Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 641

Search results for: molten salt

641 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of the Surface Layer on Inconel 625 after Exposition in Molten Salt

Authors: Marie Kudrnova, Jana Petru


This study is part of the international research - Materials for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) and addresses the part of the project dealing with the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials. Inconel 625 was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after high–temperature experiment in molten salt. The experiment was performed in a horizontal tube furnace molten salt reactor, at 450 °C in argon, at atmospheric pressure, for 150 hours. Industrially produced HITEC salt was used (NaNO3, KNO3, NaNO2). The XPS study was carried out using the ESCAProbe P apparatus (Omicron Nanotechnology Ltd.) equipped with a monochromatic Al Kα (1486.6 eV) X-ray source. The surface layer on alloy 625 after exposure contains only Na, C, O, and Ni (as NiOx) and Nb (as NbOx BE 206.8 eV). Ni was detected in the metallic state (Ni0 – Ni 2p BE-852.7 eV, NiOx - Ni 2p BE-854.7 eV) after a short Ar sputtering because the oxide layer on the surface was very thin. Nickel oxides can form a protective layer in the molten salt, but only future long-term exposures can determine the suitability of Inconel 625 for MSR.

Keywords: Inconel 625, molten salt, oxide layer, XPS

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640 Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts

Authors: Craig Jantzen, Tim Abram, Dirk Engelberg, Hugues Lambert, Daniel Cooper


Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.

Keywords: molten salt, salt, corrosion, high temperature, licl, KCL, MgCl, molybdenum, nickel, superalloys

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639 Effect of Moisture Removal from Molten Salt on Corrosion of Alloys

Authors: Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, Divya Raghunandanan, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Molten fluoride salt FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a promising candidate as high temperature coolant for next generation nuclear reactors due to its superior thermophysical properties. Corrosion of alloys in molten FLiNaK has however been recognized as a serious issue in the selection of structural materials. Corrosion experiments of alloys Inconel-625 (Fe-Ni alloy) and Hastelloy-B (Ni-Mo alloy) were performed in FLiNaK salt. The tests were carried out at a temperature of 650°C in graphite crucibles for 60 hours under inert atmosphere. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of moisture removal in the salt by pre heating and vacuum drying. Weight loss of the alloy samples due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloy samples was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate was observed for the alloys studied in moisture removed salt.

Keywords: FLiNaK, hastelloy, inconel, weight loss

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638 The Effect of Internal Electrical Ion Mobility on Molten Salts through Atomistic Simulations

Authors: Carlos F. Sanz-Navarro, Sonia Fereres


Binary and ternary mixtures of molten salts are excellent thermal energy storage systems and have been widely used in commercial tanks both in nuclear and solar thermal applications. However, the energy density of the commercially used mixtures is still insufficient, and therefore, new systems based on latent heat storage (or phase change materials, PCM) are currently being investigated. In order to shed some light on the macroscopic physical properties of the molten salt phases, knowledge of the microscopic structure and dynamics is required. Several molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to model the thermal behavior of (Li,K)2CO3 mixtures. Up to this date, this particular molten salt mixture has not been extensively studied but it is of fundamental interest for understanding the behavior of other commercial salts. Molten salt diffusivities, the internal electrical ion mobility, and the physical properties of the solid-liquid phase transition have been calculated and compared to available data from literature. The effect of anion polarization and the application of a strong external electric field have also been investigated. The influence of electrical ion mobility on local composition is explained through the Chemla effect, well known in electrochemistry. These results open a new way to design optimal high temperature energy storage materials.

Keywords: atomistic simulations, thermal storage, latent heat, molten salt, ion mobility

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637 Corrosion Behavior of Steels in Molten Salt Reactors

Authors: Jana Rejková, Marie Kudrnová


This paper deals with the research of materials for one of the types of reactors IV. generation - reactor with molten salts. One of the advantages of molten salts applied as a coolant in reactors is the ability to operate at relatively low pressures, as opposed to cooling with water or gases. Compared to liquid metal cooling, which also allows lower operating pressures, salt melts are less prone to chemical reactions. The service life of the construction materials used is limited by the operating temperatures of the reactor and the content of impurities in the salts. For the research of corrosion resistance, an experimental device was designed and assembled, enabling exposure at high temperatures without access to oxygen in a flowing atmosphere of inert gas. Nickel alloys Inconel 601, 617, and 625 were tested in a mixture of chloride salts LiCl – KCl (58,2 - 41,8 wt. %). The experiment showed high resistance of the materials used and based on the results and XPS analysis, other construction materials were proposed for the experiments.

