Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: neighbourhoods

33 Guiding Urban Development in a Traditional Neighbourhood: Case Application of Kolkata

Authors: Nabamita Nath, Sanghamitra Sarkar

Abstract:

Urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of cities is undergoing a sea change due to imposition of irregular development patterns on a predominantly inclusive urban fabric. In recent times, traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata have experienced irregular urban development which has resulted in transformation of its immediate urban character. The goal is to study and analyse impact of new urban developments within traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata and establish development guidelines to balance the old with the new. Various cities predominantly in third world countries are also experiencing similar development patterns in their traditional neighbourhoods. Existing literature surveys of development patterns in such neighbourhoods have established 9 major parameters viz. edge, movement, node, landmark, size-density, pattern-grain-texture, open spaces, urban spaces, urban form and views-vistas of the neighbourhood. To evaluate impact of urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata, 3 different areas have been chronologically selected based on their settlement patterns. Parameters established through literature surveys have been applied to the selected areas to study and analyse the existing patterns of development. The main sources of this study included extensive on-site surveys, academic archive, census data, organisational records and informational websites. Applying the established parameters, 5 major conclusions were derived. Firstly, it was found that pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods of the city were becoming more car-centric. This has resulted in loss of interactive and social spaces which defined the cultural heritage of Kolkata. Secondly, the urban pattern which was composed of dense and compact fabric is gradually losing its character due to incorporation of new building typologies. Thirdly, the new building typologies include gated communities with private open spaces which is a stark departure from the existing built typology. However, these open spaces have not contributed in creation of inclusive public places for the community which are a significant part of such heritage neighbourhood precincts. Fourthly, commercial zones that primarily developed along major access routes have now infiltrated within these neighbourhoods. Gated communities do not favour formation of on-street commercial activities generating haphazard development patterns. Lastly, individual residential buildings that reflected Indo-saracenic and Neo-gothic architectural styles are converting into multi-storeyed residential apartments. As a result, the axis that created a definite visual identity for a neighbourhood is progressively following an irregular pattern. Thus, uniformity of the old skyline is gradually becoming inconsistent. The major issue currently is threat caused by irregular urban development to heritage zones and buildings of traditional neighbourhoods. Streets, lanes, courtyards, open spaces and buildings of old neighbourhoods imparted a unique cultural identity to the city that is disappearing with emerging urban development patterns. It has been concluded that specific guidelines for urban development should be regulated primarily based on existing urban form of traditional neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhood development strategies should be formulated for various cities of third world countries to control irregular developments thereby balancing heritage and development.

Keywords: heritage, Kolkata, traditional neighbourhood, urban development

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32 Neighbourhood Walkability and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Place Adherence and Social Interaction

Authors: Michał Jaśkiewicz

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The relation between walkability, place adherence, social relations and quality of life was explored in a Polish context. A considerable number of studies have suggested that environmental factors may influence the quality of life through indirect pathways. The list of possible psychological mediators includes social relations and identity-related variables. Based on the results of Study 1, local identity is a significant mediator in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and quality of life. It was assumed that pedestrian-oriented neighbourhoods enable residents to interact and that these spontaneous interactions can help to strengthen a sense of local identity, thus influencing the quality of life. We, therefore, conducted further studies, testing the relationship experimentally in studies 2a and 2b. Participants were exposed to (2a) photos of walkable/non-walkable neighbourhoods or (2b) descriptions of high/low-walkable neighbourhoods. They were then asked to assess the walkability of the neighbourhoods and to evaluate their potential social relations and quality of life in these places. In both studies, social relations with neighbours turned out to be a significant mediator between walkability and quality of life. In Study 3, we implemented the measure of overlapping individual and communal identity (fusion with the neighbourhood) and willingness to collective action as mediators. Living in a walkable neighbourhood was associated with identity fusion with that neighbourhood. Participants who felt more fused expressed greater willingness to engage in collective action with other neighbours. Finally, this willingness was positively related to the quality of life in the city. In Study 4, we used commuting time (an aspect of walkability related to the time that people spend travelling to work) as the independent variable. The results showed that a shorter average daily commuting time was linked to more frequent social interactions in the neighbourhood. Individuals who assessed their social interactions as more frequent expressed a stronger city identification, which was in turn related to quality of life. To sum up, our research replicated and extended previous findings on the association between walkability and well-being measures. We introduced potential mediators of this relationship: social interactions in the neighbourhood and identity-related variables.

Keywords: walkability, quality of life, social relations, analysis of mediation

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31 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

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Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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30 Enabling and Ageing-Friendly Neighbourhoods: An Eye-Tracking Study of Multi-Sensory Experience of Senior Citizens in Singapore

