fort I osteotomy will increase projection of mid face and the closed approach rhinoplasty will modify the nasal shape to be more harmonic with the new maxillary district. The scars are not visible because hidden inside the mouth and nose. Conclusions: The orthognathic surgery combined with closed approach rhinoplasty are very effective for changing the aesthetic of the mid face. The results illustrate the difference between the use of orthognathic surgery only and to use it in association of closed approach rhinoplasty. Using both will allow to obtain a long lasting and pleasing results.

Keywords: orthognathic, rhinoplasty, aesthetic, face

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714 Effect of Mindfulness-Based Self-Care Training on Self-Esteem and Body Image Concern on Candidate Patients of Orthognathic Surgery

Authors: Hamide Azimi Lolaty, Fateme Alsadat Ghanipoor, Azar Ramzani, Reza Ali Mohammadpoor, Alireza Babaei

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Despite the merits behind orthognathic surgery, self-care training in such patients seems logical. The current research was performed pursuing the goal of outlining the effect of training mindfulness-based self-care on Self-Esteem (SE) and Body Image Concern (BIC) of orthognathic surgery candidate patients. Material and Methods: The present study was performed using a semi-experimental method with pre-and post-design in the control and intervention groups. The eligible patients to enter the Babol-based Shahid Beheshti Orthognathic Surgery Clinic were conveniently divided into two 25-person groups. The variables of Self-Esteem and Body Image Concern were measured before and after executing the eight 90-minute training sessions and in the follow-up period done three months after executing the intervention using Cooper Smith’s Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI). The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the independent t-test and using SPSS-26, the data were analyzed at a 0.05 level. Results: As a result of the intervention, the intervention group’s SE score critically changed on average from 25.4±7.31 in the pre-intervention to 31.16±7.05 in the post-intervention and to 40.45±3.51 in the follow-up period (P=0.01), the intervention group’s BIC score changed on average from 60.28±16.47 in the pre-intervention to 47.15±80.47 in the post-intervention and to 32.20 ± 10.73 in the follow-up period. This difference was meaningful (P=0.001). But due to time and the intervention interaction, the control group underwent this significant reduction with a delay. The study revealed the scores of the SE as 32± 6.84 and that of the BIC as 43.32±10.64 in the control group didn’t result in any meaningful statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: Training mindfulness-based self-care exerts an effect on the SE and BIC of the patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. Therefore, it’s recommended to train mindfulness-based self-care for orthognathic surgery candidate patients.

Keywords: self-care, mindfulness, self-esteem, body image concern, orthognathic surgery

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713 Correction of Skeletal Deformity by Surgical Approach – A Case Report

Authors: Davender Kumar, Virender Singh, Rekha Sharma

Abstract:

Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. In adult severe cases, the combined approach, orthodontic and orthognathic surgery, is always the treatment of choice, and the results obtained usually ensure a better esthetic, functional, and stable results Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting mandible retrusion along with class II skeletal deformity with 100% deep bite. Correction was achieved by anterior repositioning of mandible osteotomy along with orthodontic treatment. The patient's facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion.

Keywords: camouflage, skeletal, orthognathic, dental

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
712 Evaluation of Condyle Alterations after Orthognathic Surgery with a Digital Image Processing Technique

Authors: Livia Eisler, Cristiane C. B. Alves, Cristina L. F. Ortolani, Kurt Faltin Jr.

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper proposes a technically simple diagnosis method among orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons in order to evaluate discrete bone alterations. The methodology consists of a protocol to optimize the diagnosis and minimize the possibility for orthodontic and ortho-surgical retreatment. Materials and Methods: A protocol of image processing and analysis, through ImageJ software and its plugins, was applied to 20 pairs of lateral cephalometric images obtained from cone beam computerized tomographies, before and 1 year after undergoing orthognathic surgery. The optical density of the images was analyzed in the condylar region to determine possible bone alteration after surgical correction. Results: Image density was shown to be altered in all image pairs, especially regarding the condyle contours. According to measures, condyle had a gender-related density reduction for p=0.05 and condylar contours had their alterations registered in mm. Conclusion: A simple, viable and cost-effective technique can be applied to achieve the more detailed image-based diagnosis, not depending on the human eye and therefore, offering more reliable, quantitative results.