Keywords: molten salt, corrosion, nuclear reactor, nickel alloy

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636 Experimental Device to Test Corrosion Behavior of Materials in the Molten Salt Reactor Environment

Authors: Jana Petru, Marie Kudrnova


The use of technologies working with molten salts is conditioned by finding suitable construction materials that must meet several demanding criteria. In addition to temperature resistance, materials must also show corrosion resistance to salts; they must meet mechanical requirements and other requirements according to the area of use – for example, radiation resistance in Molten Salt Reactors. The present text describes an experimental device for studying the corrosion resistance of candidate materials in molten mixtures of salts and is a partial task of the international project ADAR, dealing with the evaluation of advanced nuclear reactors based on molten salts. The design of the device is based on a test exposure of Inconel 625 in the mixture of salts Hitec in a high temperature tube furnace. The result of the pre-exposure is, in addition to the metallographic evaluation of the behavior of material 625 in the mixture of nitrate salts, mainly a list of operational and construction problems that were essential for the construction of the new experimental equipment. The main output is a scheme of a newly designed gas-tight experimental apparatus capable of operating in an inert argon atmosphere, temperature up to 600 °C, pressure 3 bar, in the presence of a corrosive salt environment, with an exposure time of hundreds of hours. This device will enable the study of promising construction materials for nuclear energy.

Keywords: corrosion, experimental device, molten salt, steel

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635 Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Natural Draft Direct Cooling System for a Molten Salt Power Tower

Authors: Huiqiang Yang, Domingo Santana


Reducing parasitic power consumption of concentrating solar power plants is the main challenge to increase the overall efficiency, particularly for molten salt tower technology. One of the most effective approaches to reduce the parasitic power consumption is to implement a natural draft dry cooling system instead of the standard utilized mechanical draft dry cooling system. In this paper, a thermo-economic analysis of a natural draft direct cooling system was performed based on a 100MWe commercial scale molten salt power plant. In this configuration with a natural draft direct cooling system, the exhaust steam from steam turbine flows directly to the heat exchanger bundles inside the natural draft dry cooling tower, which eliminates the power consumption of circulation pumps or fans, although the cooling tower shadows a portion of the heliostat field. The simulation results also show that compared to a mechanical draft cooling system the annual solar field efficiency is decreased by about 0.2% due to the shadow, which is equal to a reduction of approximately 13% of the solar field area. As a contrast, reducing the solar field size by 13% in purpose in a molten salt power plant with a natural draft drying cooling system actually will lead to a reduction of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by about 4.06% without interfering the power generated.

Keywords: molten salt power tower, natural draft dry cooling, parasitic power consumption, commercial scale

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634 Numerical Modeling of a Molten Salt Power Tower Configuration Adaptable for Harsh Winter Climate

Authors: Huiqiang Yang, Domingo Santana


This paper proposes a novel configuration which introduces a natural draft dry cooling tower system in a molten salt power tower. A three-dimensional numerical modeling was developed based on the novel configuration. A plan of building 20 new concentrating solar power plants has been announced by Chinese government in September 2016, and among these 20 new plants, most of them are located in regions with long winter and harsh winter climate. The innovative configuration proposed includes an external receiver concrete tower at the center, a natural draft dry cooling tower which is surrounding the external receiver concrete tower and whose shell is fixed on the external receiver concrete tower, and a power block (including a steam generation system, a steam turbine system and hot/cold molten salt tanks, and water treatment systems) is covered by the roof of the natural draft dry cooling tower. Heat exchanger bundles are vertically installed at the furthest edge of the power block. In such a way, all power block equipment operates under suitable environmental conditions through whole year operation. The monthly performance of the novel configuration is simulated as compared to a standard one. The results show that the novel configuration is much more efficient in each separate month in a typical meteorological year. Moreover, all systems inside the power block have less thermal losses at low ambient temperatures, especially in harsh winter climate. It is also worthwhile mentioning that a photovoltaic power plant can be installed on the roof of the cooling tower to reduce the parasites of the molten salt power tower.

