Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: molybdenum

66 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: molybdenum, phosphorus, uptake, rice,

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65 Recycling of Spent Mo-Co Catalyst for the Recovery of Molybdenum Using Cyphos IL 104

Authors: Harshit Mahandra, Rashmi Singh, Bina Gupta

Abstract:

Molybdenum is widely used in thermocouples, anticathode of X-ray tubes and in the production of alloys of steels. Molybdenum compounds are extensively used as a catalyst in petroleum-refining industries for hydrodesulphurization. Activity of the catalysts decreases gradually with time and are dumped as hazardous waste due to contamination with toxic materials during the process. These spent catalysts can serve as a secondary source for metal recovery and help to sort out environmental and economical issues. In present study, extraction and separation of molybdenum from a Mo-Co spent catalyst leach liquor containing 0.870 g L⁻¹ Mo, 0.341 g L⁻¹ Co, 0.422 ×10⁻¹ g L⁻¹ Fe and 0.508 g L⁻¹ Al in 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl has been investigated using solvent extraction technique. The extracted molybdenum has been finally recovered as molybdenum trioxide. Leaching conditions used were- 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl, 90°C temperature, solid to liquid ratio (w/v) of 1.25% and reaction time of 60 minutes. 96.45% molybdenum was leached under these conditions. For the extraction of molybdenum from leach liquor, Cyphos IL 104 [trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate] in toluene was used as an extractant. Around 91% molybdenum was extracted with 0.02 mol L⁻¹ Cyphos IL 104, and 75% of molybdenum was stripped from the loaded organic phase with 2 mol L⁻¹ HNO₃ at A/O=1/1. McCabe Thiele diagrams were drawn to determine the number of stages required for the extraction and stripping of molybdenum. According to McCabe Thiele plots, two stages are required for both extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O=1/1 which were also confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. Around 98% molybdenum was extracted in two countercurrent extraction stages with no co-extraction of cobalt and aluminum. Iron was removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol L⁻¹ HCl. Quantitative recovery of molybdenum is achieved in three countercurrent stripping stages at A/O=1/1. Trioxide of molybdenum was obtained from strip solution and was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. Molybdenum trioxide due to its distinctive electrochromic, thermochromic and photochromic properties is used as a smart material for sensors, lubricants, and Li-ion batteries. Molybdenum trioxide finds application in various processes such as methanol oxidation, metathesis, propane oxidation and in hydrodesulphurization. It can also be used as a precursor for the synthesis of MoS₂ and MoSe₂.

Keywords: Cyphos IL 104, molybdenum, spent Mo-Co catalyst, recovery

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64 Analyzing the Radar Cross-Section for Graphene, Titanium Bicarbonate, and Molybdenum Diselenide

Authors: Zhong Yu, Yanli Cui, Li Shi

Abstract:

Two-dimensional materials are utilized to reduce the radar cross-section (RCS), which estimates the stealth performance of the aircraft. The RCS of three candidate two-dimensional materials (graphene, titanium bicarbonate, and molybdenum diselenide) of three targets is analyzed by the radial point interpolation method (RPIM) algorithm with the near-field to far-field transformation (NFFFT) method. The RPIM is used to gain the near-field electromagnetic values by Maxwell equations, and the far-field electromagnetic values are obtained by the NFFFT method. The results show the value of the RCS of the molybdenum diselenide is the lowest among the proposed two-dimensional materials. The minimum values of the RCS of the molybdenum diselenide are -62.4213dBsm for pyramid at φ=271°. These experiments demonstrate that the molybdenum diselenide is a promising coating material for RCS reduction.