Authors: Zdravko Trivic, Kelvin E. Y. Low, Darko Radovic, Raymond Lucas

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Our understanding and experience of the built environment are primarily shaped by multi‐sensory, emotional and symbolic modes of exchange with spaces. Associated sensory and cognitive declines that come with ageing substantially affect the overall quality of life of the elderly citizens and the ways they perceive and use urban environment. Reduced mobility and increased risk of falls, problems with spatial orientation and communication, lower confidence and independence levels, decreased willingness to go out and social withdrawal are some of the major consequences of sensory declines that challenge almost all segments of the seniors’ everyday living. However, contemporary urban environments are often either sensory overwhelming or depleting, resulting in physical, mental and emotional stress. Moreover, the design and planning of housing neighbourhoods hardly go beyond the passive 'do-no-harm' and universal design principles, and the limited provision of often non-integrated eldercare and inter-generational facilities. This paper explores and discusses the largely neglected relationships between the 'hard' and 'soft' aspects of housing neighbourhoods and urban experience, focusing on seniors’ perception and multi-sensory experience as vehicles for design and planning of high-density housing neighbourhoods that are inclusive and empathetic yet build senior residents’ physical and mental abilities at different stages of ageing. The paper outlines methods and key findings from research conducted in two high-density housing neighbourhoods in Singapore with aims to capture and evaluate multi-sensorial qualities of two neighbourhoods from the perspective of senior residents. Research methods employed included: on-site sensory recordings of 'objective' quantitative sensory data (air temperature and humidity, sound level and luminance) using multi-function environment meter, spatial mapping of patterns of elderly users’ transient and stationary activity, socio-sensory perception surveys and sensorial journeys with local residents using eye-tracking glasses, and supplemented by walk-along or post-walk interviews. The paper develops a multi-sensory framework to synthetize, cross-reference, and visualise the activity and spatio-sensory rhythms and patterns and distill key issues pertinent to ageing-friendly and health-supportive neighbourhood design. Key findings show senior residents’ concerns with walkability, safety, and wayfinding, overall aesthetic qualities, cleanliness, smell, noise, and crowdedness in their neighbourhoods, as well as the lack of design support for all-day use in the context of Singaporean tropical climate and for inter-generational social interaction. The (ongoing) analysis of eye-tracking data reveals the spatial elements of senior residents’ look at and interact with the most frequently, with the visual range often directed towards the ground. With capacities to meaningfully combine quantitative and qualitative, measured and experienced sensory data, multi-sensory framework shows to be fruitful for distilling key design opportunities based on often ignored aspects of subjective and often taken-for-granted interactions with the familiar outdoor environment. It offers an alternative way of leveraging the potentials of housing neighbourhoods to take a more active role in enabling healthful living at all stages of ageing.

Keywords: ageing-friendly neighbourhoods, eye-tracking, high-density environment, multi-sensory approach, perception

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29 The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level

Authors: M. Moeinaddini, Z. Asadi-Shekari, Z. Sultan, M. Zaly Shah

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Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.

Keywords: neighbourhood land use, neighbourhood design, happiness, socio-economic factors, generalised linear modelling

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28 Stepping in Sustainability: Walkability an Upcoming Design Parameter for Transit Based Communities in Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sadaf Saeed

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The consideration of walkability as an urban design parameter in conjunction with transit-oriented development is an established trend in the developed countries but an upcoming trend in developing countries. In Pakistan, the first Bus Rapid Transit (locally called as Metro Bus) has been introduced in the city of Lahore in 2013 where around 40 percent of the riders access to transit stations by walking. To what extent the aspect of walkability has been considered in the local scenario? To address this question, this paper presents an account of urban design parameters regarding pedestrian provisions and quality of walking environment between Metro Bus stations and users’ destination in the transit neighbourhoods (areas up to 500-meter radius). The primary and secondary data for objective and subjective walkability measurements has been used for neighbourhoods of five selected transit stations ranked against the predefined critical assessed factors (CAF). The multi-criteria approach including visual and geospatially-based parameters at street level, along with walkability index score at selected sites linked with CAF evaluation were the selected methods for this study. The acceptability of walkability as an urban design parameter for transit planning in terms of connectivity and social implications of the concept has also been analysed in the local context. The paper highlights that the aspect of walkability in Lahore is being derelict owing to the focus of government on other initiatives such as park and ride and feeder bus services for mobility of passengers. However, the pedestrian-friendly design parameters as a part of future transit planning can enhance social, liveable and interactive walking environment within transit neighbourhoods.

Keywords: walkability, sustainability, transit neighborhoods, social communities

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27 Strategies for a Sustainable Neighbourhood in a Smart City: A Case of Pattoor, Thiruvananthapuram

Authors: Vijaya Nhaloor, Suja Kumari Leela, Jose Devadasan

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Planning of neighbourhood development strategies in Tier 2 Indian city is highly significant when it has also been selected as a Smart city by the Ministry of Urban Development in India. Smart city mission of India proposes the development of infrastructure in a city in an inclusive way. Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala state, India, has been selected as the city to conduct the research. The master plan for the city of Thiruvananthapuram envisions it as a Compact city and proposes densification as a tool for development. Densification may adversely affect the quality of life after a tipping point. This may lead to urban decay which in turn directly or indirectly affects the surrounding neighbourhoods also, thus spreading blight areas in the city. The author thinks that density in urban planning is not a well detailed subject in India, with respect to its varied links on infrastructure, quality of life, transportation, scope of vertical planning, affordability etc. Neighbourhoods are vital tissues of an urban area, and their development directly affects the development of the region. The methodology would involve skimming of proactive neighbourhood planning principles compatible with the Smart city mission in India. United Nations proposes sustainability as a way of planning development of a neighbourhood. After defining various terminologies involved, a framework shall be developed to analyse an existing neighbourhood and prepare planning guidelines in a sustainable manner. The framework shall comply with international and national policy guidelines. The research shall explore and identify a neighbourhood with the potential to meet the housing demand from the investment regions nearby and analyse its potential and weakness as per this framework. Later, a set of indicators shall be enlisted to guide the development of the neighbourhood, leading to recommendations that shall serve as a replicable model for the other neighbourhoods in the Smart city.