Keywords: bone resorption, computer-assisted image processing, orthodontics, orthognathic surgery

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711 A Radiographic Superimposition in Orthognathic Surgery of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira

Abstract:

Patients requiring correction of severe Class III skeletal discrepancy historically has been among the most challenging treatments for orthodontists. Correction of an aesthetic and functional problem is crucially important. This is a case report of an adult male aged 18 years who complained of difficulty in chewing and speaking. Patient has a prominent profile with mandibular excess. The pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. The panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, the pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, the post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It includes the superimposition of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible. Superimposition is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement. It is also important to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgery included mandibular set back by bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Although the discrepancy was severe using this combination of treatment and the use of radiographic superimposition, an aesthetically pleasing and stable result was achieved.

Keywords: cephalometric, mandibular set back, orthognathic, superimposition

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710 Replacement of the Distorted Dentition of the Cone Beam Computed Tomography Scan Models for Orthognathic Surgery Planning

Authors: T. Almutairi, K. Naudi, N. Nairn, X. Ju, B. Eng, J. Whitters, A. Ayoub

Abstract:

Purpose: At present Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging does not record dental morphology accurately due to the scattering produced by metallic restorations and the reported magnification. The aim of this pilot study is the development and validation of a new method for the replacement of the distorted dentition of CBCT scans with the dental image captured by the digital intraoral camera. Materials and Method: Six dried skulls with orthodontics brackets on the teeth were used in this study. Three intra-oral markers made of dental stone were constructed which were attached to orthodontics brackets. The skulls were CBCT scanned, and occlusal surface was captured using TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner. Marker based and surface based registrations were performed to fuse the digital intra-oral scan(IOS) into the CBCT models. This produced a new composite digital model of the skull and dentition. The skulls were scanned again using the commercially accurate Laser Faro® arm to produce the 'gold standard' model for the assessment of the accuracy of the developed method. The accuracy of the method was assessed by measuring the distance between the occlusal surfaces of the new composite model and the 'gold standard' 3D model of the skull and teeth. The procedure was repeated a week apart to measure the reproducibility of the method. Results: The results showed no statistically significant difference between the measurements on the first and second occasions. The absolute mean distance between the new composite model and the laser model ranged between 0.11 mm to 0.20 mm. Conclusion: The dentition of the CBCT can be accurately replaced with the dental image captured by the intra-oral scanner to create a composite model. This method will improve the accuracy of orthognathic surgical prediction planning, with the final goal of the fabrication of a physical occlusal wafer without to guide orthognathic surgery and eliminate the need for dental impression.

Keywords: orthognathic surgery, superimposition, models, cone beam computed tomography

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709 A Case Study of Meningoencephalitis following Le Fort I Osteotomy

Authors: Ryan Goh, Nicholas Beech

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Introduction: Le Fort I Osteotomies, although are common procedures in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, carry a degree of risk of unfavourable propagation of the down-fracture of the maxilla. This may be the first reported case in the literature for meningoencephalitis to occur following a Le Fort I Osteotomy. Case: A 32-year-old female was brought into the Emergency Department four days after a Le Fort I Osteotomy, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 (E3V1M4). A Computed Tomography (CT) Head showed a skull base fracture at the right sphenoid sinus. Lumbar puncture was completed, and Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). She was treated with Meropenem, and rapidly improved thereafter. CSF rhinorrhoea was identified when she was extubated, which was successfully managed via a continuous lumbar drain. She was discharged on day 14 without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: The most likely aspect of the Le Fort I Osteotomy to obtain a skull base fracture is during the pterygomaxillary disjunction. Care should always be taken to avoid significant risks of skull base fractures, CSF rhinorrhoea, meningitis and encephalitis.