Keywords: graphene, molybdenum diselenide, radar cross-section, titanium bicarbonate

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63 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Ahmed Boucherit, Hussein Khalaf, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí

Abstract:

Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: extraction, molybdenum, microwave, solvent

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62 Effects of Molybdenum Treatments on Maize and Sunflower Seedlings

Authors: Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Varallay, Bela Kovacs

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to examine whether increasing molybdenum (Mo) concentration affects on the growth and Mo concentration of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Arena PR) seedlings within laboratory conditions. In this experiment calcareous chernozem soil was used and Mo was supplemented into the soil as ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] in four different concentrations as follow: 0 (control), 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg. In this study we found that molybdenum in small amount (30 mg/kg) affects positively on growth of maize and sunflower seedlings, however, higher concentration of Mo reduces the dry weights of shoots and roots. In the case of maize the highest Mo treatment (270 mg/kg) and in sunflower 90 mg/kg treatment caused significant reduction in plant growth. In addition, we observed that molybdenum contents in the roots and shoots were very low in case of control soil but were significantly elevated with increasing concentration of Mo treatment. Only in case of sunflower the highest 270 mg/kg Mo treatment caused decrease in Mo concentration.

Keywords: dry weight, maize, molybdenum, sunflower

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61 Evaluation of As-Cast U-Mo Alloys Processed in Graphite Crucible Coated with Boron Nitride

Authors: Kleiner Marques Marra, Tércio Pedrosa

Abstract:

This paper reports the production of uranium-molybdenum alloys, which have been considered promising fuel for test and research nuclear reactors. U-Mo alloys were produced in three molybdenum contents: 5 wt.%, 7 wt.%, and 10 wt.%, using an electric vacuum induction furnace. A boron nitride-coated graphite crucible was employed in the production of the alloys and, after melting, the material was immediately poured into a boron nitride-coated graphite mold. The incorporation of carbon was observed, but it happened in a lower intensity than in the case of the non-coated crucible/mold. It is observed that the carbon incorporation increased and alloys density decreased with Mo addition. It was also noticed that the increase in the carbon or molybdenum content did not seem to change the as-cast structure in terms of granulation. The three alloys presented body-centered cubic crystal structure (g phase), after solidification, besides a seeming negative microsegregation of molybdenum, from the center to the periphery of the grains. There were signs of macrosegregation, from the base to the top of the ingots.

Keywords: uranium-molybdenum alloys, incorporation of carbon, solidification, macrosegregation and microsegregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
60 Effects of Phase and Morphology on the Electrochemical and Electrochromic Performances of Tungsten Oxide and Tungsten-Molybdenum Oxide Nanostructures

Authors: Jinjoo Jung, Hayeon Won, Doyeong Jeong, Do Hyung Kim

Abstract:

We present the electrochemical and electrochromic performance of the novel crystalline tungsten oxide and tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures synthesized by utilizing solvo-thermal method with hexacarbonyl tungsten, hexacarbonyl molybdenum, and ethyl alcohol. The morphology and phase of the prepared products were highly dependent on the synthesis conditions such as synthesis and annealing temperature, synthesis time, and precursor ratio. The tungsten oxide nanostructures (TCNs) have urchin-like or spherical nanostructure with different phase of W18O49 and WO3. The morphology of tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures (TMONs) is basically similar to that of TCNs. However, the morphology and phase of TMONs are more diverse and are strongly dependent on the composition ratios of W/Mo in the precursor. The electrochemical properties depending on their morphologies and phases of TCNs and TMONs are compared using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The relationship between the electrochromic performance and phase structures/morphologies of nanostructured TCNs and TMONs are systematically investigated.

Keywords: electrochemical, electrochromic, tungsten oxide, tungsten-molybdenum oxide

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59 One Step Synthesis of Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Sanjay Upadhyay, Om Prakash Pandey

Abstract:

Hydrogen has been promoted as an alternative source of energy, which is renewable, cost-effective, and nature-friendly. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be used for mass production of hydrogen at a very low cost through electrochemical water splitting. An active and efficient electrocatalyst is required to perform this reaction. Till date, platinum (Pt) is a stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards HER. But its high cost and low abundance hiders its large scale uses. Molybdenum carbide having a similar electronic structure to platinum can be a great alternative to costly platinum. In this study, pure phase molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C) has been synthesized in a single step. Synthesis temperature and holding time have been optimized to obtain pure phases of Mo₂C. The surface, structural and morphological properties of as-synthesized compounds have been studied. The HER activity of as-synthesized compounds has been explored in detail.