Keywords: key indicators, neighbourhood planning, sustainability, smart city

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26 2D Hexagonal Cellular Automata: The Complexity of Forms

Authors: Vural Erdogan

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We created two-dimensional hexagonal cellular automata to obtain complexity by using simple rules same as Conway’s game of life. Considering the game of life rules, Wolfram's works about life-like structures and John von Neumann's self-replication, self-maintenance, self-reproduction problems, we developed 2-states and 3-states hexagonal growing algorithms that reach large populations through random initial states. Unlike the game of life, we used six neighbourhoods cellular automata instead of eight or four neighbourhoods. First simulations explained that whether we are able to obtain sort of oscillators, blinkers, and gliders. Inspired by Wolfram's 1D cellular automata complexity and life-like structures, we simulated 2D synchronous, discrete, deterministic cellular automata to reach life-like forms with 2-states cells. The life-like formations and the oscillators have been explained how they contribute to initiating self-maintenance together with self-reproduction and self-replication. After comparing simulation results, we decided to develop the algorithm for another step. Appending a new state to the same algorithm, which we used for reaching life-like structures, led us to experiment new branching and fractal forms. All these studies tried to demonstrate that complex life forms might come from uncomplicated rules.

Keywords: hexagonal cellular automata, self-replication, self-reproduction, self- maintenance

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25 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador

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Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

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24 The Documentation of Modernisation Processes in Spain Based on the Residential Architecture of the 1960s. A Patrimonial Perspective on El Plantinar Neighbourhood in Seville

Authors: Julia Rey-Pérez, Julia Díaz Borrego

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The modernisation process of the city of Sevilla in Spain and the transformation of the city took place through national and local government initiatives from the 1960s onwards. Part of these actions was the execution of numerous residential neighbourhoodsthat prepared Sevilla for the change of era. This process was possible thanks to the implementation of public policies that showed the imminent need for new architectural programmes, as well as for high-rise architecture built in reinforced concrete. However, very little is known to this day about the modernisation process in Sevilla and the development of these neighbourhoods, which were designed to house a large number of people and are today a key reference point in the Historic Urban Landscape of the city of Seville. Therefore, the present research aims to learn and reflect upon the urban transformation of the city at this time andto deepen the heritage uniqueness of these neighbourhoods, as is the case of ElPlantinarneighbourhood.The methodology proposed for this research is structured in three phases, where in the first stage, a general study of the El Plantinarneighbourhood was carried out on three scales: urban, object-typological and perceptive. In the second stage, the cultural attributes and values of the urban complex in question were identified in order to determine whether the case study is truly representative of the beginnings of modernity in Spain and whether it needs a heritage approach. Finally, a third phase is proposed in which criteria will be defined on how to intervene in this neighbourhood to guarantee its presence in the urban landscape of the city of Seville. The expected results will help to understand the process of modernisation that the city has undergone, as well as the heritage value of this architecture in the construction of the collective memory.

Keywords: modern heritage, urban obsolescence, methodology, develop

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23 The Revival of Cultural Heritage through Social Space Upliftment: Case Study of the Walled City of Ajmer, India

Authors: Vaishali Sharma

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The research is an attempt to hunt a scientific and objective method to transform Ajmer's traditional walled city into a living cultural heritage space, exploring urban management methods to elevate local economy and social space in relation to specific cultural-based initiatives. Ajmer is among the oldest and religiously diverse settlements in Rajasthan, that has seen superimposed developments through the eras. With numerous agencies operating towards the development of the town core of Ajmer, it becomes essential to structure development changes in tune with the transformations and the existing heritage. The study was radio-controlled by the subsequent analysis question: What is the way to overcome the genetic social and economic stress inside the communities and revive public life? In order to create necessary interventions at the neighbourhood level, fifteen neighbourhoods were identified. Each of those was analyzed relatively on three major dimensions: Heritage, Social and Local Economy. Each dimension was further broken down into multiple sub-aspects for an overall and exhaustive understanding. The average median values of the responses were used to develop a color-coded matrix to represent the scores in an exceedingly structured quantified manner, moreover, linking it to the spatial structure. Respondent perceptions on numerous dimensions were additionally recorded, so that the proposals are inclusive in nature. The goals are targeted at Ajmer's traditional walled towns, which will make it easier for the community to regulate the rapid transformations and commercialization occurring within the space. The study recommends the necessity for accrued support in methods and policies from the non-public sector, businesses as well as local stakeholders. An expansion, revitalization and maintenance of the major business and heritage corridors, for an increased local and visitor experience, can produce an impetus for promotion of the intangible heritage, to spur the local economic processes, conservation of heritage precincts and upward development.

Keywords: cultural heritage, economic revitalization, neighbourhoods in walled cities, social space, tangible and intangible heritage

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22 Lisbon Experience, Mobility, Quality of Life and Tourist Image: A Survey

Authors: Luca Zarrilli, Miguel Brito, Marianna Cappucci

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Tourists recently awarded Lisbon as the best city break destination in Europe. This article analyses the various types of tourist experiences in the city of Lisbon. The research method is the questionnaire, aimed at investigating the choices of tourists in the area of mobility, their perception of the quality of life and their level of appreciation of neighbourhoods, landmarks and infrastructures. There is an obvious link between the quality of life and the quality of the tourist experience, but it is difficult to measure it. Through this questionnaire, we hope to have made a small contribution to the understanding of the perceptive sphere of the individual and his choices in terms of behaviour, which is an essential element of any strategy for tourism marketing.

