Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Johanna Rosier

19 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

Abstract:

Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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18 Modelling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis of Polypyrrole Dual Sensing-Actuators for Precise Position Control

Authors: Johanna Schumacher, Toribio F. Otero, Victor H. Pascual

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Bending dual sensing-actuators based on electroactive polymers are faradaic motors meaning the consumed charge determines the actuator’s tip position. During actuation, consumed charges during oxidation and reduction result in different tip positions showing dynamic hysteresis effects with errors up to 25%. For a precise position control of these actuators, the characterization of the hysteresis effect due to irreversible reactions is crucial. Here, the investigation and modelling of dynamic hysteresis effects of polypyrrole-dodezylbenzenesulfonate (PPyDBS) actuators under ambient working conditions are presented. The hysteresis effect is studied for charge consumption at different frequencies and a rate-dependent hysteresis model is derived. The hysteresis model is implemented as closed loop system and is verified experimentally.

Keywords: dual sensing-actuator, electroactive polymers, hysteresis, position control

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17 Integrating Eye-Tracking Analysis to Enhance Web Usability Evaluation

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Meliana Nurdin, Ignatius Kevin Kurniawan, Ricca Aksara

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It is widely believed that usability evaluation is necessary to evaluate a website design for further improvement. Traditional methods of usability evaluation have given sufficient insights to reveal usability problems of websites. Eye-tracking analysis has been considered as a useful method that adds a powerful dimension to web usability evaluation. It allows web designers and usability researchers to understand exactly what users do and do not see on a web page, thus disclose more information on web usability and provide a more complete insights on a website design. This paper elaborates on moving beyond traditional methods of web usability evaluation by integrating eye-tracking analysis to enhance the evaluation of website design, and presents three case studies to support this approach. In these case studies, eye movement metrics such as gaze plots and fixation-derived metrics, and user performance data such as task completion times and number of errors were recorded as objective measurements that can inform the necessity for website design improvements.

Keywords: design, eye-tracking, usability evaluation, website

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16 Usability Evaluation of a Mobile Application to Enhance the Use of Smartphone, by Visually Impaired Users in Indonesia

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Kamila Okta Saarah

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Smartphone nowadays is widely used by many people all over the world. However, people with vision impairment may experience difficulties that interfere with the proper usage of the smartphone. In Indonesia, the population of visually impaired is about 13 million people (estimated 285 million people worldwide). There are a number of mobile applications developed to enhance the use of smartphone by visually impaired. This paper discusses the usability evaluation of a mobile application, namely Ray Vision, designed to help visually impaired in using smartphone. A series of usability testing with a number of Indonesian visually impaired revealed 28 usability problems in the mobile application that led to 14 design recommendations. The redesigned application was then re-evaluated through another usability testing series. The results showed that all five usability criteria assessed were increased (usefulness by 13%, effectiveness by 27%, efficiency by 27%, satisfaction by 23%, and learnability by 12%). The System Usability Score (SUS) was also increased by 14.92%.

Keywords: mobile application, smartphone, usability evaluation, vision impaired

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15 Evaluation Synthesis of Private Sector Engagement in International Development

Authors: Valerie Habbel, Magdalena Orth, Johanna Richter, Steffen Schimko

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Cooperation between development actors and the private sector is becoming increasingly important, as it is expected to mobilize additional resources to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among other things. However, whether the goals of cooperation are achieved has so far only been explored in evaluations and studies of individual projects and instruments. The evaluation synthesis attempts to close this gap by systematically analyzing existing evidence (evaluations and academic studies) from national and international development cooperation on private sector engagement. Overall, the evaluations and studies considered report mainly positive effects on investors and donors, intermediaries, partner countries, and target groups. However, various analyses, including on the quality of the evaluations, point to a positive bias in the results. The evaluation synthesis makes recommendations on the definition of indicators, the measurement and evaluation of impacts and additionality, knowledge management, and the consideration of transaction costs in cooperation with private actors.