Keywords: capacitance, hydrogen fuel, molybdenum carbide, nanoparticles

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58 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) Monolayers

Authors: Omar Omar, Yuan Jun, Hong Jinghua, Jin Chuanhong

Abstract:

In this work molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) and sulphur powders are used to grow MoS2 mono layers at elevated temperatures T≥800 °C. Centimetre scale continues thin films with grain size up to 410 µm have been grown using chemical vapour deposition. To our best knowledge, these domains are the largest that have been grown so far. Advantage of our approach is not only because of the high quality films with large domain size one can produce, but also the procedure is potentially less hazardous than other methods tried. The thin films have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), monolayers, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), growth and characterization

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57 A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Spent Mo-Co Catalyst

Authors: Bina Gupta, Rashmi Singh, Harshit Mahandra

Abstract:

Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum has increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. The present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3.0 mol/L HCl, and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2.0 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe- Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. According to McCabe- Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two-stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with the negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO₃ in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO₃ was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO₃ correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO₃ structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod-like morphology of synthesized MoO₃. EDX analysis of MoO₃ shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO₃ can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as a catalyst.

Keywords: cyphos Il 102, extraction, spent mo-co catalyst, recovery

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56 A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Mo-Co Spent Catalyst

Authors: Bina Gupta, Rashmi Singh, Harshit Mahandra

Abstract:

Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum have increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. Present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3 mol/L HCl and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by counter current simulation studies. According to McCabe-Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO3 was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO3correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO3 structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod like morphology of synthesized MoO3. EDX analysis of MoO3 shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO3 can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as catalyst.

Keywords: cyphos IL 102, extraction, Mo-Co spent catalyst, recovery

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55 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka

Abstract:

The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

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54 Theoretical Studies on the Formation Constant, Geometry, Vibrational Frequencies and Electronic Properties Dinuclear Molybdenum Complexes

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Behzad Padidaran Moghaddam

Abstract:

In order to measuring dinuclear molybdenum complexes formation constant First,the reactants and the products were optimized separately and then, their frequencies were measured. In next level , with using Hartree-fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods ,Theoretical studies on the geometrical parameters, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies of dinuclear molybdenum complexes [C40H44Mo2N2O20] were investigated . These calculations were performed with the B3LYP, BPV86, B3PW91 and HF theoretical method using the LANL2DZ (for Mo’s) + 6-311G (for others) basis sets. To estimate the error rate between theoretical data and experimental data, RSquare , SError and RMS values that according with the theoretical and experimental parameters found out DFT methods has more integration with experimental data compare to HF methods. In addition, through electron specification of compounds, the percentage of atomic orbital’s attendance in making molecular orbital’s, atoms electrical charge, the sustainable energy resulting and also HOMO and LUMO orbital’s energy achieved.

Keywords: geometrical parameters, hydrogen bonding, electronic properties, vibrational frequencies

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53 Application of Various Methods for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils around Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Mine Complex, Armenia

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan

Abstract:

The present study was aimed in assessing the heavy metal pollution of the soils around Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex and related environmental risks. This mine complex is located in the south-east part of Armenia, and the present study was conducted in 2013. The soils of the five riskiest sites of this region were studied: surroundings of the open mine, the sites adjacent to processing plant of Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, surroundings of Darazam active tailing dump, the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 2”, and the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 3”. The mountain cambisol was the main soil type in the study sites. The level of soil contamination by heavy metals was assessed by Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) and Enrichment factor (EF). The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to Cf, Cd, I-geo and EF values shows that the soil is much polluted. Almost in all studied sites, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Cd were the main polluting heavy metals, and this was conditioned by Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex activity. It is necessary to state that the pollution problem becomes pressing as some parts of these highly polluted region are inhabited by population, and agriculture is highly developed there; therefore, heavy metals can be transferred into human bodies through food chains and have direct influence on public health. Since the induced pollution can pose serious threats to public health, further investigations on soil and vegetation pollution are recommended. Finally, Cf calculating based on distance from the pollution source and the wind direction can provide more reasonable results.