Keywords: meningitis, orthognathic surgery, post-operative complication, skull base, rhinorrhea

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708 A Cephalometric Superimposition of a Skeletal Class III Orthognathic Patient on Nasion-Sella Line

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira

Abstract:

The Nasion-Sella Line (NSL) has been used for several years as a reference line in longitudinal growth study. Therefore this line is considered to be stable not only to evaluate treatment outcome and to predict relapse possibility but also to manage prognosis. This is a radiographic superimposition of an adult male aged 19 years who complained of difficulty in aesthetic, talking and chewing. Patient has a midface hypoplasia profile (concave). He was diagnosed to have a severe Skeletal Class III with Class III malocclusion, increased lower vertical height, and an anterior open bite. A pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. A panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, a pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, a post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition using NSL as a reference line between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement and to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient also needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgical management included maxillary impaction and advancement of Le Fort I osteotomy. The evaluation using NSL as a reference was a very useful method in determining the outcome and prognosis.

Keywords: Nasion-Sella Line, midface hypoplasia, Le Fort 1, maxillary advancement

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707 Arginase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Mehmet Ali Kisaçam, P. Sema Temizer Ozan, Ayşe Doğan, Gonca Ozan, F. Sarper Türker

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Cardiovascular disease which is one of the most common health problems worldwide has crucial importance because of its’ morbidity and mortality rates. Nitric oxide synthase and arginase use L-arginine as a substrate and produce nitric oxide (NO), citrulline and urea, ornithine respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced bioavailability of vasodilator and anti-inflammatory molecule NO. The purpose of the study to assess endothelial function via arginase activity and NO levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The study was conducted on 26 patients (14 male, 12 female) undergoing CABG surgery. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before surgery, after the termination and after 24 hours of the surgery. Arginase activity and NO levels measured in collected samples spectrophotometrically. Arginase activity decreased significantly in subjects after the termination of the surgery compared to before surgery data. 24 hours after the surgery there wasn’t any significance in arginase activity as it compared to before surgery and after the termination of the surgery. On the other hand, NO levels increased significantly in the subject after the termination of the surgery. However there was no significant increase in NO levels after 24 hours of the surgery, but there was an insignificant increase compared to before surgery data. The results indicate that after the termination of the surgery vascular and endothelial function improved and after 24 hours of the surgery arginase activity and NO levels returned to normal.

Keywords: arginase, bypass, cordiopulmonary, nitric oxide

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706 Prediction of Survival Rate after Gastrointestinal Surgery Based on The New Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM Score) With Neural Network Classification Method

Authors: Ayu Nabila Kusuma Pradana, Aprinaldi Jasa Mantau, Tomohiko Akahoshi

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The incidence of Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) following gastrointestinal surgery has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to determine the factors that can predict the prognosis of DIC. This study will investigate the factors that may influence the outcome of DIC in patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Eighty-one patients were admitted to the intensive care unit after gastrointestinal surgery in Kyushu University Hospital from 2003 to 2021. Acute DIC scores were estimated using the new Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) score from before and after surgery from day 1, day 3, and day 7. Acute DIC scores will be compared with The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, platelet count, lactate level, and a variety of biochemical parameters. This study applied machine learning algorithms to predict the prognosis of DIC after gastrointestinal surgery. The results of this study are expected to be used as an indicator for evaluating patient prognosis so that it can increase life expectancy and reduce mortality from cases of DIC patients after gastrointestinal surgery.

Keywords: the survival rate, gastrointestinal surgery, JAAM score, neural network, machine learning, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
705 Concept of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Insertion Device

Authors: Sangram A. Sathe, Neha A. Madgulkar, Shruti S. Raut, S. P. Wadkar

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Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries have nowadays became popular for treatment of degenerated spinal disorders. The interbody fusion technique like TLIF maintains load bearing capacity of the spine and a suitable disc height. Currently many techniques have been introduced to cure Spondylolisthesis. This surgery provides greater rehabilitation of degenerative spines. While performing this TLIF surgery existing methods use guideway, which is a troublesome surgery technique as the use of two separate instruments is required to perform this surgery. This paper presents a concept which eliminates the use of guideway. This concept also eliminates problems that occur like reverting the cage. The concept discussed in this paper also gives high accuracy while performing surgery.