Keywords: Lisbon, mobility, quality of life, perception, tourism, hospitality

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21 Investigation of Suitable Linkage System for Transportation Sustainability: The Instance of Bursa in Turkey

Authors: Elvan Ender, Ozge Celik

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Transportation systems play a vital role in access and egress in our lives. Concerns about environmental quality, social equity, economic vitality, and the threat of climate change have converged to produce a growing interest in the concept of sustainability, sustainable development, and sustainable transportation. Cities should respect nature, consider the urban ecological environment as an asset, integrate environmental issues into urban planning and administration, and accelerate the transition to sustainable development. This paper reviews current pedestrian and bike transportation in Bursa and proves the effects of unbalanced distribution to neighbourhoods of this presence. In this way creating proposal map for walking and bicycling to constitute a preliminary base for the physical urban planning of Bursa, has been aimed.

Keywords: Bursa, proposal map, sustainability, transportation

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20 Exploring Communities of Practice through Public Health Walks for Nurse Education

Authors: Jacqueline P. Davies

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Introduction: Student nurses must develop skills in observation, communication and reflection as well as public health knowledge from their first year of training. This paper will explain a method developed for students to collect their own findings about public health in urban areas. These areas are both rich in the history of old public health that informs the content of many traditional public health walks, but are also locations where new public health concerns about chronic disease are concentrated. The learning method explained in this paper enables students to collect their own data and write original work as first year students. Examples of their findings will be given. Methodology: In small groups, health care students are instructed to walk in neighbourhoods near to the hospitals they will soon attend as apprentice nurses. On their walks, they wander slowly, engage in conversations, and enter places open to the public. As they drift, they observe with all five senses in the real three dimensional world to collect data for their reflective accounts of old and new public health. They are encouraged to stop for refreshments and taste, as well as look, hear, smell, and touch while on their walk. They reflect as a group and later develop an individual reflective account in which they write up their deep reflections about what they observed on their walk. In preparation for their walk, they are encouraged to look at studies of quality of Life and other neighbourhood statistics as well as undertaking a risk assessment for their walk. Findings: Reflecting on their walks, students apply theoretical concepts around social determinants of health and health inequalities to develop their understanding of communities in the neighbourhoods visited. They write about the treasured historical architecture made of stone, bronze and marble which have outlived those who built them; but also how the streets are used now. The students develop their observations into thematic analyses such as: what we drink as illustrated by the empty coke can tossed into a now disused drinking fountain; the shift in home-life balance illustrated by streets where families once lived over the shop which are now walked by commuters weaving around each other as they talk on their mobile phones; and security on the street, with CCTV cameras placed at regular intervals, signs warning trespasses and barbed wire; but little evidence of local people watching the street. Conclusion: In evaluations of their first year, students have reported the health walk as one of their best experiences. The innovative approach was commended by the UK governing body of nurse education and it received a quality award from the nurse education funding body. This approach to education allows students to develop skills in the real world and write original work.

Keywords: education, innovation, nursing, urban

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19 Socially Sustainable Urban Rehabilitation Projects: Case Study of Ortahisar, Trabzon

Authors: Elif Berna Var

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Cultural, physical, socio-economic, or politic changes occurred in urban areas might be resulted in the decaying period which may cause social problems. As a solution to that, urban renewal projects have been used in European countries since World War II whereas they have gained importance in Turkey after the 1980s. The first attempts were mostly related to physical or economic aspects which caused negative effects on social pattern later. Thus, social concerns have also started to include in renewal processes in developed countries. This integrative approach combining social, physical, and economic aspects promotes creating more sustainable neighbourhoods for both current and future generations. However, it is still a new subject for developing countries like Turkey. Concentrating on Trabzon-Turkey, this study highlights the importance of socially sustainable urban renewal processes especially in historical neighbourhoods where protecting the urban identity of the area is vital, as well as social structure, to create sustainable environments. Being in the historic city centre and having remarkable traditional houses, Ortahisar is an important image for Trabzon. Because of the fact that architectural and historical pattern of the area is still visible but need rehabilitations, it is preferred to use 'urban rehabilitation' as a way of urban renewal method for this study. A project is developed by the local government to create a secondary city centre and a new landmark for the city. But it is still ambiguous if this project can provide social sustainability of area which is one of the concerns of the research. In the study, it is suggested that social sustainability of an area can be achieved by several factors. In order to determine the factors affecting the social sustainability of an urban rehabilitation project, previous studies have been analysed and some common features are attempted to define. To achieve this, firstly, several analyses are conducted to find out social structure of Ortahisar. Secondly, structured interviews are implemented to 150 local people which aims to measure satisfaction level, awareness, the expectation of them, and to learn their demographical background in detail. Those data are used to define the critical factors for a more socially sustainable neighbourhood in Ortahisar. Later, the priority of those factors is asked to 50 experts and 150 local people to compare their attitudes and to find common criterias. According to the results, it can be said that social sustainability of Ortahisar neighbourhood can be improved by considering various factors like quality of urban areas, demographical factors, public participation, social cohesion and harmony, proprietorial factors, facilities of education and employment. In the end, several suggestions are made for Ortahisar case to promote more socially sustainable urban neighbourhood. As a pilot study highlighting the importance of social sustainability, it is hoped that this attempt might be the contributory effect on achieving more socially sustainable urban rehabilitation projects in Turkey.