Keywords: Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, heavy metals, soil contamination, enrichment factor (EF), Armenia

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52 Diffusion Treatment of Niobium and Molybdenum on Pur Titanium and Titanium Alloy Ti-64al and Their Properties

Authors: Kaouka Alaeddine, K. Benarous

Abstract:

This study aims to obtain a surface of pure titanium and titanium alloy Ti-64Al with high performance by the diffusion process. Two agents metal alloy have been used in this treatment, niobium (Nb) and molybdenum (Mo), spread on elemental titanium and Ti-64Al alloy. Nb and Mo are used as powder form to increase the contact surface and to improve the distribution. Both Mo and Nb are distributed on samples of Ti and Ti-64Al at 1100 °C and 1200 °C for 3 h. They were performed to effect different experiments objectives. This work was achieved to improve some properties and microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al surface, using optical microscopy and SEM and study some mechanical properties. The effects of temperature and the powder contents on the microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy, different phases and hardness value of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy were determined. Experimental results indicate that increasing the powder contents and/or the temperature, the α + β phases change to the equiaxed β lamellar structure. In particular, experiments in 1200 °C were created by diffusion α + β phases both equiaxed β phase laminar and α + β phase, thus meeting the objectives were established in the work. In addition, simulation results are used for comparison with the experimental results by DICTRA software.

Keywords: diffusion, powder metallurgy, titanium alloy, molybdenum, niobium

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51 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan

Abstract:

The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

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50 Study of Corrosion Behavior of Experimental Alloys with Different Levels of Cr and High Levels of Mo Compared to Aisi 444

Authors: Ana P. R. N. Barroso, Maurício N. Kleinberg, Frederico R. Silva, Rodrigo F. Guimarães, Marcelo M. V. Parente, Walney S. Araújo

Abstract:

The fight against accelerated wear of the equipment used in the oil and gas sector is a challenge for minimizing maintenance costs. Corrosion being one of the main agents of equipment deterioration, we seek alternative materials that exhibit improved corrosion resistance at low cost of production. This study aims to evaluate the corrosion behavior of experimental alloys containing 15% and 17% of chromium (Cr) and 5% of molybdenum (Mo) in comparison with an AISI 444 commercial alloy. Microstructural analyzes were performed on samples of the alloys before and after the electrochemical tests. Two samples of each solubilized alloy were also taken for analysis of the corrosion behavior by testing potentiodynamic polarization (PP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with immersion time of 24 hours in electrolytic solution with acidic character. The graphics obtained through electrochemical tests of PP and EIS indicated that among the experimental alloys, the alloy with higher chromium content (17%) had a higher corrosion resistance, confirming the beneficial effect of adding chromium. When comparing the experimental alloys with the AISI 444 commercial alloy, it is observed that the AISI 444 commercial alloy showed superior corrosion resistance to that of the experimental alloys for both assays, PP and EIS. The microstructural analyzes performed after the PP and EIS tests confirmed the results previously described. These results suggest that the addition of these levels of molybdenum did not favor the electrochemical behavior of experimental ferritic alloys for the electrolytic medium studied.

Keywords: corrosion, molybdenum, electrochemical tests, experimental alloys

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49 Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts

Authors: Craig Jantzen, Tim Abram, Dirk Engelberg, Hugues Lambert, Daniel Cooper

Abstract:

Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.

Keywords: molten salt, salt, corrosion, high temperature, licl, KCL, MgCl, molybdenum, nickel, superalloys

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48 Performance Study of Experimental Ferritic Alloy with High Content of Molybdenum in Corrosive Environment of Soybean Methyl Biodiesel

Authors: Maurício N. Kleinberg, Ana P. R. N. Barroso, Frederico R. Silva, Natasha l. Gomes, Rodrigo F. Guimarães, Marcelo M. V. Parente, Jackson Q. Malveira

Abstract:

Increased production of biofuels, especially biodiesel, as an option to replace the diesel derived from oil is already a reality in countries seeking a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel, as is the case in Brazil. However, it is known that the use of fuels, renewable or not, implies that it is in contact with various metallic materials which may cause corrosion. In the search for more corrosion resistant materials has been experimentally observed that the addition of molybdenum in ferritic steels increases their protective character without significantly burdening the cost of production. In order to evaluate the effect of adding molybdenum, samples of commercial steel (austenitic, ferritic and carbon steel) and the experimental ferritic alloy with a high molybdenum content (5.3%) were immersed separately into biodiesel derived from transesterification of soy oil to monitor the corrosion process of these metal samples, and in parallel to analyze the oxidative degradation of biodiesel itself. During the immersion time of 258 days, biodiesel samples were taken for analysis of acidity, kinematic viscosity, density and refraction. Likewise, the metal samples were taken from the biodiesel to be weighed and microstructurally analyzed by light microscopy. The results obtained at the end of 258 days shown that biodiesel presented a considerable increase on the values of the studied parameters for all the samples. However, this increase was not able to produce significant mass loss in metallic samples. As regards the microstructural analysis, it showed the onset of surface oxidation on the carbon steel sample. As for the other samples, no significant surface changes were shown. These results are consistent with literature for short immersion times. It is concluded that the increase in the values of the studied parameters is not significant yet, probably due to the low time of immersion and exposure of the samples. Thus, it is necessary to continue the tests so that the objectives of this work are achieved.

Keywords: biodiesel, corrosion, immersion, experimental alloy

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47 Alteration Quartz-Kfeldspar-Apatite-Molybdenite at B Anomaly Prospection with Artificial Neural Network to Determining Molydenite Economic Deposits in Malala District, Western Sulawesi

Authors: Ahmad Lutfi, Nikolas Dhega

Abstract:

The Malala deposit in northwest Sulawesi is the only known porphyry molybdenum and the only source for rhenium, occurrence in Indonesia. The neural network method produces results that correspond very closely to those of the knowledge-based fuzzy logic method and weights of evidence method. This method required data of solid geology, regional faults, airborne magnetic, gamma-ray survey data and GIS data. This interpretation of the network output fits with the intuitive notion that a prospective area has characteristics that closely resemble areas known to contain mineral deposits. Contrasts with the weights of evidence and fuzzy logic methods, where, for a given grid location, each input-parameter value automatically results in an increase in the prospective estimated. Malala District indicated molybdenum anomalies in stream sediments from in excess of 15 km2 were obtained, including the Takudan Fault as most prominent structure with striking 40̊ to 60̊ over a distance of about 30 km and in most places weakly at anomaly B, developed over an area of 4 km2, with a ‘shell’ up to 50 m thick at the intrusive contact with minor mineralization occurring in the Tinombo Formation. Series of NW trending, steeply dipping fracture zones, named the East Zone has an estimated resource of 100 Mt at 0.14% MoS2 and minimum target of 150 Mt 0.25%. The Malala porphyries occur as stocks and dykes with predominantly granitic, with fluorine-poor class of molybdenum deposits and belongs to the plutonic sub-type. Unidirectional solidification textures consisting of subparallel, crenulated layers of quartz that area separated by layers of intrusive material textures. The deuteric nature of the molybdenum mineralization and the dominance of carbonate alteration.The nature of the Stage I with alteration barren quartz K‐feldspar; and Stage II with alteration quartz‐K‐feldspar‐apatite-molybdenite veins combined with the presence of disseminated molybdenite with primary biotite in the host intrusive.

Keywords: molybdenite, Malala, porphyries, anomaly B

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46 Effect of Molybdenum Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Titanium Plus Boron on Its Grain Size and Mechanical Characteristics in the Cast and After Pressing by the Equal Channel Angular Pressing Conditions

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid, A. M. Attieh, S. M. A. Al Qawabah

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys solidify in columnar structure with large grain size which tends to reduce their mechanical strength and surface quality. They are, therefore, grain refined by addition of either titanium or titanium plus boron to their melt before solidification. Equal channel angular pressing, ECAP, process is a recent forming method for producing heavy plastic deformation in materials. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition to aluminum grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics are investigated in the as cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process. It was found that addition of Mo or Ti+B alone or together to aluminum resulted in grain refining of its microstructure in the as cast condition, as the average grain size was reduced from 139 micron to 46 micron when Mo and Ti+B are added together. Pressing by the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the microstructure where 32 micron of average grain size was achieved in Al and the Al-Mo microalloy. Regarding the mechanical strength, addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical behavior but resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behavior when added together, increase of 10% in flow stress was achieved at 20% strain. However, pressing by ECAP addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical strength but reduced its strength when added together.