Keywords: molten salt power tower, natural draft dry cooling, commercial scale, power block, harsh winter climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
633 CFD simulation of Near Wall Turbulence and Heat Transfer of Molten Salts

Authors: C. S. Sona, Makrand A. Khanwale, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


New generation nuclear power plants are currently being developed to be highly economical, to be passive safe, to produce hydrogen. An important feature of these reactors will be the use of coolants at temperature higher than that being used in current nuclear reactors. The molten fluoride salt with a eutectic composition of 46.5% LiF - 11.5% NaF - 42% KF (mol %) commonly known as FLiNaK is a leading candidate for heat transfer coolant for these nuclear reactors. CFD simulations were carried out using large eddy simulations to investigate the flow characteristics of molten FLiNaK at 850°C at a Reynolds number of 10,500 in a cylindrical pipe. Simulation results have been validated with the help of mean velocity profile using direct numerical simulation data. Transient velocity information was used to identify and characterise turbulent structures which are important for transfer of heat across solid-fluid interface. A wavelet transform based methodology called wavelet transform modulus maxima was used to identify and characterise the singularities. This analysis was also used for flow visualisation, and also to calculate the heat transfer coefficient using small eddy model. The predicted Nusselt number showed good agreement with the available experimental data.

Keywords: FLiNaK, heat transfer, molten salt, turbulent structures

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632 Adsorption of Congo Red on MgO Nanoparticles Prepared by Molten Salt Method

Authors: Shahbaa F. Bdewi, Bakhtyar K. Aziz, Ayad A. R. Mutar


Nano-materials show different surface properties due to their high surface area and active sites. This study investigates the feasibility of using nano-MgO (NMO) for removing Congo red (CR) dye from wastewater. NMO was prepared by molten salt method. Equilibrium experiments show the equilibrium was reached after 120 minutes and maximum adsorption efficiency was obtained in acidic media up to pH 6. Isotherm studies revealed the favorability of the adsorption process. The overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1100 mg g-1 at 40°C as estimated from Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo second-order rate equation. Relatively high activation energy (180.7 kJ mol-1) was obtained which is consistent with chemisorption mechanism for the adsorption process.

Keywords: adsorption, congo red, magnesium oxide, nanoparticles

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631 Heat Transfer Performance for Turbulent Flow through a Tube Using Baffles

Authors: Amina Benabderrahmane, Abdelylah Benazza, Samir Laouedj


Three dimensional numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement inside a non-uniformly heated parabolic trough solar collector fitted with baffles under turbulent flow was studied in the current paper. Molten salt is used as heat transfer fluid and simulations are carried out in ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The present data was validating by the empirical correlations available in the literatures and good agreement was obtained. The Nusselt number and friction factor values for using baffles are considerably higher than that for smooth pipe. The emplacement and the distance between two consecutive baffles have an effect non-negligible on heat transfer characteristics; the results demonstrate that the temperature gradient reduces with the inclusion of inserts.

Keywords: Baffles, heat transfer enhancement, molten salt, Monte Carlo ray trace technique, numerical investigation

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630 Development of Al Foam by a Low-Cost Salt Replication Method for Industrial Applications

Authors: B. Soni, S. Biswas


Metal foams of Al find diverse applications in several industrial sectors such as in automotive and sports equipment industry as impact, acoustic and vibration absorbers, the aerospace industry as structural components in turbines and spatial cones, in the naval industry as low frequency vibration absorbers, and in construction industry as sound barriers inside tunnels, as fire proof materials and structure protection systems against explosions and even in heat exchangers, orthopedic components, and decorative items. Here, we report on the development of Al foams by a low cost and convenient technique of salt replication method with efficient control over size, geometry and distribution of the pores. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the foaming agent to form the porous refractory salt pattern. The mixed refractory salt slurry was microwave dried followed by sintering for selected time periods. Molten Al was infiltrated into the salt pattern in an inert atmosphere at a pressure of 2 bars. The final products were obtained by leaching out the refractory salt pattern. Mechanical properties of the derived samples were studied with a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed in correlation with their microstructural features evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: metal foam, Al, salt replication method, mechanical properties, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
629 Technologies for Solar Energy Storage and Utilization Using Mixture of Molten Salts and Polymers

Authors: Anteneh Mesfin Yeneneh, Abdul Shakoor, Jimoh Adewole, Safinaz Al Balushi, Sara Al Balushi


The research work focuses on exploring better technologies for solar energy storage. The research has the objective of substituting fossil fuels with renewable solar energy technology. This was the reason that motivated the research team to search for alternatives to develop an eco-friendly desalination process, which fully depends on the solar energy source. The Authors also investigated the potential of using different salt mixtures for better solar energy storage and better pure water productivity. Experiments were conducted to understand the impacts of solar energy collection and storage techniques on heat accumulation, heat storage capacity of various compositions of salt mixtures. Based on the experiments conducted, the economic and technical advantages of the integrated water desalination was assessed. Experiments also showed that the best salts with a higher storage efficiency of heat energy are NaCl, KNO3, and MgCl26H2O and polymers such as Poly Propylene and Poly Ethylene Terephthalate.

