Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5114

Search results for: sampling frequency

5114 Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV

Authors: Manjit Singh


Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.

Keywords: ECG (electrocardiogram), heart rate variability (HRV), multiscale entropy, sampling frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
5113 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Authors: Khattab Al Qaisi, Nicholas Bowring


This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: DSI, SVPWM, THD, DC-AC converter, sampling frequency, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
5112 Efficient Alias-Free Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks


This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide alias-free high-fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals without exponentially increasing sample number with increasing bit-depth. We introduce methods in LC sampling that reduce the sampling rate close to the Nyquist frequency even for large bit-depth. The results indicate that larger variation in the sampling intervals leads to an alias-free sampling scheme; this is achieved by either reducing the bit-depth or adding jitter to the system for high bit-depths. In conjunction with windowing, the signal is reconstructed from the LC samples using an efficient Toeplitz reconstruction algorithm.

Keywords: alias-free, level crossing sampling, spectrum, trigonometric polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5111 A Comparative Study on Sampling Techniques of Polynomial Regression Model Based Stochastic Free Vibration of Composite Plates

Authors: S. Dey, T. Mukhopadhyay, S. Adhikari


This paper presents an exhaustive comparative investigation on sampling techniques of polynomial regression model based stochastic natural frequency of composite plates. Both individual and combined variations of input parameters are considered to map the computational time and accuracy of each modelling techniques. The finite element formulation of composites is capable to deal with both correlated and uncorrelated random input variables such as fibre parameters and material properties. The results obtained by Polynomial regression (PR) using different sampling techniques are compared. Depending on the suitability of sampling techniques such as 2k Factorial designs, Central composite design, A-Optimal design, I-Optimal, D-Optimal, Taguchi’s orthogonal array design, Box-Behnken design, Latin hypercube sampling, sobol sequence are illustrated. Statistical analysis of the first three natural frequencies is presented to compare the results and its performance.

Keywords: composite plate, natural frequency, polynomial regression model, sampling technique, uncertainty quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5110 Customers' Perception towards the Service Marketing Mix and Frequency of Use of Mercedes Benz Automobile Service, Thailand

Authors: Pranee Tridhoskul


This research paper is aimed to examine a relationship between the service marketing mix and customers’ frequency of use of service at Mercedes Benz Auto Repair Centres under Thonburi Group, Thailand. Based on 2,267 customers who used the service of Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres as the population, the sampling of this research was a total of 340 samples, by use of Probability Sampling Technique. Systematic Random Sampling was applied by use of questionnaire in collecting the data at Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres. Mean and Pearson’s basic statistical correlations were utilized in analyzing the data. The study discovered a medium level of customers’ perception towards product and service of Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres, price, place or distribution channel and promotion. People who provided service were perceived also at a medium level, whereas the physical evidence and service process were perceived at a high level. Furthermore, there appeared a correlation between the physical evidence and service process, and customers’ frequency of use of automobile service per year.

Keywords: service marketing mix, behavior, Mercedes Auto Service Centre, frequency of use

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
5109 Estimating The Population Mean by Using Stratified Double Extreme Ranked Set Sample

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam, Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, Amer I. Al-Omari


Stratified double extreme ranked set sampling (SDERSS) method is introduced and considered for estimating the population mean. The SDERSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS) and stratified simple set sampling (SSRS). It is shown that the SDERSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than the estimators using SRS, SRSS and SSRS when the underlying distribution of the variable of interest is symmetric or asymmetric.