Keywords: TLIF, spondylolisthesis, spine, instruments

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704 Predictors of Behavior Modification Prior to Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Rosemarie Basile, Maria Loizos, John Pallarino, Karen Gibbs

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Given that complications can be significant following bariatric surgery and with rates of long-term success measured in excess weight loss varying as low as 33% after five years, an understanding of the psychological factors that may mitigate findings and increase success and result in better screening and supports prior to surgery are critical. An internally oriented locus of control (LOC) has been identified as a predictor for success in obesity therapy, but has not been investigated within the context of bariatric surgery. It is hypothesized that making behavioral changes prior to surgery which mirror those that are required post-surgery may ultimately predict long-term success. 122 subjects participated in a clinical interview and completed self-report measures including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), and Lifestyle Questionnaire (LQ). Pearson correlations were computed between locus of control orientation and likelihood to make behavior changes prior to surgery. Pearson correlations revealed a positive correlation between locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes r = 0.23, p < .05. As hypothesized, there was a significant correlation between internal locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes. Participants with a higher LOC believe that they are able to make decisions about their own health. Future research will focus on whether this positive correlation is a predictor for future bariatric surgery success.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, behavior modification, health locus of control, overeating questionnaire

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703 The Breast Surgery Movement: A 50 Year Development of the Surgical Specialty

Authors: Lauren Zammerilla Westcott, Ronald C. Jones, James W. Fleshman

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The surgical treatment of breast cancer has rapidly evolved over the past 50 years, progressing from Halsted’s radical mastectomy to a public campaign of surgical options, aesthetic reconstruction, and patient empowerment. This article examines the happenings that led to the transition of breast surgery as a subset of general surgery to its own specialized field. Sparked by the research of Dr. Bernard Fisher and the first National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial in 1971, the field of breast surgery underwent significant growth over the next several decades, enabling general surgeons to limit their practices to the breast. High surgical volumes eventually led to the development of the first formal breast surgical oncology fellowship in a large community-based hospital at Baylor University Medical Center in 1982. The establishment of the American Society of Breast Surgeons, as well several landmark clinical trials and public campaign efforts, further contributed to the advancement of breast surgery, making it the specialized field of the current era.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast fellowship, breast surgery, surgical history

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702 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh

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Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility

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701 Nutritional Status of Morbidly Obese Patients Prior to Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Reyhaneh Yousefi, Saeed Safari

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Background: Bariatric surgery is widely proposed as the most effective approach to mitigate the growing pace of morbid obesity. As bariatric surgery candidates suffer from pre-existing nutritional deficiencies, it is of great importance to assess nutritional status of candidates before surgery in order to establish appropriate nutritional interventions. Objectives: The present study assessed and represented baseline data according to the nutritional status among candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of pre-surgery data was collected on 170 morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between October 2017 and February 2018. Dietary intake data (evaluated through 147-item food frequency questionnaire), anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results: Participants included 145 females (25 males) with average age of 37.3 ± 10.2 years, BMI of 45.7 ± 6.4 kg/m² and reported to have a total of 72.3 ± 22.2 kg excess body weight. The most common nutritional deficiencies referred to iron, ferritin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, the prevalence of which in the study population were as followed; 6.5, 6.5, 3, 2, 17.6 and 66%, respectively. Mean energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake were 3887.3 ± 1748.32 kcal/day, 121.6 ± 57.1, 144.1 ± 83.05, and 552.4 ± 240.5 gr/day, respectively. The study population consumed lower levels of iron, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin B12 compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations (2, 26, 2.5, and 13%, respectively). Conclusion: According to the poor dietary quality of bariatric surgery candidates, leading to nutritional deficiencies pre-operatively, close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery are required.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, food frequency questionnaire, obesity, nutritional status

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700 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri

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Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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699 Adequacy of Second-Generation Laryngeal Mask Airway during Prolonged Abdominal Surgery

Authors: Sukhee Park, Gaab Soo Kim

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Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the adequacy of second-generation laryngeal mask airway use during prolonged abdominal surgery in respect of ventilation, oxygenation, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), and postoperative non-pulmonary complications on living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) surgery. Methods: In total, 257 recipients who underwent LDKT using either laryngeal mask airway-ProSeal (LMA-P) or endotracheal tube (ETT) were retrospectively analyzed. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PFR) during surgery were compared between two groups. In addition, PPC including pulmonary aspiration and postoperative non-pulmonary complications including nausea, vomiting, hoarseness, vocal cord palsy, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were also compared. Results: PaCO2 and PFR during surgery were not significantly different between the two groups. PPC was also not significantly different between the two groups. Interestingly, the incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the LMA-P group than the ETT group (3.0% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.029). Conclusions: During prolonged abdominal surgery such as LDKT, second-generation laryngeal mask airway offers adequate ventilation and oxygenation and can be considered a suitable alternative to ETT.