Keywords: urban rehabilitation, social sustainability, Trabzon, Turkey

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18 Assessment of Marketing and Financial Activities of Night Markets in the Nigerian Economy

Authors: Adedeji Tejumola Olugboja

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Night markets are physical locations in residential neighbourhoods where market parties interact. It is a kind of market where marketing activities commence by 6pm until after midnight. The problem of the study is to assess marketing activities in the night markets. Specific objectives for this study include determining volume of business activities, numbers of market parties etc in the selected night markets. The purposive sampling technique is adopted for this study and the four night markets in the area of study are selected as sample: Aggregate of 173 retailers and an average of 2583 consumers daily operate in these night markets. The use of tables, simple percentage and descriptive statistics were employed for data analysis and presentation. Findings revealed volume of marketing activities, sales per night, profit per night and savings per day in each of these night markets. Government should erect street lights and repair damaged ones in these night markets to make night markets more lucrative.

Keywords: marketing activities, night markets, Nigerian economy

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17 Evaluation of Neighbourhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice

Authors: Tayebeh Saghapour, Sara Moridpour, Russell George Thompson

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One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study introduces an index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), and a walkability index along with socioeconomic variables to investigate mode choice behaviour. Using travel behaviour data, an ordered logit regression model is applied to examine the impacts of explanatory variables on walking trips. The findings indicated that high rates of active travel are consistently associated with higher levels of walking and public transport accessibility.

Keywords: active transport, public transport accessibility, walkability, ordered logit model

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16 Ten Minutes Neighbourhood as a Basic PlanningUnit for Happiness in Egypt

Authors: Abeer Elshater

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This paper pursues the relationship between the inhabitants’ happiness and the right to the city in an Egyptian neighbourhood status quo. Although the optimum of getting the services comes from ten mints walking in a suitable ambiance, the happiness is not acquired. The research objective is, first, to review the literature that get a guideline of 10 minutes neighbourhoods. Second make a comparative content analysis to recent online articles to the right to the city. Third is to test the concluded principles in Egyptian neighbourhood settings. The idea of ten minutes neighbourhood is manageable. The hypothesis concerns a compliant design. The logic of people who live close to within ten minutes’ walk to essential settings in their area can minimize several problems and maximize a healthy lifestyle. The supposed issue makes the right to the city affect the relationship between ten minutes neighbourhood and citizen happiness. This assumption can be intervention through site observation and oriented questionnaire. The contribution comes from presenting new planning units in away suits the current context of the old cities in MENA region based on ten-minute walking or less distance with a reference to the right to the city. This planning unit can find it way to citizens' happiness.

Keywords: happiness, ten-minute neighbourhood, urban design, well-being

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15 The Impact of a Staff Well-Being Service for a Multi-Site Research Study

Authors: Ruth Elvish, Alex Turner, Jen Wells

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Over recent years there has been an increasing interest in the topic of well-being at work, and staff support is an area of continued growth. The present qualitative study explored the impact of a staff well-being service that was specifically attached to a five-year multi-site research programme (the Neighbourhoods and Dementia Study, funded by the ESRC/NIHR). The well-being service was led by a clinical psychologist, who offered 1:1 sessions for staff and co-researchers with dementia. To our knowledge, this service was the first of its kind. Methodology: Interviews were undertaken with staff who had used the service and who opted to take part in the study (n=7). Thematic analysis was used as the method of analysis. Findings: Themes included: triggers, mechanisms of change, impact/outcomes, and unique aspects of a dedicated staff well-being service. Conclusions: The study highlights stressors that are pertinent amongst staff within academic settings, and shows the ways in which a dedicated staff well-being service can impact on both professional and personal lives. Positive change was seen in work performance, self-esteem, relationships, and coping. This exploratory study suggests that this well-being service model should be further trialled and evaluated.

Keywords: academic, service, staff, support, well-being

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14 Adaptive Architecture and Urbanism - A Study of Coastal Cities, Climate Change Problems, Effects, Risks And Opportunities for Making Sustainable Habitat

Authors: Santosh Kumar Ketham

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Climate change creating most dramatic and destructive consequences, the result is global warming and sea-level rise, flooding coastal cities around the world forming vulnerable situations affecting in multiple ways: environment, economy, social and political. The aim and goal of the research is to develop cities on water. Taking the problem as an opportunity to bring science, engineering, policies and design together to make a resilient and sustainable floating community on water considering existing/new technologies of floating. The quest is to make sustainable habitat on water to live, work, learn and play.  To make sustainable energy generation and storage alongside maintaining balance of land and marine to conserve Ecosystem. The research would serve as a model for sustainable neighbourhoods designed in a modular way and thus can easily extend or re-arranged, to adapt for future socioeconomic realities.  This research paper studies primarily on climate change problems, effects, risks and opportunities. It does so, through analysing existing case studies, books and writings published on coastal cities and understanding its various aspects for making sustainable habitat.