Keywords: molten salts, desalination, solar energy storage and utilization, polymers

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628 A Review on the Use of Salt in Building Construction

Authors: Vesna Pungercar, Florian Musso


Identifying materials that can substitute rare or expensive natural resources is one of the key challenges for improving resource efficiency in the building sector. With a growing world population and rising living standards, more and more salt is produced as waste through seawater desalination and potash mining processes. Unfortunately, most of the salt is directly disposed of into nature, where it causes environmental pollution. On the other hand, salt is affordable, is used therapeutically in various respiratory treatments, and can store humidity and heat. It was, therefore, necessary to determine salt materials already in use in building construction and their hygrothermal properties. This research aims to identify salt materials from different scientific branches and historically, to investigate their properties and prioritize the most promising salt materials for indoor applications in a thermal envelope. This was realized through literature review and classification of salt materials into three groups (raw salt materials, composite salt materials, and processed salt materials). The outcome of this research shows that salt has already been used as a building material for centuries and has a potential for future applications due to its hygrothermal properties in a thermal envelope.

Keywords: salt, building material, hygrothermal properties, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
627 Salt Scarcity and Crisis Solution in Islam Perspective

Authors: Taufik Nugroho, Firsty Dzainuurahmana, Tika Widiastuti


The polemic about the salt crisis re-emerged, this is a classic problem in Indonesia and is still a homework that is not finished yet. This salt crisis occurs due to low productivity of salt commodities that have not been able to meet domestic demand and lack of salt productivity caused by several factors. One of the biggest factors of the crisis is the weather anomaly that disrupts salt production, less supportive technology and price stability. This study will try to discuss the salt scarcity and crisis solution in Islamic view. As for the conclusion of this study is the need for equilibrium or balancing between demand and supply, need to optimize the role of the government as Hisbah to maintain the balance of market mechanisms and prepare the stock system of salt stock by buying farmers products at reasonable prices then storing them.

Keywords: crisis, Islamic solution, scarcity, salt

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626 Halophilic Bacterium: A Review of New Studies

Authors: Bassam Al Johny


Halophilic bacteria are organisms which thrive in salt-rich environments, such as salt lakes, solar salterns and salt mines which contain large populations of these organisms. In biotechnology, such salt-tolerant bacteria are widely used for the production of valuable enzymes, and more than a thousand years ago humans began using salt to cure and thereby preserve perishable foods and other materials, such as hides; halophiles can be detrimental to the preservation of salt brine cured hides. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the taxonomy of these organisms including novel isolates from rock salt, and also to discuss their current and future biotechnological and environmental uses.

Keywords: hypersaline environments, halophilic bacteria, environmental application, industrial application

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625 Evaluation of Salt Content in Bread and the Amount Intake by Hypertensive Patients in the Algiers Region

Authors: S.lanasri, A.Boudjerrane, R.Belgherbi, O.Hadjoudj


Introduction: Bread is the most popular food in Algeria. The aim of this study was to examine the consumption of salt from bread by hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: sixty breads were collected from different artisans Algiers bakeries, each sample was mixed in harm distilled water until homogeneous and filtered. Analysis of the salt content was carried out according to the Mohr method titration. We calculated the amount of salt in bread consumed by 100 hypertensive patients using a questionnaire about the average amount of bread per day. Results: The salt content values from bread were 3.4g ± 0.37 NaCl / 100g.The average amount of salt consumed per day by patients from only bread was 3.82 g ± 3.8 with a maximum of 17 g per day. Only 38.18% of patients consume bread without salt even then 95% knew that excess salt intake can complicate hypertension. Conclusion: This study showed that bread is a major contributor to salt intake by Algerian hypertensive patients.

Keywords: salt, bread, hypertensive patients, Algiers

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624 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan


We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: salt stress, soybean, antioxidant, photosynthesis

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623 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak


Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.

Keywords: nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt, ionic liquid

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622 Study on the Effect of Coupling Fluid Compressible-Deformable Wall on the Flow of Molten Polymers

Authors: Mohamed Driouich, Kamal Gueraoui, Mohamed Sammouda


The main objective of this work is to establish a numerical code for studying the flow of molten polymers in deformable pipes. Using an iterative numerical method based on finite differences, we determine the profiles of the fluid velocity, the temperature and the apparent viscosity of the fluid. The numerical code presented can also be applied to other industrial applications.