Keywords: laryngeal mask airway, prolonged abdominal surgery, kidney transplantation, postoperative pulmonary complication

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698 Surgical Applied Anatomy: Alive and Kicking

Authors: Jake Hindmarch, Edward Farley, Norman Eizenberg, Mark Midwinter

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There is a need to bring the anatomical knowledge of medical students up to the standards required by surgical specialties. Contention exists amongst anatomists, clinicians, and surgeons about the standard of anatomical knowledge medical students need. The aim of this study was to explore the standards which the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons are applying knowledge of anatomy. Furthermore, to align medical school teaching to what the surgical profession requires from graduates.: The 2018 volume of the ANZ Journal of Surgery was narrowed down to 254 articles by applying the search term “Anatomy”. The main topic was then extracted from each paper. The content of the paper was assessed for ‘novel description’ or ‘application’ of anatomical knowledge’ and classified accordingly. The majority of papers with an anatomical focus was from the general surgery specialty, which focused on surgical techniques, outcomes and management. Vascular surgery had the highest percentage of papers with a novel description and application of anatomy. Cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery had no papers with a novel description of anatomy. Finally, a novel application of anatomy was the main focus of each speciality. Firstly, a high proportion of novel applications and descriptions of anatomy are in general surgery. Secondly, vascular surgery had the largest proportion of novel application and description of anatomy, namely due to the rise of therapeutic imaging and endovascular techniques. Finally, all disciplines demonstrated a trend towards having a higher proportion of novel application of anatomical knowledge

Keywords: anatomical knowledge, anatomy, surgery, novel anatomy

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697 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos

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In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: laparoscopic surgery, ergonomics, mechanical design, biomechanics

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696 Development of Pediatric Medical Trauma Stress (PMTS) Among Children at Risk

Authors: Amichai Ben ari, Daniella Margalit

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Medical procedures, such as surgery, may have traumatic significance for some children. This study examines the relationship between maltreatment in children and the development Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress (PMTS). To this end, differences in the level of distress of children after surgery were examined between two groups: children who were maltreated ("children at risk") and children from the control group ("children who are not at risk"). The study involved 230 parents of children who came to the hospital to undergo surgery. Parents filled out demographic questionnaires to measure socioeconomic variables and psychological questionnaires to measure the distress of the child and parent before surgery. After 6 months from the time of surgery, the parents again filled in the questionnaire measuring the child's distress. The results of the study showed that the level of distress experienced by children at risk after surgery was significantly higher relative to children who are not at risk. It was also found that the level of distress experienced by parents of children at risk in relation to their child’s surgery is significantly higher compared to parents of children who are not at risk. Finally, it was found that the variables: (1) pre-morbid psychological functioning of the child. (2) Parental and family functioning in daily life. (3) Exposure of the child to traumatic events. (4) Support factors for the family. Are variables that predict the development of PMTS in children after surgery, but only for children at risk and not for children who are not at risk. The significance of the findings in relation to the need to identify at-risk populations in the hospitals and the policies derived from them were discussed, and several directions were raised for further research.

Keywords: children at risk, pediatric medical traumatic stress (PMTS), PTSD, medical procedures

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695 Role of Ologen in Previously Failed Trabeculectomy in Advanced Glaucoma

