Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Luna Degife

45 Risk Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Outbreak in Diredawa Administration City, Ethiopia, October 2015: A Case Control Study

Authors: Luna Degife, Desalegn Belay, Yoseph Worku, Tigist Tesfaye, Assefa Tufa, Abyot Bekele, Zegeye Hailemariam, Abay Hagos

Abstract:

Half of the world’s population is at risk of Dengue Fever (DF), a highly under-recognized and underreported mosquito-borne viral disease with high prevalence in the tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, an estimated 50 to 200 million cases and 20, 000 DF deaths occur annually as per the world health organization report. In Ethiopia, the first outbreak occurred in 2013 in Diredawa administration city. Afterward, three outbreaks have been reported from the eastern part of the country. We received a report of the fifth DF outbreak for Ethiopia and the second for Diredawa city on October 4, 2015. We conducted the investigation to confirm the outbreak, identify the risk factors for the repeatedly occurrence of the disease and implement control measures. We conducted un- matched case-control study and defined a suspected DF case as any person with fever of 2-7 days and 2 or more of the following: a headache, arthralgia, myalgia, rash, or bleeding from any part of the body. Controls were residents of Diredawa city without DF symptoms. We interviewed 70 Cases and 140 controls from all health facilities in Diredawa city from October 7 to 15; 2015. Epi Info version 7.1.5.0 was used to analyze the data and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess risk factors for DF. Sixty-nine blood samples were collected for Laboratory confirmation.The mean age for cases was 23.7±9.5 standard deviation (SD) and for controls 31.2±13 SD. Close contact with DF patient (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=5.36, 95% confidence interval(CI): 2.75-10.44), nonuse of long-lasting insecticidal nets (AOR=2.74, 95% CI: 1.06-7.08) and availability of stagnant water in the village (AOR=3.61, 95% CI:1.31-9.93) were independent risk factors associated with higher rates of the disease. Forty-two samples were tested positive. Endemicity of DF is becoming a concern for Diredawa city after the first outbreak. Therefore, effective vector control activities need to be part of long-term preventive measures.

Keywords: dengue fever, Diredawa, outbreak, risk factors, second

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44 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.

Abstract:

Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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43 One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Hexose Sugar over Chromium Impregnated Zeolite Based Catalyst, Cr/H-ZSM-5

Authors: Samuel K. Degife, Kamal K. Pant, Sapna Jain

Abstract:

The world´s population and industrialization of countries continued to grow in an alarming rate irrespective of the security for food, energy supply, and pure water availability. As a result, the global energy consumption is observed to increase significantly. Fossil energy resources that mainly comprised of crude oil, coal, and natural gas have been used by mankind as the main energy source for almost two centuries. However, sufficient evidences are revealing that the consumption of fossil resource as transportation fuel emits environmental pollutants such as CO2, NOx, and SOx. These resources are dwindling rapidly besides enormous amount of problems associated such as fluctuation of oil price and instability of oil-rich regions. Biomass is a promising renewable energy candidate to replace fossil-based transportation fuel and chemical production. The present study aims at valorization of hexose sugars (glucose and fructose) using zeolite based catalysts in imidazolium based ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [BMIM] Cl) reaction media. The catalytic effect chromium impregnated H-ZSM-5 (Cr/H-ZSM-5) was studied for dehydration of hexose sugars. The wet impregnation method was used to prepare Cr/H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The characterization of the prepared catalyst was performed using techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) and BET-surface area analysis. The dehydration product, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cr/H-ZSM-5 was effective in dehydrating fructose with 87% conversion and 55% yield 5-HMF at 180 oC for 30 min of reaction time compared with H-ZSM-5 catalyst which yielded only 31% of 5-HMF at identical reaction condition.

Keywords: chromium, hexose, ionic liquid, , zeolite

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42 Preschool Story Retelling: Actions and Verb Use

Authors: Eva Nwokah, Casey Taliancich-Klinger, Lauren Luna, Sarah Rodriguez

Abstract:

Story-retelling is a technique frequently used to assess children’s language skills and support their development of narratives. Fourteen preschool children listened to one of two stories from the wordless, illustrated Frog book series and then retold the story using the pictures. A comparison of three verb types (action, mental and other) in the original story model, and children's verb use in their retold stories revealed the salience of action events. The children's stories contained a similar proportion of verb types to the original story. However, the action verbs they used were rarely those they had heard in the original. The implications for the process of lexical encoding and narrative recall are discussed, as well as suggestions for the use of wordless picture books and the language teaching of new verbs.

Keywords: story re-telling, verb use, preschool language, wordless picture books

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41 Human Security Providers in Fragile State under Asymmetric War Conditions

Authors: Luna Shamieh

Abstract:

Various players are part of the game in an asymmetric war, all making efforts to provide human security to their own adherents. Although a fragile state is not able to provide sufficient and comprehensive services, it still provides special services and security to the elite; the insurgents as well provide services and security to their associates. The humanitarian organisations, on the other hand, provide some fundamental elements of human security, but only in the regions, they are able to access when possible (if possible). The counterinsurgents (security forces of the state and intervention forces) operate within a narrow band defined by the vision of the responsibility to protect and the perspective of the resolution of the conflict through combat; hence, the possibility to provide human security is shaken at this end. This article examines how each player provides human security from the perspective of freedom from want in order to secure basic and strategic needs, freedom from fear through providing protection against all kinds of violence, and the freedom to live in dignity. It identifies a vicious cycle caused by the intervention of the different players causing a centrifugal force that may lead to disintegration of the nation under war.