Keywords: numerical code, molten polymers, deformable pipes, finite differences

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621 Effect of Nickel Coating on Corrosion of Alloys in Molten Salts

Authors: Divya Raghunandanan, Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Molten fluoride salts are considered as potential coolants for next generation nuclear plants where the heat can be utilized for production of hydrogen and electricity. Among molten fluoride salts, FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a potential candidate for the coolant due to its superior thermophysical properties such as high temperature stability, boiling point, volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Major technical challenge in implementation is the selection of structural material which can withstand corrosive nature of FLiNaK. Corrosion study of alloys SS 316L, Hastelloy B, Ni-201 was performed in molten FLiNaK at 650°C. Nickel was found to be more resistant to corrosive attack in molten fluoride medium. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of nickel coating on corrosion of alloys SS 316L and Hastelloy B. Weight loss of the alloys due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloys was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Keywords: corrosion, FLiNaK, hastelloy, weight loss

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620 Thermodynamics of Chlorination of Acid-Soluble Titanium Slag in Molten Salt for Preparation of TiCl4

Authors: Li Liang


Chinese titanium iron ore reserves with high calcium and magnesium accounted for more than 90% of the total reserves, and acid-soluble titanium slag which is produced by titanium iron ore always used to produce titanium dioxide through sulphate process. To broad the application range of acid-soluble titanium slag, the feasibility and thermodynamics of chlorinated reaction for preparation TiCl4 by titanium slag chlorination in molten slat were conducted in this paper. The analysis results show that TiCl4 can be obtained by chlorinate the acid-dissolved titanium slag with carbon. Component’s thermodynamics reaction trend is: CaO>MnO>FeO(FeCl2)>MgO>V2O5>Fe2O3>FeO(FeCl3)>TiO2>Al2O3>SiO2 in the standard state. Industrial experimental results are consistent with the thermodynamics analysis, the content of TiCl4 is more than 98% in the production. Fe, Si, V, Al, and other impurity content can satisfy the requirements of production.

Keywords: thermodynamics, acid-soluble titanium slag, preparation of TiCl4, chlorination

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619 Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery

Authors: Turan Çalban, Oral Laçin, Abdüsselam Kurtbaş


The experimental production methods Chevreul’s salt being a intermediate stage product for copper recovery were investigated by dealing with the articles written on this topic. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O, being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound has been obtained by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has a intense brick-red color. It is a highly stable and expensive salt. The production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hiydrometallurgy. In recent years, researchs on this compound have been intensified. Silva et al. reported that this salt is thermally stable up to 200oC. Çolak et al. precipitated the Chevreul’s salt by using ammonia and sulphur dioxide. Çalban et al. obtained at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from leach solutions with NH3-(NH4)2SO4. Yeşiryurt and Çalban investigated the optimum precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt from synthetic CuSO4 solutions including Na2SO3. Çalban et al. achieved the precipitation of Chevreul’s salt at the optimum conditions by passing SO2 from synthetic CuSO4 solutions. Çalban et al. examined the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt using (NH4)2SO3 from synthetic aqueous CuSO4 solutions. In light of these studies, it can be said that Chevreul’s salt can be produced practically from both a leach solutions including copper and synthetic CuSO4 solutions.

Keywords: Chevreul’s salt, ammonia, copper sulpfite, sodium sülfite, optimum conditions

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618 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, An-Shik Yang


Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite element method, molten pool dimensions, selective laser melting

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617 The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt

Authors: Turan Çalban, Fatih Sevim, Oral Laçin


In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul’s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul’s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul’s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul’s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul’s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul’s salt must be less than 8.5.

Keywords: Chevreul's salt, production, copper sulfites, copper compound

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616 Mechanistic Studies of Compacted and Sintered Rock Salt

Authors: Claudia H. Swanson, Jens Günster


This research addresses the densification via compaction and sintering of naturally occurring rock salt which was motivated by the fact that in a saline environment rock salt is thermodynamically stable and does show a mechanical behavior compatible to the surrounding host material. The sintering of rock salt powder compacts was systematically investigated using temperature and pressure as variables for the sinter process. The behavior of rock salt showed segregations of anhydrite, CaSO4 - the major impurity found in rock salt, to the grain boundaries between individual sodium chloride crystals. Powder compacts treated with lower pressures lost those anhydrite segregates over time while high pressure treated compacts remained with anhydrite segregates. The density reached in this study is 2.008 g cm-3 corresponding to a density of 92.5 % of the theoretical value. This high density is making the sintering a promising technique for rock salt as applications in underground appropriate environment.