Keywords: evaluation synthesis, private sector engagement, international development, sustainable development

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14 Towards Appreciating Knowing Body in the Future Schools: Developing Methods for School Teachers to Understand the Role of the Body in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Johanna Aromaa

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This paper presents a development project aimed at enhancing student-teachers' awareness of the role of the body in teaching and learning. In this project, theory and practice are brought into dialogue through workshops of body work that utilize art-based and somatic methods. They are carried out in a special course for educating teachers in a Finnish University. Expected results from the project include: 1) the participants become aware of the multiple roles that the body has in educational encounters, and with it, develop a more holistic approach to teaching and learning, 2) the participants gain access to and learn to form bodily knowledge, 3) a working model on enhancing student-teachers' awareness of the role of bodily knowledge in teacher’s work is developed. Innovative methods as well as a radical rethinking of the nature of teaching and learning are needed if we are to appreciate knowing body in the future schools.

Keywords: bodily knowledge, the body, somatic methods, teacher education

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13 Spectral Anomaly Detection and Clustering in Radiological Search

Authors: Thomas L. McCullough, John D. Hague, Marylesa M. Howard, Matthew K. Kiser, Michael A. Mazur, Lance K. McLean, Johanna L. Turk

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Radiological search and mapping depends on the successful recognition of anomalies in large data sets which contain varied and dynamic backgrounds. We present a new algorithmic approach for real-time anomaly detection which is resistant to common detector imperfections, avoids the limitations of a source template library and provides immediate, and easily interpretable, user feedback. This algorithm is based on a continuous wavelet transform for variance reduction and evaluates the deviation between a foreground measurement and a local background expectation using methods from linear algebra. We also present a technique for recognizing and visualizing spectrally similar clusters of data. This technique uses Laplacian Eigenmap Manifold Learning to perform dimensional reduction which preserves the geometric "closeness" of the data while maintaining sensitivity to outlying data. We illustrate the utility of both techniques on real-world data sets.

Keywords: radiological search, radiological mapping, radioactivity, radiation protection

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12 Home Owner Focused Investment Analysis Tool for Energy Refurbishment

Authors: Jonas Hinker, Lisa Zumholz, Johanna M. A. Myrzik

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Despite strong efforts by the German government to make a transition to higher quality level of building stocks, the rate of renovation continues to remain below the proclaimed level of 2%. As the mandatory standards for residential retrofits are well-balanced in such a way that strict adherence to them guarantees profit from the investment, it becomes difficult to explain the reasons why there are so many people hesitant with their investments. Risks and transaction costs can be understood as socio-technical boundaries and have to be taken into consideration to be able to understand why a worthwhile investment is postponed or rejected. This paper therefore presents a method for investment analyses that is focused on such socio-technical constraints, which helps to reveal the strongest misconceptions of home owners. By depicting sensitivities and risk factors in an integrated and impartial way, such a tool can be utilized by home owners to address reservations and misunderstandings. In the end, this leads to an exploitation of smaller energy efficiency measures that makes up a big demand reduction in the residential sector altogether.

Keywords: energy refurbishment, investment analysis, residential buildings, risk-aware investment strategy

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11 Modelling Operational Risk Using Extreme Value Theory and Skew t-Copulas via Bayesian Inference

Authors: Betty Johanna Garzon Rozo, Jonathan Crook, Fernando Moreira

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Operational risk losses are heavy tailed and are likely to be asymmetric and extremely dependent among business lines/event types. We propose a new methodology to assess, in a multivariate way, the asymmetry and extreme dependence between severity distributions, and to calculate the capital for Operational Risk. This methodology simultaneously uses (i) several parametric distributions and an alternative mix distribution (the Lognormal for the body of losses and the Generalized Pareto Distribution for the tail) via extreme value theory using SAS®, (ii) the multivariate skew t-copula applied for the first time for operational losses and (iii) Bayesian theory to estimate new n-dimensional skew t-copula models via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. This paper analyses a newly operational loss data set, SAS Global Operational Risk Data [SAS OpRisk], to model operational risk at international financial institutions. All the severity models are constructed in SAS® 9.2. We implement the procedure PROC SEVERITY and PROC NLMIXED. This paper focuses in describing this implementation.