Keywords: double extreme ranked set sampling, extreme ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling, stratified double extreme ranked set sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
5108 Analysis of Pollution Caused by the Animal Feed Industry and the Fertilizer Industry Using Rock Magnetic Method

Authors: Kharina Budiman, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine


Industrial activities get increase in this globalization era, one of the major impacts of industrial activities is a problem to the environment. This can happen because at the industrial production term will bring out pollutant in the shape of solid, liquid or gas. Normally this pollutant came from some dangerous materials for environment. However not every industry produces the same amount of pollutant, every industry produces different kind of pollution. To compare the pollution impact of industrial activities, soil sample has been taken around the animal feed industry and the fertilizer industry. This study applied the rock magnetic method and used Bartington MS2B to measured magnetic susceptibility (χ) as the physical parameter. This study tested soil samples using the value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) and Frequency Dependent (χ FD). Samples only taken in the soil surface with 0-5 cm depth and sampling interval was 20 cm. The animal feed factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 111,9 – 325,7 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 0,8 – 3,57 %. And the fertilizer factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 187,1 – 494,8 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 1,37 – 2,46 %. Based on the results, the highest value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) is the fertilizer factory, but the highest value of Frequency Dependent (FD) is the animal feed factory.

Keywords: industrial, pollution, magnetic susceptibility, χlf, χfd, animal feed industry and fertilizer industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5107 Bayesian Approach for Moving Extremes Ranked Set Sampling

Authors: Said Ali Al-Hadhrami, Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari


In this paper, Bayesian estimation for the mean of exponential distribution is considered using Moving Extremes Ranked Set Sampling (MERSS). Three priors are used; Jeffery, conjugate and constant using MERSS and Simple Random Sampling (SRS). Some properties of the proposed estimators are investigated. It is found that the suggested estimators using MERSS are more efficient than its counterparts based on SRS.

Keywords: Bayesian, efficiency, moving extreme ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
5106 Design of Bayesian MDS Sampling Plan Based on the Process Capability Index

Authors: Davood Shishebori, Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad, Sina Seifi


In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of the developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated and average sample numbers of the developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between the developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.

Keywords: MDS sampling plan, RGS plan, sampling plan for resubmitted lots, process capability index (PCI), average sample number (ASN), Bayesian approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
5105 Methods of Variance Estimation in Two-Phase Sampling

Authors: Raghunath Arnab


The two-phase sampling which is also known as double sampling was introduced in 1938. In two-phase sampling, samples are selected in phases. In the first phase, a relatively large sample of size is selected by some suitable sampling design and only information on the auxiliary variable is collected. During the second phase, a sample of size is selected either from, the sample selected in the first phase or from the entire population by using a suitable sampling design and information regarding the study and auxiliary variable is collected. Evidently, two phase sampling is useful if the auxiliary information is relatively easy and cheaper to collect than the study variable as well as if the strength of the relationship between the variables and is high. If the sample is selected in more than two phases, the resulting sampling design is called a multi-phase sampling. In this article we will consider how one can use data collected at the first phase sampling at the stages of estimation of the parameter, stratification, selection of sample and their combinations in the second phase in a unified setup applicable to any sampling design and wider classes of estimators. The problem of the estimation of variance will also be considered. The variance of estimator is essential for estimating precision of the survey estimates, calculation of confidence intervals, determination of the optimal sample sizes and for testing of hypotheses amongst others. Although, the variance is a non-negative quantity but its estimators may not be non-negative. If the estimator of variance is negative, then it cannot be used for estimation of confidence intervals, testing of hypothesis or measure of sampling error. The non-negativity properties of the variance estimators will also be studied in details.

Keywords: auxiliary information, two-phase sampling, varying probability sampling, unbiased estimators

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
5104 Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam


Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.

Keywords: efficiency, double ranked set sampling, median ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling, stratified

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
5103 Visitors’ Attitude towards the Service Marketing Mix and Frequency of Visits to Bangpu Recreation Centre, Thailand

Authors: Siri-Orn Champatong


This research paper was aimed to examine the relationship between visitors’ attitude towards the service marketing mix and visitors’ frequency of visit to Bangpu Recreation Centre. Based on a large and uncalculated population, the number of samples was calculated according to the formula to obtain a total of 385 samples. In collecting the samples, systematic random sampling was applied and by using of a Likert five-scale questionnaire for, a total of 21 days to collect the needed information. Mean, Standard Deviation, and Pearson’s basic statistical correlations were utilized in analyzing the data. This study discovered a high level of visitors’ attitude product and service of Bangpu Recreation Centre, price, place, promotional activities, people who provided service and physical evidence of the centre. The attitude towards process of service was discovered to be at a medium level. Additionally, the finding of an examination of a relationship between visitors’ attitude towards service marketing mix and visitors’ frequency of visit to Bangpu Recreation Centre presented that product and service, people, physical evidence and process of service provision showed a relationship with the visitors’ frequency of visit to the centre per year.