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi

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Purpose: Advanced Glaucoma with Failed trab is not an uncommon sight in glaucoma clinic, and such cases usually tend to present with high intraocular pressure (IOP) and advanced cupping, or even glaucomatous atrophy stage. Re-surgery is needed for such cases, and wound modulation poses a major challenge in these cases. We share our experience in this case series with the use of Ologen (collagen matrix implant) along with MMC 0.04% used in surgery. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of collagen matrix implant in re-trabeculectomy in advanced glaucoma cases. Methodology: Eleven eyes of 11 patients (one eye of one patient) underwent re-trabeculectomy surgery with MMC and Ologen. Ologen implant was used in sub scleral and subconjunctival space, as a spacer and wound modulator. In five cases, triple modulation with implant soaked in anti-VEGF was used. Results: All patients had cupping more than 0.9, and one case was GOA. All cases were on maximal medication at presentation and majority were on systemic anti-glaucoma therapy also. Post-surgery, follow-up ranged from 13 – 34 months, and all cases had a follow longer than the gap between previous surgery (which was failed) and re-trab. One case needed AC reformation and one needling was done. Phaco was done at same sitting in four cases. All cases had their IOP lowered post surgery, and vision was maintained in all, however one case was considered as failed re-surgery case. Topical medication was needed in seven cases post-surgery also. Conclusion: Ologen as adjuvant should be considered in all re-trab cases and all high risk and advanced cases, and triple modulation can be next step in these cases. Aggressive IOP control and non- reluctance to continue topical medications post second surgery should be considered in such cases, to give them best possible vision.

Keywords: failed trabeculectomy, ologen, trabeculectomy, advanced glaucoma

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694 Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery

Authors: K. Bensafia, A. Mansour, G. Le Maillot, B. Clement, O. Reynet, P. Ariès, S. Haddab

Abstract:

This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.

Keywords: electrocardiography, monitoring, surgery, wireless system

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693 Evaluating Thailand’s Cosmetic Surgery Tourism by Taiwanese Female Tourists

Authors: Wen-Yu Chen, Chia-Yuan Hsu, Sasinee Vongsrikul

Abstract:

The present study is to explore the perception of Taiwanese females towards medical tourism in Thailand for the development of applicable marketing strategy, integrating travel motivation and cosmetic surgery trend to attract potential medical tourists from Taiwan. Since previous studies relevant to this research issue are limited, qualitative study is firstly employed by using one focus group interview and in-depth interviews with Taiwanese females. Moreover, the present research collected questionnaires from 290 Taiwanese females to provide greater understanding of research results. The top three factors that affect Taiwanese females’ decision for not going to Thailand for medical tourism are “physicians and nurses cannot speak Chinese”, “low quality of the cosmetic surgery product that I want to do”, and “the county does not have laws to protect medical tourists’ right”. The finding of the empirical part would suggest the area in medical tourism industry which Thailand should promote and emphasizes in order to increase its presence as a hub for cosmetic surgery and attract Taiwanese female market. Therefore, the study contributes to the potential development of marketing strategy for medical tourism, specifically in the area of cosmetic surgery in Thailand while targeting Taiwan market.

Keywords: Thailand, Taiwanese female tourists, medical tourism, cosmetic surgery

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692 Cosmetic Surgery on the Rise: The Impact of Remote Communication

Authors: Bruno Di Pace, Roxanne H. Padley

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Aims: The recent increase in remote video interaction has increased the number of requests for teleconsultations with plastic surgeons in private practice (70% in the UK and 64% in the USA). This study investigated the motivations for such an increase and the underlying psychological impact on patients. Method: An anonymous web-based poll of 8 questions was designed and distributed to patients seeking cosmetic surgery through social networks in both Italy and the UK. The questions gathered responses regarding 1. Reasons for pursuing cosmetic surgery; 2. The effects of delays caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic; 3. The effects on mood; 4. The influence of video conferencing on body-image perception. Results: 85 respondents completed the online poll. Overall, 68% of respondents stated that seeing themselves more frequently online had influenced their decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The types of surgeries indicated were predominantly to the upper body and face (82%). Delays and access to surgeons during the pandemic were perceived as negatively impacting patients' moods (95%). Body-image perception and self-esteem were lower than in the pre-pandemic, particularly during lockdown (72%). Patients were more inclined to undergo cosmetic surgery during the pandemic, both due to the wish to improve their “lockdown face” for video conferencing (77%) and also due to the benefits of home recovery while in smart working (58%). Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that video conferencing has led to a significant increase in requests for cosmetic surgery and the so-called “Zoom Boom” effect.