Keywords: floating cities, flexible modular typologies, rising sea levels, sustainable architecture and urbanism

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13 Effect of Transit-Oriented Development on Air Quality in Neighborhoods of Delhi

Authors: Smriti Bhatnagar

Abstract:

This study aims to find if the Transit-oriented planning and development approach benefit the quality of air in neighborhoods of New Delhi. Two methodologies, namely the land use regression analysis and the Transit-oriented development index analysis, are being used to explore this relationship. Land Use Regression Analysis makes use of urban form characteristics as obtained for 33 neighborhoods in Delhi. These comprise road lengths, land use areas, population and household densities, number of amenities and distance between amenities. Regressions are run to establish the relationship between urban form variables and air quality parameters (dependent variables). For the Transit-oriented development index analysis, the Transit-oriented Development index is developed as a composite index comprising 29 urban form indicators. This index is developed by assigning weights to each of the 29 urban form data points. Regressions are run to establish the relationship between the Transit-oriented development index and air quality parameters. The thesis finds that elements of Transit-oriented development if incorporated in planning approach, have a positive effect on air quality. Roads suited for non-motorized transport, well connected civic amenities in neighbourhoods, for instance, have a directly proportional relationship with air quality. Transit-oriented development index, however, is not found to have a consistent relationship with air quality parameters. The reason could this, however, be in the way that the index has been constructed.

Keywords: air quality, land use regression, mixed-use planning, transit-oriented development index, New Delhi

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12 Identifying Neighborhoods at Potential Risk of Food Insecurity in Rural British Columbia

Authors: Amirmohsen Behjat, Aleck Ostry, Christina Miewald, Bernie Pauly

Abstract:

Substantial research has indicated that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics’ of neighborhoods are strong determinants of food security. The aim of this study was to develop a Food Insecurity Neighborhood Index (FINI) based on the associated socioeconomic and demographic variables to identify the areas at potential risk of food insecurity in rural British Columbia (BC). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used to calculate the FINI for each rural Dissemination Area (DA) using the food security determinant variables from Canadian Census data. Using ArcGIS, the neighborhoods with the top quartile FINI values were classified as food insecure. The results of this study indicated that the most food insecure neighborhood with the highest FINI value of 99.1 was in the Bulkley-Nechako (central BC) area whereas the lowest FINI with the value of 2.97 was for a rural neighborhood in the Cowichan Valley area. In total, 98.049 (19%) of the rural population of British Columbians reside in high food insecure areas. Moreover, the distribution of food insecure neighborhoods was found to be strongly dependent on the degree of rurality in BC. In conclusion, the cluster of food insecure neighbourhoods was more pronounced in Central Coast, Mount Wadington, Peace River, Kootenay Boundary, and the Alberni-Clayoqout Regional Districts.

Keywords: neighborhood food insecurity index, socioeconomic and demographic determinants, principal component analysis, Canada census, ArcGIS

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11 Informal Land Subdivision and Its Implications for Infrastructural Development in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Yakub, Omavudu Ikogho

Abstract:

Land subdivision in most peri-urban areas of Kano metropolis is the entrenched prerogative of ‘KAFADA’ a group of informal plot partitioners who oversee the demarcation of mainly previous farmland into residential plots popularly called 'awon igiya' for those in need. With time these areas are engulfed in the milieu of the rapidly expanding urban landscape and form clusters of poorly planned settlements with tendencies to become future slums. This paper studies the practice of informal land subdivision in Kano metropolis with emphasis on the practitioners, the institutional framework, and the demand and supply scenario that sustains this trend as well as the extent of infrastructural development in these areas. Using three selected informally planned settlements as case-studies, a series of interviews and questionnaires are administered to 'KAFADA,' residents and the state land officers to generate data in these areas. Another set of data was similarly generated in three government subdivided residential layouts, and both sets analysed comparatively. The findings identify varying levels of infrastructural deficits in the informal communities compared to the planned neighbourhoods which are seen to be as a result of the absence of government participation and an informal subdivision process which did not provide for proper planning standards. This study recommends that the regulatory agencies concerned register and partner with KAFADA to ensure that minimal planning standards are maintained in future settlements.

Keywords: peri-urban, informal land markets, land subdivision, infrastructure

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10 Urban Citizenship in a Sensor Rich Society

Authors: Mike Dee

Abstract:

Urban public spaces are sutured with a range of surveillance and sensor technologies that claim to enable new forms of ‘data based citizen participation’, but also increase the tendency for ‘function-creep’, whereby vast amounts of data are gathered, stored and analysed in a broad application of urban surveillance. This kind of monitoring and capacity for surveillance connects with attempts by civic authorities to regulate, restrict, rebrand and reframe urban public spaces. A direct consequence of the increasingly security driven, policed, privatised and surveilled nature of public space is the exclusion or ‘unfavourable inclusion’ of those considered flawed and unwelcome in the ‘spectacular’ consumption spaces of many major urban centres. In the name of urban regeneration, programs of securitisation, ‘gentrification’ and ‘creative’ and ‘smart’ city initiatives refashion public space as sites of selective inclusion and exclusion. In this context of monitoring and control procedures, in particular, children and young people’s use of space in parks, neighbourhoods, shopping malls and streets is often viewed as a threat to the social order, requiring various forms of remedial action. This paper suggests that cities, places and spaces and those who seek to use them, can be resilient in working to maintain and extend democratic freedoms and processes enshrined in Marshall’s concept of citizenship, calling sensor and surveillance systems to account. Such accountability could better inform the implementation of public policy around the design, build and governance of public space and also understandings of urban citizenship in the sensor saturated urban environment.