Keywords: frequency of visit, visitor, service marketing mix, Bangpu Recreation Centre

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
5102 Comparison of Frequency-Domain Contention Schemes in Wireless LANs

Authors: Li Feng


In IEEE 802.11 networks, it is well known that the traditional time-domain contention often leads to low channel utilization. The first frequency-domain contention scheme, the time to frequency (T2F), has recently been proposed to improve the channel utilization and has attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, we survey the latest research progress on the weighed frequency-domain contention. We present the basic ideas, work principles of these related schemes and point out their differences. This paper is very useful for further study on frequency-domain contention.

Keywords: 802.11, wireless LANs, frequency-domain contention, T2F

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
5101 Different Sampling Schemes for Semi-Parametric Frailty Model

Authors: Nursel Koyuncu, Nihal Ata Tutkun


Frailty model is a survival model that takes into account the unobserved heterogeneity for exploring the relationship between the survival of an individual and several covariates. In the recent years, proposed survival models become more complex and this feature causes convergence problems especially in large data sets. Therefore selection of sample from these big data sets is very important for estimation of parameters. In sampling literature, some authors have defined new sampling schemes to predict the parameters correctly. For this aim, we try to see the effect of sampling design in semi-parametric frailty model. We conducted a simulation study in R programme to estimate the parameters of semi-parametric frailty model for different sample sizes, censoring rates under classical simple random sampling and ranked set sampling schemes. In the simulation study, we used data set recording 17260 male Civil Servants aged 40–64 years with complete 10-year follow-up as population. Time to death from coronary heart disease is treated as a survival-time and age, systolic blood pressure are used as covariates. We select the 1000 samples from population using different sampling schemes and estimate the parameters. From the simulation study, we concluded that ranked set sampling design performs better than simple random sampling for each scenario.

Keywords: frailty model, ranked set sampling, efficiency, simple random sampling

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5100 Some Generalized Multivariate Estimators for Population Mean under Multi Phase Stratified Systematic Sampling

Authors: Muqaddas Javed, Muhammad Hanif


The generalized multivariate ratio and regression type estimators for population mean are suggested under multi-phase stratified systematic sampling (MPSSS) using multi auxiliary information. Estimators are developed under the two different situations of availability of auxiliary information. The expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) are developed. Special cases of suggested estimators are also discussed and simulation study is conducted to observe the performance of estimators.

Keywords: generalized estimators, multi-phase sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 545
5099 A Comparison between Empirical and Theoretical OC Curves Related to Acceptance Sampling for Attributes

Authors: Encarnacion Alvarez, Noemı Hidalgo-Rebollo, Juan F. Munoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda


Many companies use the technique named as acceptance sampling which consists on the inspection and decision making regarding products. According to the results derived from this method, the company takes the decision of acceptance or rejection of a product. The acceptance sampling can be applied to the technology management, since the acceptance sampling can be seen as a tool to improve the design planning, operation and control of technological products. The theoretical operating characteristic (OC) curves are widely used when dealing with acceptance sampling. In this paper, we carry out Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare numerically the empirical OC curves derived from the empirical results to the customary theoretical OC curves. We analyze various possible scenarios in such a way that the differences between the empirical and theoretical curves can be observed under different situations.

Keywords: single-sampling plan, lot, Monte Carlo simulation, quality control

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5098 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha


This paper presents the effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e. absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and it is very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.