Keywords: operational risk, loss distribution approach, extreme value theory, copulas

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10 Optimal Health and Older Adults: The Existential Health Dimension as a Health-Promoting Potential

Authors: Jessica Hemberg, Anna K. Forsman, Johanna Nordmyr

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With a considerable increase in the aging population in the Nordic countries there is a call for a deeper understanding of healthy aging and its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this study is to uncover health and well-being for older adults according to their own views and understand what role the existential dimension play? The study uses a hermeneutical approach. Material was collected through focus group interviews with 18 older adults. The texts were interpreted through hermeneutical reading. The underlying mechanisms of health among older adults are described, illustrating the key prerequisites for health as being in the present. This implies ‘living on the continuums of life and death’ and in this field of forces also ‘living on the continuum of the past and the future’. Important aspects for being in the present was balancing ambivalent emotions, considering existential issues, and being in connectedness. Health for older adults may be understood in the light of the metaphor of taking it one day at a time. Being in the present was emphasized as a health potential for older adults highlighting the existential health dimension. From a societal point of view, this implies that health promotion should focus on highlighting the importance of the existential dimension of health since it holds health-promoting potentials for older adults. Optimal health for older adults requires awareness of one’s attitude to life through being in the present as a basis for a positive and healthy outlook on life.

Keywords: focus group interviews, hermeneutics, life experiences, older adults

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9 Application of Acid Base Accounting to Predict Post-Mining Drainage Quality in Coalfields of the Main Karoo Basin and Selected Sub-Basins, South Africa

Authors: Lindani Ncube, Baojin Zhao, Ken Liu, Helen Johanna Van Niekerk

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Acid Base Accounting (ABA) is a tool used to assess the total amount of acidity or alkalinity contained in a specific rock sample, and is based on the total S concentration and the carbonate content of a sample. A preliminary ABA test was conducted on 14 sandstone and 5 coal samples taken from coalfields representing the Main Karoo Basin (Highveld, Vryheid and Molteno/Indwe Coalfields) and the Sub-basins (Witbank and Waterberg Coalfields). The results indicate that sandstone and coal from the Main Karoo Basin have the potential of generating Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as they contain sufficient pyrite to generate acid, with the final pH of samples relatively low upon complete oxidation of pyrite. Sandstone from collieries representing the Main Karoo Basin are characterised by elevated contents of reactive S%. All the studied samples were characterised by an Acid Potential (AP) that is less than the Neutralizing Potential (NP) except for two samples. The results further indicate that the sandstone from the Main Karoo Basin is prone to acid generation as compared to the sandstone from the Sub-basins. However, the coal has a relatively low potential of generating any acid. The application of ABA in this study contributes to an understanding of the complexities governing water-rock interactions. In general, the coalfields from the Main Karoo Basin have much higher potential to produce AMD during mining processes than the coalfields in the Sub-basins.

Keywords: Main Karoo Basin, sub-basin, coal, sandstone, acid base accounting (ABA)

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8 A Literature Review about Responsible Third Cycle Supervision

Authors: Johanna Lundqvist

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Third cycle supervision is a multifaceted and complex task for supervisors in higher education. It progresses over several years and is affected by several proximal and distal factors. It can result in positive learning outcomes for doctoral students and high-quality publications. However, not all doctoral students thrive during their doctoral studies; nor do they all complete their studies. This is problematic for both the individuals themselves as well as society at large: doctoral students are valuable and important in current research, future research and higher education. The aim of this literature review is to elucidate what responsible third cycle supervision can include and be in practice. The question posed is as follows: according to recent literature, what is it that characterises responsible third cycle supervision in which doctoral students can thrive and develop their research knowledge and skills? A literature review was conducted, and the data gathered from the literature regarding responsible third cycle supervision was analysed by means of a thematic analysis. The analysis was inspired by the notion of responsible inclusion outlined by David Mitchell. In this study, the term literature refers to research articles and regulations. The results (preliminary) show that responsible third cycle supervision is associated with a number of interplaying factors (themes). These are as follows: committed supervisors and doctoral students; a clear vision and research problem; an individual study plan; adequate resources; interaction processes and constructive feedback; creativity; cultural awareness; respect and research ethics; systematic quality work and improvement efforts; focus on overall third cycle learning goals; and focus on research presentations and publications. Thus, responsible third cycle supervision can occur if these factors are realized in practice. This literature review is of relevance to evaluators, researchers, and management in higher education, as well as third cycle supervisors.