Keywords: cosmetic surgery, remote communication, telehealth, zoom boom

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691 Effects of Different Types of Perioperative Analgesia on Minimal Residual Disease Development After Colon Cancer Surgery

Authors: Lubomir Vecera, Tomas Gabrhelik, Benjamin Tolmaci, Josef Srovnal, Emil Berta, Petr Prasil, Petr Stourac

Abstract:

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer. Currently, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of postoperative analgesia on the prognosis of patients undergoing radical colon cancer surgery. Postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing colon cancer surgery is usually managed in two ways, either with strong opioids (morphine, piritramide) or epidural analgesia. In our prospective study, we evaluated the effect of postoperative analgesia on the presence of circulating tumor cells or minimal residual disease after colon cancer surgery. A total of 60 patients who underwent radical colon cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, two-center study. Patients were randomized into three groups, namely piritramide, morphine and postoperative epidural analgesia. We evaluated the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) mRNA positive circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood before surgery, immediately after surgery, on postoperative day two and one month after surgery. The presence of circulating tumor cells was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the priritramide postoperative analgesia group, the presence of CEA mRNA positive cells was significantly lower on a postoperative day two compared to the other groups (p=0.04). The value of CK-20 mRNA positive cells was the same in all groups on all days. In all groups, both types of circulating tumor cells returned to normal levels one month after surgery. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in all groups. Compared with morphine and epidural analgesia, piritramide significantly reduces the amount of CEA mRNA positive circulating tumor cells after radical colon cancer surgery.

Keywords: cancer progression, colon cancer, minimal residual disease, perioperative analgesia.

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690 Incidence and Causes of Elective Surgery Cancellations in Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand

Authors: A. Kaeotawee, N. Bunmas, W. Chomthong

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Background: The cancellation of elective surgery is a major indicator of poor operating room efficiency. Furthermore, it is recognized as a major cause of emotional trauma to patients as well as their families. This study was carried out to assess the incidence and causes of elective surgery cancellation in our setting and to find the appropriate solutions for better quality management. Objective: To determine the incidence and causes of elective surgery cancellations in Songklanagarind Hospital. Material and Method: A prospective survey was conducted from September to November 2012. All patients who had their scheduled elective operations cancelled were assessed. Data was collected on the following 2 components: (1) patient demographics;(2) main reasons for cancellations, which were grouped into patient-related factors and organizational-related factors. Data are reported as a percentage of patients whose operations were cancelled. The association between cancellation status and patient demographics was assessed using univariate logistic regression. Results: 2,395 patients were scheduled for elective surgery and of these 343 (14.3%) had their operations cancelled. Cardiothoracic surgery had the highest rate of cancellations (28.7%) while the least number of cancellations occurred in ophthalmology (10.1%). The main reasons for cancellations were related to the unit's organization (53.6%), due to the surgeon (48.4%). Patient related causes (46.4%), due to non medical reasons (32.1%). The most common cause of cancellation by the surgeon was lack of theater time (21.3%), by patients due to the patient’s nonappearance (25.1%). Cancellation was significantly associated with type of patient, health insurance, type of anesthesia and specialties (p<0.05). Conclusion: Surgery cancellations by surgeons relating to a lack of theater time was a significant problem in our setting. Appropriate solutions for better quality improvement are needed.

Keywords: elective cases, surgery cancellation, quality management, appropriate solutions

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689 Cephalometric Changes of Patient with Class II Division 1 [Malocclusion] Post Orthodontic Treatment with Growth Stimulation: A Case Report

Authors: Pricillia Priska Sianita

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An aesthetic facial profile is one of the goals in Orthodontics treatment. However, this is not easily achieved, especially in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who have the clinical characteristics of convex profile and significant skeletal discrepancy due to mandibular growth deficiency. Malocclusion with skeletal problems require proper treatment timing for growth stimulation, and it must be done in early age and in need of good cooperation from the patient. If this is not done and the patient has passed the growth period, the ideal treatment is orthognathic surgery which is more complicated and more painful. The growth stimulation of skeletal malocclusion requires a careful cephalometric evaluation ranging from diagnosis to determine the parts that require stimulation to post-treatment evaluation to see the success achieved through changes in the measurement of the skeletal parameters shown in the cephalometric analysis. This case report aims to describe skeletal changes cephalometrically that were achieved through orthodontic treatment in growing period. Material and method: Lateral Cephalograms, pre-treatment, and post-treatment of cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion is selected from a collection of cephalometric radiographic in a private clinic. The Cephalogram is then traced and measured for the skeletal parameters. The result is noted as skeletal condition data of pre-treatment and post-treatment. Furthermore, superimposition is done to see the changes achieved. The results show that growth stimulation through orthodontic treatment can solve the skeletal problem of Class II Division 1 malocclusion and the skeletal changes that occur can be verified through cephalometric analysis. The skeletal changes have an impact on the improvement of patient's facial profile. To sum up, the treatment timing on a skeletal malocclusion is very important to obtain satisfactory results for the improvement of the aesthetic facial profile, and skeletal changes can be verified through cephalometric evaluation of pre- and post-treatment.