Keywords: acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, interference of waves, operating pressure, optimal operating frequency, stack performance, standing wave, thermoacoustic refrigerator

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
5097 Sampling Effects on Secondary Voltage Control of Microgrids Based on Network of Multiagent

Authors: M. J. Park, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, O. M. Kwon


This paper studies a secondary voltage control framework of the microgrids based on the consensus for a communication network of multiagent. The proposed control is designed by the communication network with one-way links. The communication network is modeled by a directed graph. At this time, the concept of sampling is considered as the communication constraint among each distributed generator in the microgrids. To analyze the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids, by using Lyapunov theory and some mathematical techniques, the sufficient condition for such problem will be established regarding linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the necessity of the consideration of the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids.

Keywords: microgrids, secondary control, multiagent, sampling, LMI

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
5096 The Variable Sampling Interval Xbar Chart versus the Double Sampling Xbar Chart

Authors: Michael B. C. Khoo, J. L. Khoo, W. C. Yeong, W. L. Teoh


The Shewhart Xbar control chart is a useful process monitoring tool in manufacturing industries to detect the presence of assignable causes. However, it is insensitive in detecting small process shifts. To circumvent this problem, adaptive control charts are suggested. An adaptive chart enables at least one of the chart’s parameters to be adjusted to increase the chart’s sensitivity. Two common adaptive charts that exist in the literature are the double sampling (DS) Xbar and variable sampling interval (VSI) Xbar charts. This paper compares the performances of the DS and VSI Xbar charts, based on the average time to signal (ATS) criterion. The ATS profiles of the DS Xbar and VSI Xbar charts are obtained using the Mathematica and Statistical Analysis System (SAS) programs, respectively. The results show that the VSI Xbar chart is generally superior to the DS Xbar chart.

Keywords: adaptive charts, average time to signal, double sampling, charts, variable sampling interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
5095 Nowcasting Indonesian Economy

Authors: Ferry Kurniawan


In this paper, we nowcast quarterly output growth in Indonesia by exploiting higher frequency data (monthly indicators) using a mixed-frequency factor model and exploiting both quarterly and monthly data. Nowcasting quarterly GDP in Indonesia is particularly relevant for the central bank of Indonesia which set the policy rate in the monthly Board of Governors Meeting; whereby one of the important step is the assessment of the current state of the economy. Thus, having an accurate and up-to-date quarterly GDP nowcast every time new monthly information becomes available would clearly be of interest for central bank of Indonesia, for example, as the initial assessment of the current state of the economy -including nowcast- will be used as input for longer term forecast. We consider a small scale mixed-frequency factor model to produce nowcasts. In particular, we specify variables as year-on-year growth rates thus the relation between quarterly and monthly data is expressed in year-on-year growth rates. To assess the performance of the model, we compare the nowcasts with two other approaches: autoregressive model –which is often difficult when forecasting output growth- and Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS) regression. In particular, both mixed frequency factor model and MIDAS nowcasts are produced by exploiting the same set of monthly indicators. Hence, we compare the nowcasts performance of the two approaches directly. To preview the results, we find that by exploiting monthly indicators using mixed-frequency factor model and MIDAS regression we improve the nowcast accuracy over a benchmark simple autoregressive model that uses only quarterly frequency data. However, it is not clear whether the MIDAS or mixed-frequency factor model is better. Neither set of nowcasts encompasses the other; suggesting that both nowcasts are valuable in nowcasting GDP but neither is sufficient. By combining the two individual nowcasts, we find that the nowcast combination not only increases the accuracy - relative to individual nowcasts- but also lowers the risk of the worst performance of the individual nowcasts.

Keywords: nowcasting, mixed-frequency data, factor model, nowcasts combination

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
5094 Feature Location Restoration for Under-Sampled Photoplethysmogram Using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hangsik Shin


The purpose of this research is to restore the feature location of under-sampled photoplethysmogram using spline interpolation and to investigate feasibility for feature shape restoration. We obtained 10 kHz-sampled photoplethysmogram and decimated it to generate under-sampled dataset. Decimated dataset has 5 kHz, 2.5 k Hz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 25 Hz and 10 Hz sampling frequency. To investigate the restoration performance, we interpolated under-sampled signals with 10 kHz, then compared feature locations with feature locations of 10 kHz sampled photoplethysmogram. Features were upper and lower peak of photplethysmography waveform. Result showed that time differences were dramatically decreased by interpolation. Location error was lesser than 1 ms in both feature types. In 10 Hz sampled cases, location error was also deceased a lot, however, they were still over 10 ms.