Keywords: ECAP, aluminum, cast, mechanical characteristics, Mo grain refiner

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45 Infrared Lightbox and iPhone App for Improving Detection Limit of Phosphate Detecting Dip Strips

Authors: H. Heidari-Bafroui, B. Ribeiro, A. Charbaji, C. Anagnostopoulos, M. Faghri

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the development of a portable and inexpensive infrared lightbox for improving the detection limits of paper-based phosphate devices. Commercial paper-based devices utilize the molybdenum blue protocol to detect phosphate in the environment. Although these devices are easy to use and have a long shelf life, their main deficiency is their low sensitivity based on the qualitative results obtained via a color chart. To improve the results, we constructed a compact infrared lightbox that communicates wirelessly with a smartphone. The system measures the absorbance of radiation for the molybdenum blue reaction in the infrared region of the spectrum. It consists of a lightbox illuminated by four infrared light-emitting diodes, an infrared digital camera, a Raspberry Pi microcontroller, a mini-router, and an iPhone to control the microcontroller. An iPhone application was also developed to analyze images captured by the infrared camera in order to quantify phosphate concentrations. Additionally, the app connects to an online data center to present a highly scalable worldwide system for tracking and analyzing field measurements. In this study, the detection limits for two popular commercial devices were improved by a factor of 4 for the Quantofix devices (from 1.3 ppm using visible light to 300 ppb using infrared illumination) and a factor of 6 for the Indigo units (from 9.2 ppm to 1.4 ppm) with repeatability of less than or equal to 1.2% relative standard deviation (RSD). The system also provides more granular concentration information compared to the discrete color chart used by commercial devices and it can be easily adapted for use in other applications.

Keywords: infrared lightbox, paper-based device, phosphate detection, smartphone colorimetric analyzer

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44 Preparation and Characterization of CO-Tolerant Electrocatalyst for PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Ádám Vass, István Bakos, Irina Borbáth, Zoltán Pászti, István Sajó, András Tompos

Abstract:

Important requirements for the anode side electrocatalysts of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are CO-tolerance, stability and corrosion resistance. Carbon is still the most common material for electrocatalyst supports due to its low cost, high electrical conductivity and high surface area, which can ensure good dispersion of the Pt. However, carbon becomes degraded at higher potentials and it causes problem during application. Therefore it is important to explore alternative materials with improved stability. Molybdenum-oxide can improve the CO-tolerance of the Pt/C catalysts, but it is prone to leach in acidic electrolyte. The Mo was stabilized by isovalent substitution of molybdenum into the rutile phase titanium-dioxide lattice, achieved by a modified multistep sol-gel synthesis method optimized for preparation of Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite. High degree of Mo incorporation into the rutile lattice was developed. The conductivity and corrosion resistance across the anticipated potential/pH window was ensured by mixed oxide – activated carbon composite. Platinum loading was carried out using NaBH4 and ethylene glycol; platinum content was 40 wt%. The electrocatalyst was characterized by both material investigating methods (i.e. XRD, TEM, EDS, XPS techniques) and electrochemical methods (cyclic-voltammetry, COads stripping voltammetry, hydrogen oxidation reaction on rotating disc electrode). The electrochemical activity of the sample was compared to commercial 40 wt% Pt/C (Quintech) and PtRu/C (Quintech, Pt= 20 wt%, Ru= 10 wt%) references. Enhanced CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst prepared using the Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material was evidenced by the appearance of a CO-oxidation related 'pre-peak' and by the pronounced shift of the maximum of the main CO oxidation peak towards less positive potential compared to Pt/C. Fuel cell polarization measurements were also carried out using Bio-Logic and Paxitech FCT-150S test device. All details on the design, preparation, characterization and testing by both electrochemical measurements and fuel cell test device of electrocatalyst supported on Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: anode electrocatalyst, composite material, CO-tolerance, TiMoOx