Keywords: doctoral student, higher education, third cycle supervisors, third cycle programmes

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7 Borrower Discouragement in Spain: An Empirical Analysis Using a Survey Data Set

Authors: Ginés Hernández-Cánovas, Mª Camino Ramón-Llorens, Johanna Koëter-Kant

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This paper uses a survey data-set of 837 Spanish SMEs to analyze the association between borrower discouragement and prior firm´s strategic decisions, while controlling for firm and owner characteristics. While existing literature has neglected factors limiting the demand for resources by an overreliance on arguments which attempt to explain the existence of discouraged borrowers solely in terms of lack of access to supply of credit. The objective of this paper is to show that factors limiting the demand for resources and, therefore, reducing the availability of funds, can be traced back to the firm manager´s decision. Our hypothesis is that managers that undertake strategic decisions seeking growth or improvement in their business performance participate more in the banking market than those showing contentment with their current business situation. Our results shows that SMEs that undertake an active role in research and development activities and that achieve improvements in the operating performance of their business are less likely to be discouraged from applying for a loan. Who needs credit and who applies for credit is important for firms, prospective lenders and policymakers interested in the financial health of these firms. Credit constrained firms are less likely to invest in R&D and to introduce new products, possibly harming long-term economic growth. Knowing how important borrower discouragement is in Europe, is important for judging the priority which should be attached to government policies aimed at reducing its effects. For example, policy makers could encourage the transparency about credit eligibility and conditions in order to reduce discouragement.

Keywords: discouragement, financial constraints, SMEs financing

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6 NMR-Based Metabolomic Study of Antimalarial Plant Species Used Traditionally by Vha-Venda People in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Johanna Bapela, Heino Heyman, Marion Meyer

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Regardless of the significant advances accomplished in reducing the burden of malaria and other tropical diseases in recent years, malaria remains a major cause of mortality in endemic countries. This is especially the case in sub-Saharan Africa where 99% of the estimated global malaria deaths occurs on an annual basis. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium species and the lack of diversified chemotherapeutic agents provide the rationale for bioprospecting for antiplasmodial scaffolds. Crude extracts from twenty indigenous antimalarial plant species were screened for antimalarial activity and then subjected to 1H NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Ten plant extracts exhibited significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 ≤ 5 µg/ml). The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the acquired 1H NMR spectra could not separate the analyzed plant extracts according to the detected antiplasmodial bioactivity. Application of supervised Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to the 1H NMR profiles resulted in a discrimination pattern that could be correlated to bioactivity. A contribution plot generated from the OPLS-DA scoring plot illustrated the classes of compounds responsible for the observed grouping. Given the preliminary in vitro results, Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf. (Apocynaceae) and Vangueria infausta Burch. subsp. infausta (Rubiaceae) were subjected to further phytochemical investigations. Two indole alkaloids, dregamine and tabernaemontanine possessing antiplasmodial activity were isolated from T. elegans. Two compounds were isolated from V. infausta subsp. infausta and identified as friedelin (IC50 = 3.01 µg/ml) and morindolide (IC50 = 18.5 µg/ml). While these compounds have been previously identified, this is the first account of their occurrence in the genus Vangueria and their antiplasmodial activity. Based on the results of the study, metabolomics can be used to globally identify classes of plant secondary metabolites that are responsible for antiplasmodial activity.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, Malaria, medicinal plants, metabolomics