Keywords: peak detection, photoplethysmography, sampling, signal reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5093 Determining Efficiency of Frequency Control System of Karkheh Power Plant in Main Network

Authors: Ferydon Salehifar, Hassan Safarikia, Hossein Boromandfar


Karkheh plant in Iran's Khuzestan province and is located in the city Andimeshk. The plant has a production capacity of 400 MW units with water and three hours. One of the important parameters of each country's power grid stability is the stability of the power grid is affected by the voltage and frequency In plants, the amount of active power frequency control is done so that when the unit is placed in the frequency control their productivity is a function of frequency and output power varies with frequency. Produced by hydroelectric power plants with the water level behind the dam has a direct relationship And to decrease and increase the water level behind the dam in order to reduce the power output increases But these changes have a different interval is due to some mechanical problems such as turbine cavitation and vibration are limited. In this study, the range of the frequency control can be Karkheh manufacturing plants have been identified and their effectiveness has been determined.

Keywords: Karkheh power, frequency control system, active power, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
5092 Frequency Domain Decomposition, Stochastic Subspace Identification and Continuous Wavelet Transform for Operational Modal Analysis of Three Story Steel Frame

Authors: Ardalan Sabamehr, Ashutosh Bagchi


Recently, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on the vibration of structures has attracted the attention of researchers in different fields such as: civil, aeronautical and mechanical engineering. Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) have been developed to identify modal properties of infrastructure such as bridge, building and so on. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are the three most common methods in output only modal identification. FDD, SSI, and CWT operate based on the frequency domain, time domain, and time-frequency plane respectively. So, FDD and SSI are not able to display time and frequency at the same time. By the way, FDD and SSI have some difficulties in a noisy environment and finding the closed modes. CWT technique which is currently developed works on time-frequency plane and a reasonable performance in such condition. The other advantage of wavelet transform rather than other current techniques is that it can be applied for the non-stationary signal as well. The aim of this paper is to compare three most common modal identification techniques to find modal properties (such as natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio) of three story steel frame which was built in Concordia University Lab by use of ambient vibration. The frame has made of Galvanized steel with 60 cm length, 27 cm width and 133 cm height with no brace along the long span and short space. Three uniaxial wired accelerations (MicroStarin with 100mv/g accuracy) have been attached to the middle of each floor and gateway receives the data and send to the PC by use of Node Commander Software. The real-time monitoring has been performed for 20 seconds with 512 Hz sampling rate. The test is repeated for 5 times in each direction by hand shaking and impact hammer. CWT is able to detect instantaneous frequency by used of ridge detection method. In this paper, partial derivative ridge detection technique has been applied to the local maxima of time-frequency plane to detect the instantaneous frequency. The extracted result from all three methods have been compared, and it demonstrated that CWT has the better performance in term of its accuracy in noisy environment. The modal parameters such as natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shapes are identified from all three methods.

Keywords: ambient vibration, frequency domain decomposition, stochastic subspace identification, continuous wavelet transform

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5091 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen


Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangle

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5090 Dielectric Properties of Ni-Al Nano Ferrites Synthesized by Citrate Gel Method

Authors: D. Ravinder, K. S. Nagaraju


Ni–Al ferrite with composition of NiAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.2, 0.4 0.6, and 0.8, ) were prepared by citrate gel method. The dielectric properties for all the samples were investigated at room temperature as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant shows dispersion in the lower frequency region and remains almost constant at higher frequencies. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) is found to be abnormal, giving a peak at certain frequency for mixed Ni-Al ferrites. A qualitative explanation is given for the composition and frequency dependence of the dielectric loss tangent.