Keywords: citizenship, public space, surveillance, young people

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9 Location Choice: The Effects of Network Configuration upon the Distribution of Economic Activities in the Chinese City of Nanning

Authors: Chuan Yang, Jing Bie, Zhong Wang, Panagiotis Psimoulis

Abstract:

Contemporary studies investigating the association between the spatial configuration of the urban network and economic activities at the street level were mostly conducted within space syntax conceptual framework. These findings supported the theory of 'movement economy' and demonstrated the impact of street configuration on the distribution of pedestrian movement and land-use shaping, especially retail activities. However, the effects varied between different urban contexts. In this paper, the relationship between economic activity distribution and the urban configurational characters was examined at the segment level. In the study area, three kinds of neighbourhood types, urban, suburban, and rural neighbourhood, were included. And among all neighbourhoods, three kinds of urban network form, 'tree-like', grid, and organic pattern, were recognised. To investigate the nested effects of urban configuration measured by space syntax approach and urban context, multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were constructed. Additionally, considering the spatial autocorrelation, spatial lag was also concluded in the model as an independent variable. The random effect ZINB model shows superiority over the ZINB model or multilevel linear (ML) model in the explanation of economic activities pattern shaping over the urban environment. And after adjusting for the neighbourhood type and network form effects, connectivity and syntax centrality significantly affect economic activities clustering. The comparison between accumulative and new established economic activities illustrated the different preferences for economic activity location choice.

Keywords: space syntax, economic activities, multilevel model, Chinese city

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8 A Descriptive Study on Micro Living and Its Importance over Large Houses by Understanding Various Scenarios and Case Studies

Authors: Belal Neazi

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'Larger Houses Consume More Resources’ – both in construction and during operation. The most important aspect of smaller homes is that it uses less electricity and fuel for construction and maintenance. Here, an urban interpretation of the contemporary minimal existence movement is explained. In an attempt to restrict urban decay and to encourage inner-city renewal, the Tiny House principles are interpreted as alternative ways of dwelling in urban neighbourhoods. These tiny houses are usually pretty different from each other in interior planning, but almost similar in size. The disadvantage of large homes came up when people were asked to vacate as they were not able to pay the massive amount of mortgages. This made them reconsider their housing situation and discover the ideas of minimalism and the general rising inclination in environmental awareness that serve as the basis for the tiny house movement. One of the largest benefits of inhabiting a tiny house is the decrease in carbon footprint. Also, to increase social behaviour and freedom. It’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom. Examples of the tiny house village which are sustaining homeless population and the use of different reclaimed materials for the construction of these tiny houses are explained in the paper. It is proposed in the paper, that these houses will reflect the diversity while proposing an alternative model for the rehabilitation of decaying row-homes and the renewal of fading communities. The core objective is to design small or micro spaces for the economically backward people of the place and increase their social behaviour and freedom. Also, it’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom.

Keywords: city renewal, environmental concern, micro-living, tiny house

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7 Income Inequality and the Poverty of Youth in the Douala Metropolis of Cameroon

Authors: Nanche Billa Robert

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More and more youth are doubtful of making a satisfactory labour market transition because of the present global economic instability and this is more so in Africa of the Sahara and metropolis like Douala. We use the explanatory sequential mixed method: in the first phase we randomly administered 610 questionnaires in the Douala metropolis respecting the population size of each division and its gender composition. We constructed the questionnaire using the desired values for living a comfortable life in Douala. In the second phase, we purposefully selected and interviewed 50 poor youth in order to explain in detail the initial quantitative results. We obtain the following result: The modal income class is 24,000-74,000 frs Central Africa Franc (CFA) and about 67% of the youth of the Douala metropolis earn below 75,000 frs CFA. They earn only 31.02% of the total income. About 85.7% earn below 126,000 frs CFA and about 92.14% earn below 177,000 frs CFA. The poverty-line is estimated at 177,000 frs CFA per month based on the desired predominant values in Douala and only about 9% of youth earn this sum, therefore, 91% of the youth are poor. We discovered that the salary a youth earns influences his level of poverty. Low income earners eat once or twice per day, rent low-standard houses of below 20,000 frs, are dependent and possess very limited durable goods, consult traditional doctors when they are sick, sleep and gamble during their leisure time. Intermediate income earners feed themselves either twice or thrice per day, eat healthy meals weekly, possess more durable goods, are independent, gamble and drink during their leisure time. High income earners feed themselves at least thrice per day, eat healthy food daily, inhabit high quality and expensive houses, are more stable by living longer in their neighbourhoods, like travelling and drinking during their leisure time. Unsalaried youth, are students, housewives or unemployed youth, they eat four times per day, take healthy meals daily, weekly, fortnightly or occasionally, are dependent or homeless depending on whether they are students or unemployed youth. The situation of the youth can be ameliorated through investing in the productive sector and promoting entrepreneurship as well as formalizing the informal sector.

Keywords: income, inequality, poverty, metropolis

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6 Urban Livelihoods and Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies for Urban Poor in Douala, Cameroon