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5 Lived Experiences of Parents in Disciplining Their Children

Authors: Bernardino Vinoya, Cassandra D. Batton, Samantha Gayle M. Bonavente, Johnson O. Canoza, Lhea Flynn B. Capones, Camille S. Dispo, Johanna Neilvin T. Dontogan, Louise Angelica C. Lipana, Charlene Pearl P. Navalta, Rechelle Vhen W. Payo-os, Mary Reyna D. Ridao, Rushnol Jade P. Tupac, Pauline B. Sol

Abstract:

Parenting is preparing children for life as productive adults and discipline strategies are needed to achieve it like non-aggressive, psychologically aggressive and physical discipline. The effects of disciplinary strategies on children are well explored as evidenced by existing studies, local and international laws and active international organizations which are all brimmed towards child protection but status quo shows a profound scarcity of studies engaged in the effects of disciplining the child on the parent. To know the deeper unexplored reasons and untold stories of the parent, mainly the lived experiences of parents in disciplining their children. Design is descriptive phenomelogical. Participants were chosen using snowball purposive sampling. Data were collected through interview with the general question, “Ano ang mga karanasan ninyo sa pagdidisiplina ng inyong anak (What are your experiences when disciplining your child?)”, followed with unstructured questions. Collaizi method was used in analyzing data. Data collected was verified through focused group discussion. Results show three main themes: Reason, Disciplinary Strategy, and Aftermath. The use of disciplinary strategy is influenced by the experiences of the parent, the triggers like the child’s misbehavior and parental desires or wishes for the child. Disciplinary strategy can either be physical punishment or verbal. Parent’s generally used both when children disrespects or disobeys. Parents also experience both positive and negative effects on their physical, social, emotional aspects after disciplining their children. As a result, parents use coping mechanisms to maintain ego stability. Disciplining a child is a cyclical process. Parents, just like the child will also experience both positive and negative outcomes after using different disciplinary strategies. Future researchers can replicate study or use triangulation in multi-site qualitative and quantitative studies, professors can teach findings on parents in the concepts of pediatric nursing and apply the findings in the clinical area particularly when dealing with families.

Keywords: parents, disciplinary strategy, parental effects, pediatric nursing

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4 Young Adults’ Media Addiction Coping Strategies: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Johanna Lindstrom, Jacob Mickelsson

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Changes in the current media environment are transforming peoples’ everyday media consumption patterns all over the world. Digital media have become a natural, almost unavoidable, part of everyday lives of humans. While this has led to many positive consequences, there is also a growing concern for harmful effects. This paper contributes to knowledge about “the dark side” of media use by considering the topic of media addiction and subsequent coping strategies among young adults. The paper draws on a longitudinal media diary study conducted among young university students between the years 2013 and 2021. A total of 1029 diaries have been collected (approximately 100 each year), aiming at capturing the students’ everyday media behavior. In this paper, reflective narratives in the diaries have been analyzed, aiming at answering the following questions: Which of their own media behaviors do the students perceive as particularly destructive, addictive or problematic? How do they cope with such behaviors? Results from the study indicate a noticeable increase in reflections on addictive media behavior over the years. For example, compared to earlier years, the amount of such reflections significantly started to increase in the diaries in 2016 and 2017, and this trend has continued ever since. Furthermore, the nature of these reflections has changed, displaying a growing concern for one’s own excessive media use and general wellbeing. Media addiction seems particularly difficult to cope with as digital media is literally everywhere and media use in general is described as consistent and habitual, in terms of regularly repeated routines that are fragmented but performed continuously and often unintentionally throughout the day. Reflections on “the dark side” of everyday media consumption become particularly prominent in times of the Covid -19 pandemic. However, this trend was noticeable well before the pandemic started. The study also identifies a countertrend regarding reflections on how to deal and cope with problematic media behavioral patterns. This countertrend portrays a general development of increased awareness of factors that may trigger compulsive behavior and how to avoid or handle such trigger points. The countertrend is particularly evident in recent years, despite the ongoing pandemic and subsequent increases in time spent using media. Addictive media behavior may lead to severe consequences for students’ learning processes and general well-being. Increased awareness of this growing trend and coping strategies are needed on an individual as well as a broader educational level.