Keywords: rock salt, sinter, anhydrite, nuclear safety

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615 Strengthening National Salt Industry through Cultivation Upgrading and Product Diversification

Authors: Etty Soesilowati


This research was intended to: (1) designing production systems that produce high quality salt and (2) diversification of salt products. This research used qualitative and quantitative approaches which Garam Mas Ltd. as the research site. The data were analyzed interactively and subjected to laboratory tests. The analyses showed that salt production system using HDPE geomembranes produced whiter and cleaner salts than those produced by conventional methods without HDPE geomembranes. High quality consumption salt contained 97% NaCl and a maximum of 0.05% water, in the form of white minute crystals and usually used for table salt of food and snack seasoning, souses and cheese and vegetable oil industries. Medium grade salt contained 94.7%-97% NaCl and 3%-7% water and usually used for kitchen salt, soy sauce, tofu industries and cattle feeding. Low quality salt contained 90%-94.7% NaCl and 5%-10% water, with dull white color and usually used for fish preservation and agriculture. The quality and quantity of salts production were influenced by temperatures, weather, water concentrations used during production processes and the discipline of salt farmers itself. The use of water temperature less than 23 °Be during the production processes produced low quality salts. Optimizing cultivation of the production process from raw material to end product (consumption salt) should be attempted to produce quality salt that fulfills the Indonesian National Standard. Therefore, the integrated policies among stakeholders are really needed to build strong institutional base at salt farmer level. This might be achieved through the establishment of specific region for salt production.

Keywords: cultivation system, diversification, salt products, high quality salt

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614 Heat Transfer Analysis of a Multiphase Oxygen Reactor Heated by a Helical Tube in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman


In the thermochemical water splitting process by Cu-Cl cycle, oxygen gas is produced by an endothermic thermolysis process at a temperature of 530oC. Oxygen production reactor is a three-phase reactor involving cuprous chloride molten salt, copper oxychloride solid reactant and oxygen gas. To perform optimal performance, the oxygen reactor requires accurate control of heat transfer to the molten salt and decomposing solid particles within the thermolysis reactor. In this paper, the scale up analysis of the oxygen reactor that is heated by an internal helical tube is performed from the perspective of heat transfer. A heat balance of the oxygen reactor is investigated to analyze the size of the reactor that provides the required heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. It is found that the helical tube wall and the service side constitute the largest thermal resistances of the oxygen reactor system. In the analysis of this paper, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be heated by two types of nuclear reactor, which are HTGR and CANDU SCWR. It is concluded that using CANDU SCWR requires more heat transfer rate by 3-4 times than that when using HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also studied and it is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Comparisons between the results of this study and pervious results of material balances in the oxygen reactor show that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: heat transfer, Cu-Cl cycle, hydrogen production, oxygen, clean energy

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613 Multidimensional Modeling of Solidification Process of Multi-Crystalline Silicon under Magnetic Field for Solar Cell Technology

Authors: Mouhamadou Diop, Mohamed I. Hassan


Molten metallic flow in metallurgical plant is highly turbulent and presents a complex coupling with heat transfer, phase transfer, chemical reaction, momentum transport, etc. Molten silicon flow has significant effect in directional solidification of multicrystalline silicon by affecting the temperature field and the emerging crystallization interface as well as the transport of species and impurities during casting process. Owing to the complexity and limits of reliable measuring techniques, computational models of fluid flow are useful tools to study and quantify these problems. The overall objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a traveling magnetic field for an efficient operating control of the molten metal flow. A multidimensional numerical model will be developed for the calculations of Lorentz force, molten metal flow, and the related phenomenon. The numerical model is implemented in a laboratory-scale silicon crystallization furnace. This study presents the potential of traveling magnetic field approach for an efficient operating control of the molten flow. A numerical model will be used to study the effects of magnetic force applied on the molten flow, and their interdependencies. In this paper, coupled and decoupled, steady and unsteady models of molten flow and crystallization interface will be compared. This study will allow us to retrieve the optimal traveling magnetic field parameter range for crystallization furnaces and the optimal numerical simulations strategy for industrial application.

Keywords: multidimensional, numerical simulation, solidification, multicrystalline, traveling magnetic field

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612 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee


The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: tantalum, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy, electroplating

Procedia PDF Downloads 295