Authors: Agbortoko Manyigbe Ayuk Nkem, Eno Cynthia Osuh

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This paper sets to examine the relationship between climate change and urban livelihood through a vulnerability assessment of the urban poor in Douala. Urban development in Douala places priority towards industrial and city-centre development with little focus on the urban poor in terms of housing units and areas of sustenance. With the high rate of urbanisation and increased land prices, the urban poor are forced to occupy marginal lands which are mainly wetlands, wastelands and along abandoned neighbourhoods prone to natural hazards. Due to climate change and its effects, these wetlands are constantly flooded thereby destroying homes, properties, and crops. Also, most of these urban dwellers have found solace in urban agriculture as a means for survival. However, since agriculture in tropical regions like Cameroon depends largely on seasonal rainfall, the changes in rainfall pattern has led to misplaced periods for crop planting and a huge wastage of resources as rainfall becomes very unreliable with increased temperature levels. Data for the study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources included published materials related to climate change and vulnerability. Primary data was obtained through focus-group discussions with some urban farmers while a stratified sampling of residents within marginal lands was done. Each stratum was randomly sampled to obtain information on different stressors related to climate change and their effect on livelihood. Findings proved that the high rate of rural-urban migration into Douala has led to increased prevalence of the urban poor and their vulnerability to climate change as evident in their constant fight against flood from unexpected sea level rise and irregular rainfall pattern for urban agriculture. The study also proved that women were most vulnerable as they depended solely on urban agriculture and its related activities like retailing agricultural products in different urban markets which to them serves as a main source of income in the attainment of basic needs for the family. Adaptation measures include the constant use of sand bags, raised makeshifts as well as cultivation along streams, planting after evidence of constant rainfall has become paramount for sustainability.

Keywords: adaptation, Douala, Cameroon, climate change, development, livelihood, vulnerability

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5 Conflict around the Brownfield Reconversion of the Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe in Ottawa: A Clash of Ambitions and Visions in Canadian Urban Sustainability

Authors: Kenza Benali

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Over the past decade, a number of remarkable projects in urban brownfield reconversion emerged across Canada, including the reconversion of former military bases owned by the Canada Lands Company (CLC) into sustainable communities. However, unlike other developments, the regeneration project of the former Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe in Ottawa – which was announced as one of the most ambitious Smart growth projects in Canada – faced serious obstacles in terms of social acceptance by the local community, particularly urban minorities composed of Francophones, Indigenous and vulnerable groups who live near or on the Base. This turn of events led to the project being postponed and even reconsidered. Through an analysis of its press coverage, this research aims to understand the causes of this urban conflict which lasted for nearly ten years. The findings reveal that the conflict is not limited to the “standard” issues common to most conflicts related to urban mega-projects in the world – e.g., proximity issues (threads to the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods; noise, traffic, pollution, New-build gentrification) often associated with NIMBY phenomena. In this case, the local actors questioned the purpose of the project (for whom and for what types of uses is it conceived?), its local implementation (to what extent are the local history and existing environment taken into account?), and the degree of implication of the local population in the decision-making process (with whom is the project built?). Moreover, the interests of the local actors have “jumped scales” and transcend the micro-territorial level of their daily life to take on a national and even international dimension. They defined an alternative view of how this project, considered strategic by his location in the nation’s capital, should be a reference as well as an international showcase of Canadian ambition and achievement in terms of urban sustainability. This vision promoted, actually, a territorial and national identity approach - in which some cultural values are highly significant (respect of social justice, inclusivity, ethnical diversity, cultural heritage, etc.)- as a counterweight to planners’ vision which is criticized as a normative/ universalist logic that ignore the territorial peculiarities.

Keywords: smart growth, brownfield reconversion, sustainable neighborhoods, Canada Lands Company, Canadian Forces Base Rockcliffe, urban conflicts

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4 Evaluation of Housing Quality in the Urban Fringes of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Amao Funmilayo Lanrewaju

Abstract:

The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of the residents in selected urban fringes of Ibadan; identified and examined the housing and neighbourhood characteristics and evaluated housing quality in the study area. It analysed the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the residents, housing and neighbourhood characteristics as well as housing quality in the study area. This was with a view to providing information that would enhance the housing quality in urban fringes of Ibadan. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. A survey of eleven purposively selected communities from Oluyole and Egbeda local government areas in the urban fringes was conducted through a questionnaire administration and expert rating by five independent assessors (Qualified Architects) using penalty scoring within similar time-frames. The study employed a random sampling method to select a sample size of 480 houses representing 5% of the sampling frame of 9600 houses. Respondent in the first house was selected randomly and subsequently every 20th house in the streets involved was systematically selected for questionnaire administration, usually a household-head per building. The structured questionnaire elicited information on socio-economic characteristics of the residents, housing and neighbourhood characteristics, factors affecting housing quality and housing quality in the study area. Secondary data obtained for the study included the land-use plan of Ibadan from previous publications, housing demographics, population figures from relevant institutions and other published materials. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution, Cross tabulation, Correlation Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Relative Importance Index (RII). The result of the survey revealed that respondents from the Yoruba ethnic group constituted the majority, comprising 439 (91.5%) of the 480 respondents from the two local government areas selected. It also revealed that the type of tenure status of majority of the respondents in the two local government areas was self-ownership (234, 48.8%), while 44.0% of the respondents acquired their houses through personal savings. Cross tabulation indicated that majority (67.1%, 322 out of 480) of the respondents were low-income earners. The study showed that both housing and neighbourhood services were not adequately provided across neighbourhoods in the study area. Correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship between respondents’ socio–economic status and their general housing quality (r=0.46; p-value of 0.01< 0.05). The ANOVA indicated that the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the residents, housing and neighbourhood characteristics in the study area was significant (F=18.289, p=0.00; the coefficient of determination R2= 0.192). The findings from the study however revealed that there was no significant difference in the results obtained from users based evaluation and expert rating. The study concluded that housing quality in the urban fringes of Ibadan is generally poor and the socio-economic status of the residents significantly influenced the housing quality.

Keywords: housing quality, urban fringes, economic status, poverty

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