Keywords: coping strategies, media addiction, media behavior, well-being

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3 Peers' Alterity in Inverted Inclusion: A Case Study

Authors: Johanna Sagner, María José Sandoval

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At the early stages of adolescence, young people, regardless of a disability or not, start to establish closer friendship ties. Unlike previous developmental phases, these ties are rather reciprocal, more committed, and require more time. Friendship ties during adolescence allow the development of social and personal skills, specifically the skills to start constructing identity. In an inclusive context that incorporates young people with a disability, friendship among peers also takes place. Nonetheless, the relation is shaped, among others, by the alterity construction about the other with disability. Research about peers’ relation between young people with and without disability in an inclusive context has shown that the relation tends to become a helper-helpee relation, where those with a disability are seen as people in need. Prejudices about the others’ condition or distancing from the other because of his/hers disability are common. In this sense, the helper-helpee relation, as a non-reciprocal and protective relation, will not promote friendship between classmates, but a rather asymmetric alterity. Our research is an explorative case study that wants to know how the relation between peers is shaped within a different inclusive program, were also the integrated group has special educational needs. Therefore, we analyze from a qualitative and quantitative approach the data of an inverted inclusive program. This is a unique case of a special public school for visual disability in Germany that includes young people from a mainstream school who had learning difficulties. For the research, we analyze data from interviews, focal interviews and open-ended questions with an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. The questionnaires include a five point Likert scale, for which we calculate the acceptance rate. The findings show that the alterity relation between pupils is less asymmetrical and represents a rather horizontal alterity. The helper-helpee relation is marked by exchange, since both groups have special educational needs and therefore, those with visual disability and those with learning difficulties help each other indistinctly. Friendship is more present among classmates. The horizontal alterity peers’ relation is influenced by a sort of tie, where none of the groups need more or less help than other groups. Both groups identify that they themselves and the other have special needs. The axiological axe of alterity is not of superiority or inferiority, recognizing each other’s differences and otherness. Another influential factor relates with the amount of time they spend together, since the program does not have a resource room or a teacher who teaches parallel lessons. Two probable causes for that rather equal peer relation might be the constellation of fewer pupils per classroom and the differentiated lessons taught by teachers with a special educational formation.

Keywords: alterity, disability, inverted inclusion, peers’ relation

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2 Towards Sustainable Evolution of Bioeconomy: The Role of Technology and Innovation Management

Authors: Ronald Orth, Johanna Haunschild, Sara Tsog

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The bioeconomy is an inter- and cross-disciplinary field covering a large number and wide scope of existing and emerging technologies. It has a great potential to contribute to the transformation process of industry landscape and ultimately drive the economy towards sustainability. However, bioeconomy per se is not necessarily sustainable and technology should be seen as an enabler rather than panacea to all our ecological, social and economic issues. Therefore, to draw and maximize benefits from bioeconomy in terms of sustainability, we propose that innovative activities should encompass not only novel technologies and bio-based new materials but also multifocal innovations. For multifocal innovation endeavors, innovation management plays a substantial role, as any innovation emerges in a complex iterative process where communication and knowledge exchange among relevant stake holders has a pivotal role. The knowledge generation and innovation are although at the core of transition towards a more sustainable bio-based economy, to date, there is a significant lack of concepts and models that approach bioeconomy from the innovation management approach. The aim of this paper is therefore two-fold. First, it inspects the role of transformative approach in the adaptation of bioeconomy that contributes to the environmental, ecological, social and economic sustainability. Second, it elaborates the importance of technology and innovation management as a tool for smooth, prompt and effective transition of firms to the bioeconomy. We conduct a qualitative literature study on the sustainability challenges that bioeconomy entails thus far using Science Citation Index and based on grey literature, as major economies e.g. EU, USA, China and Brazil have pledged to adopt bioeconomy and have released extensive publications on the topic. We will draw an example on the forest based business sector that is transforming towards the new green economy more rapidly as expected, although this sector has a long-established conventional business culture with consolidated and fully fledged industry. Based on our analysis we found that a successful transition to sustainable bioeconomy is conditioned on heterogenous and contested factors in terms of stakeholders , activities and modes of innovation. In addition, multifocal innovations occur when actors from interdisciplinary fields engage in intensive and continuous interaction where the focus of innovation is allocated to a field of mutually evolving socio-technical practices that correspond to the aims of the novel paradigm of transformative innovation policy. By adopting an integrated and systems approach as well as tapping into various innovation networks and joining global innovation clusters, firms have better chance of creating an entire new chain of value added products and services. This requires professionals that have certain capabilities and skills such as: foresight for future markets, ability to deal with complex issues, ability to guide responsible R&D, ability of strategic decision making, manage in-depth innovation systems analysis including value chain analysis. Policy makers, on the other hand, need to acknowledge the essential role of firms in the transformative innovation policy paradigm.