Keywords: cephalometric evaluation, class II division 1 malocclusion, growth stimulation, skeletal changes, skeletal problems

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688 Psychosocial Effect of Body-Contouring Surgery on Patients after Weight Loss

Authors: Abdullah Kattan, Khalid Alzahrani, Saud Alsaleh, Loui Ezzat, Khalid Murad, Bader Alghamdi

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Patients are often bothered by the excess skin laxity and redundancy that they are left with after losing weight. Body-contouring surgery offers a solution to this problem; however, there is scarce literature on the psychological and social effects of these surgeries. This study was conducted to assess the psychosocial impact of body-contouring surgery on patients after weight loss. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, a specifically designed questionnaire was administered to forty three patients whom have undergone body-contouring surgery. All included patients had lost no less than 20 Kg before body-contouring surgery, and were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. The twenty-question interviewer based questionnaire was used to assess the psychosocial status of the patients before and after undergoing body-contouring surgery. The questionnaire assessed the quality of life (social life, job performance and sexual activity), presence of symptoms of depression and overall satisfaction. Data was analyzed as paired variables in SPSS using McNemar’s test. Results: Among the 43 participants, 19 (44.2%) have undergone mammoplasty, 12 (27.9%) have undergone abdominoplasty and the remainder of the patients have undergone other various procedures including brachioplasty, thigh lifts and nick liposuction. The mean age of patients was 34 +/- 10, the sample included 24 (55.8%) females and 19 (44.2%) males. The patients’ quality of life significantly improved in the following areas; social life (P<0.001), job performance (P<0.002) and sexual activity (P<0.001). Moreover, 17 (39.5%) patients suffered symptoms of depression before body-contouring surgery; however, only 1 (2.3%) patient suffered symptoms of depression after surgery. Overall satisfaction rate was found to be 62.8%; with mammoplasty being the highest satisfaction rate procedure (66.6 %). Conclusion: Body-contouring surgery after weight loss has shown to improve the psychological and social aspects in patients. These findings have been found to be consistent with the majority of relevant published studies, further increasing reliability of our study.

Keywords: abdominoplasty, body-contouring, mammoplasty, psychosocial

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687 The Role of Pulmonary Resection in Complicated Primary Pediatric Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An Evidence-Based Case Report

Authors: Hendra Wibowo, Suprayitno Wardoyo, Dhama Shinta

Abstract:

Introduction: Pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) incidence was increasing, with many undetected cases. In complicated TB, treatment should consist of returning pulmonary function, preventing further complications, and eliminating bacteria. Complicated TB management was still controversial, and surgery was one of the treatments that should be evaluated in accordance with its role in the treatment of complicated TB. Method: This study was an evidence-based case report. The database used for the literature search were Cochrane, Medline, Proquest, and ScienceDirect. Keywords for the search were ‘primary pulmonary tuberculosis’, ‘surgery’, ‘lung resection’, and ‘children’. Inclusion criteria were studies in English or Indonesian, with children under 18 years old as subject, and full-text articles available. The assessment was done according to Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine 2011. Results: Six cohort studies were analyzed. Surgery was indicated for patients with complicated TB that were unresponsive towards treatment. It should be noted that the experiments were done before the standard WHO antituberculosis therapy was applied; thus, the result may be different from the current application. Conclusion: Currently, there was no guideline on pulmonary resection. However, surgery yielded better mortality and morbidity in children with complicated pulmonary TB.

Keywords: pediatric, pulmonary, surgery, therapy, tuberculosis

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