Keywords: ferrites, citrate method, lattice parameter, dielectric constant

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5089 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi


Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: earthing design, high-frequency, lightning, tower footing impedance

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5088 Temporal Variation of PM10-Bound Benzo(a)Pyrene Concentration in an Urban and a Rural Site of Northwestern Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős


The main objective of this study was to assess the annual concentration and seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) associated with PM10 in an urban site of Győr and in a rural site of Sarród in the sampling period of 2008–2012. A total of 280 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in each sampling site and analyzed for BaP by gas chromatography method. The BaP concentrations ranged from undetected to 8 ng/m3 with the mean value of 1.01 ng/m3 in the sampling site of Győr, and from undetected to 4.07 ng/m3 with the mean value of 0.52 ng/m3 in the sampling site of Sarród, respectively. Relatively higher concentrations of BaP were detected in samples collected in both sampling sites in the heating seasons compared with non-heating periods. The annual mean BaP concentrations were comparable with the published data of different other Hungarian sites.

Keywords: air quality, benzo(a)pyrene, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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5087 Low Cost Surface Electromyographic Signal Amplifier Based on Arduino Microcontroller

Authors: Igor Luiz Bernardes de Moura, Luan Carlos de Sena Monteiro Ozelim, Fabiano Araujo Soares


The development of a low cost acquisition system of S-EMG signals which are reliable, comfortable for the user and with high mobility shows to be a relevant proposition in modern biomedical engineering scenario. In the study, the sampling capacity of the Arduino microcontroller Atmel Atmega328 with an A/D converter with 10-bit resolution and its reconstructing capability of a signal of surface electromyography are analyzed. An electronic circuit to capture the signal through two differential channels was designed, signals from Biceps Brachialis of a healthy man of 21 years was acquired to test the system prototype. ARV, MDF, MNF and RMS estimators were used to compare de acquired signals with physiological values. The Arduino was configured with a sampling frequency of 1.5 kHz for each channel, and the tests with the circuit designed offered a SNR of 20.57dB.

Keywords: electromyography, Arduino, low-cost, atmel atmega328 microcontroller

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
5086 A Double Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Test Having Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution

Authors: A. D. Abdellatif, A. N. Ahmed, M. E. Abdelaziz


The main purpose of this paper is to design a double acceptance sampling plan under the time truncated life test when the product lifetime follows an exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution. Here, the motive is to meet both the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk simultaneously at the specified quality levels, while the termination time is specified. A comparison between the results of the double and single acceptance sampling plans is conducted. We demonstrate the applicability of our results to real data sets.

Keywords: double sampling plan, single sampling plan, producer’s risk, consumer’s risk, exponentiated transmuted weibull distribution, time truncated experiment, single, double, Marshal-Olkin

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
5085 Visualization Tool for EEG Signal Segmentation

Authors: Sweeti, Anoop Kant Godiyal, Neha Singh, Sneh Anand, B. K. Panigrahi, Jayasree Santhosh


This work is about developing a tool for visualization and segmentation of Electroencephalograph (EEG) signals based on frequency domain features. Change in the frequency domain characteristics are correlated with change in mental state of the subject under study. Proposed algorithm provides a way to represent the change in the mental states using the different frequency band powers in form of segmented EEG signal. Many segmentation algorithms have been suggested in literature having application in brain computer interface, epilepsy and cognition studies that have been used for data classification. But the proposed method focusses mainly on the better presentation of signal and that’s why it could be a good utilization tool for clinician. Algorithm performs the basic filtering using band pass and notch filters in the range of 0.1-45 Hz. Advanced filtering is then performed by principal component analysis and wavelet transform based de-noising method. Frequency domain features are used for segmentation; considering the fact that the spectrum power of different frequency bands describes the mental state of the subject. Two sliding windows are further used for segmentation; one provides the time scale and other assigns the segmentation rule. The segmented data is displayed second by second successively with different color codes. Segment’s length can be selected as per need of the objective. Proposed algorithm has been tested on the EEG data set obtained from University of California in San Diego’s online data repository. Proposed tool gives a better visualization of the signal in form of segmented epochs of desired length representing the power spectrum variation in data. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it takes the data points with respect to the sampling frequency for each time frame and so it can be improved to use in real time visualization with desired epoch length.

Keywords: de-noising, multi-channel data, PCA, power spectra, segmentation

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