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43 Inventive Synthesis and Characterization of a Cesium Molybdate Compound: CsBi(MoO4)2

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Cesium molybdates with general formula CsMIII(MoO4)2, where MIII = Bi, Dy, Pr, Er, exhibit rich polymorphism, and crystallize in a layered structure. These properties cause intensive studies on cesium molybdates. CsBi(MoO4)2 was synthesized by microwave method by using cerium sulphate, bismuth oxide and molybdenum (VI) oxide in an appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: cesium bismuth dimolybdate, microwave synthesis, powder x-ray diffraction, rare earth dimolybdates

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42 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai, L. U. S. Ezeanyika

Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: heavy metals, female, adolescents, Nigeria

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41 Mechanochemical Synthesis of Al2O3/Mo Nanocomposite Powders from Molybdenum Oxide

Authors: Behrooz Ghasemi, Bahram Sharijian

Abstract:

Al2O3/Mo nanocomposite powders were successfully synthesized by mechanical milling through mechanochemical reaction between MoO3 and Al. The structural evolutions of powder particles during mechanical milling were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that Al2O3-Mo was completely obtained after 5 hr of milling. The crystallite sizes of Al2O3 and Mo after milling for 20 hr were about 45 nm and 23 nm, respectively. With longer milling time, the intensities of Al2O3 and Mo peaks decreased and became broad due to the decrease in crystallite size. Morphological features of powders were influenced by the milling time. The resulting Al2O3- Mo nanocomposite powder exhibited an average particle size of 200 nm after 20 hr of milling. Also nanocomposite powder after 10 hr milling had relatively equiaxed shape with uniformly distributed Mo phase in Al2O3 matrix.

Keywords: Al2O3/Mo, nanocomposites, mechanochemical, mechanical milling

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40 Catalytic Deoxygenation of Propionic Acid in the Vapour Phase

Authors: Hossein Bayahia, Mohammed Saad Motlaq Al-Gahmdi

Abstract:

The gas-phase deoxygenation of propionic acid was investigated in the presence of Co-Mo catalysts in N2 or H2 flow at 200-400 °C. In the presence of N2 the main product was 3-pentanone with other deoxygenates and some light gases: ethane and ethene. Using H2 flow, the catalyst was active for decarboxylation and decarbonylation of acid and the yields of ethane and ethene. The decarboxylation and decarbonylation reactions increased with increasing temperature. Cobalt-molybdenum supported on alumina showed better performance than bulk catalyst, especially at 400 °C in the presence of N2 for the ketonisation of propionic acid to form 3-pentanone as the main product. Bulk and supported catalysts were characterized by surface area porosity (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) of pyridine adsorption.

Keywords: deoxygenation, propionic acid, gas-phase, catalyst

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39 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: nanoparticles, thermite reaction, combustion wave, numerical modeling

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38 Approximation of Selenium Content in Watermelons for Use as a Food Supplement

Authors: Roggers Mutwiri Aron

Abstract:

Watermelons are fruits that belong to the family cucurbitaceous. There are many types of watermelons have been positively identified to exist in the world. A watermelon consists of four distinct parts namely; seeds, pink flesh, white flesh and peel. It also contains high content of water of approximately 90% that is rich in essential minerals such as, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, sodium trace amounts of copper, iron, zinc and selenium. Watermelons have substantial amounts of boron, iodine, chromium, silicon and molybdenum. The levels of nutrients in different parts of the watermelons may be different. Selenium has been found to be a very useful food supplement especially for people living with HIV/AIDS. An experimental study was carried out to estimate the amount Se in different parts of the watermelon. Analysis of sampled watermelons was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the study indicated that high content of Se was present in the seeds compared to the other parts. High content of Se was also found in the water contained in the watermelon seeds.

Keywords: food supplement, watermelons, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, fruits

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37 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri

Abstract:

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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