Keywords: bioeconomy, innovation and technology management, multifocal innovation, sustainability, transformative innovation policy

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1 Design of Evaluation for Ehealth Intervention: A Participatory Study in Italy, Israel, Spain and Sweden

Authors: Monika Jurkeviciute, Amia Enam, Johanna Torres Bonilla, Henrik Eriksson

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Introduction: Many evaluations of eHealth interventions conclude that the evidence for improved clinical outcomes is limited, especially when the intervention is short, such as one year. Often, evaluation design does not address the feasibility of achieving clinical outcomes. Evaluations are designed to reflect upon clinical goals of intervention without utilizing the opportunity to illuminate effects on organizations and cost. A comprehensive design of evaluation can better support decision-making regarding the effectiveness and potential transferability of eHealth. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present a feasible and comprehensive design of evaluation for eHealth intervention, including the design process in different contexts. Methodology: The situation of limited feasibility of clinical outcomes was foreseen in the European Union funded project called “DECI” (“Digital Environment for Cognitive Inclusion”) that is run under the “Horizon 2020” program with an aim to define and test a digital environment platform within corresponding care models that help elderly people live independently. A complex intervention of eHealth implementation into elaborate care models in four different countries was planned for one year. To design the evaluation, a participative approach was undertaken using Pettigrew’s lens of change and transformations, including context, process, and content. Through a series of workshops, observations, interviews, and document analysis, as well as a review of scientific literature, a comprehensive design of evaluation was created. Findings: The findings indicate that in order to get evidence on clinical outcomes, eHealth interventions should last longer than one year. The content of the comprehensive evaluation design includes a collection of qualitative and quantitative methods for data gathering which illuminates non-medical aspects. Furthermore, it contains communication arrangements to discuss the results and continuously improve the evaluation design, as well as procedures for monitoring and improving the data collection during the intervention. The process of the comprehensive evaluation design consists of four stages: (1) analysis of a current state in different contexts, including measurement systems, expectations and profiles of stakeholders, organizational ambitions to change due to eHealth integration, and the organizational capacity to collect data for evaluation; (2) workshop with project partners to discuss the as-is situation in relation to the project goals; (3) development of general and customized sets of relevant performance measures, questionnaires and interview questions; (4) setting up procedures and monitoring systems for the interventions. Lastly, strategies are presented on how challenges can be handled during the design process of evaluation in four different countries. The evaluation design needs to consider contextual factors such as project limitations, and differences between pilot sites in terms of eHealth solutions, patient groups, care models, national and organizational cultures and settings. This implies a need for the flexible approach to evaluation design to enable judgment over the effectiveness and potential for adoption and transferability of eHealth. In summary, this paper provides learning opportunities for future evaluation designs of eHealth interventions in different national and organizational settings.

Keywords: ehealth, elderly, evaluation, intervention, multi-cultural

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