Keywords: asymmetric war, counterinsurgency, fragile state, human security, insurgency

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40 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco

Abstract:

This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

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39 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

Abstract:

A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
38 Health Portals for Specific Populations: A Design for Pregnant Women

Authors: Janine Sommer, Mariana Daus, Mariana Simon, Maria Smith, Daniel Luna

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The technologies and communication advances contributed to new tools development which allows patients to have an active role in their own health. In the light of information needs and paradigms changes about health, the patient self-manages their care. This line of care focuses on patients; specific portals come up to people with particular requirements like pregnant women. Thinking of a portal design to this sector of the population, in September 2016 a survey was made to users with the objective to knowing and understanding information’s needs at the moment to use an application for pregnant. Also, prototypes of the portal´s features were designed to try and validate with users, using the methodology of human-centered design. Investigations have made possible the identification of needs of this population and develop a tool who try to satisfy, providing timely information for each part of pregnancy and allowing the patients to make a physical check and the follow up of pregnancy seeking advice from our obstetricians.

Keywords: electronic health record, health personal record, mobile applications, pregnant women

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37 Chitin Crystalline Phase Transition Promoted by Deep Eutectic Solvent

Authors: Diana G. Ramirez-Wong, Marius Ramirez, Regina Sanchez-Leija, Adriana Rugerio, R. Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Martin A. Hernandez-Landaverde, Arturo Carranza, John A. Pojman, Josue D. Mota-Morales, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas

Abstract:

Chitin films were prepared using alpha-chitin from shrimp shells as raw material and a simple method of precipitation-evaporation. Choline chloride: urea Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) was used to disperse chitin and compared against hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). A careful analysis of the chemical and crystalline structure was followed along the synthesis of the films, revealing crystalline-phase transitions. The full conversion of alpha- to beta-, or alpha- to gamma-chitin structure were detected by XRD and NMR on the films. The synthesis of highly crystalline monophasic gamma-chitin films was achieved using a DES; whereas HFIP helps to promote the beta-phase. These results are encouraging to continue in the study of DES as good processing media to control the final properties of chitin based materials.

Keywords: chitin, deep eutectic solvent, polymorph, phase transformation

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36 Pros and Cons of Agriculture Investment in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Azeb Degife

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the volume of international investment in agricultural land has increased globally. In recent times, Ethiopian government uses agricultural investment as one of the most important and effective strategies for economic growth, food security and poverty reduction in rural areas. Since the mid-2000s, government has awarded millions of hectares of most fertile land to rich countries and some of the world's most wealthy people to export various kinds of crop, often in long-term leases and at bargain prices. This study focuses on the pros and cons of large-scale agriculture investment Gambella region, Ethiopia. The main results were generated both from primary and secondary data sources. Primary data are obtained through interview, direct observation and a focus group discussion (FGDs). The secondary data are obtained from published documents, reports from governmental and non-governmental institutions. The findings of the study demonstrated that agriculture investment has advantages on the socio-economic and disadvantages on socio-environmental aspects. The main benefits agriculture investments in the region are infrastructural development and generation employment for the local people. Further, the Ethiopian government also generates foreign currency from the agriculture investment opportunities. On the other hand, Gambella people are strongly tied to the land and the rivers that run through in the region. However, now large-scale agricultural investment by foreign and local investors on an industrial scale results deprives people livelihoods and natural resources of the region. Generally, the negative effects of agriculture investment include increasing food insecurity, and displacement of smallholder farmers and pastoralists. Moreover, agriculture investment has strong adverse environmental impacts on natural resources such as land, water, forests and biodiversity. Therefore, an Ethiopian government strategy needs to focus on integration approach and sustainable agricultural growth.

Keywords: agriculture investment, cons, displacement, Gambella, integration approach, pros, socio-economic, socio-environmental

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35 Methodology for Diagnosing Architecture Improvements in a Cancer Hospital in Brasilia

Authors: Mariana Sabino, Janes Cleiton de Oliveira, Carlos Luna de Melo

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This paper presents a discussion about the importance and influence of the environment in the patient’s recovery process. Some users (employees and patients) were submitted to a questionnaire that helps to diagnoses the major problems of the hospital, specially related to comfort (aesthetic, thermal, acoustic, light, ergonomic), well-being, how does the flow of patients and employees works in the hospital and wayfinding as well. After a short literature review presenting the topic, the hospital will be characterized, showing photos, the projects available and describing the hospital as well (how many rooms, functions of each one, receptions, waiting rooms, between other things.), than the questionnaire will be applied to patients and to the employees. Lastly the results of the answers given will be analyzed in graphics, and it will help to identify which are the major improvements needed immediately. This paper has the intention to propose a methodology to diagnose architecture problems in a cancer hospital in Brasilia, Brazil, besides to open a space to hear the people that use the building to tell about their discomforts and perceptions of the environment, it also will give an opportunity to apply the possible improvements. It is important to tell that it will be considered if the hospital has a healing environment, and it will also be considered the ergonomic issues about comfort and the way the system of this particular hospital works in general.

Keywords: cancer hospital, comfort, diagnose, healing environment

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34 PhilSHORE: Development of a WebGIS-Based Marine Spatial Planning Tool for Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment and Site Suitability Analysis

Authors: Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang, Luis Caezar Ian K. Panganiban, Charmyne B. Mamador, Oliver Dan G. De Luna, Michael D. Bausas, Joselito P. Cruz

Abstract:

PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multi-criteria decision support tool designed to support the development of tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis. It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability analyses. Results of the initial development shows PhilSHORE is a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.

Keywords: gis, site suitability analysis, tidal current energy resource assessment, webgis

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33 Channel Dynamics along the Northern Bank of the Upper Brahmaputra River and Formation of a Larger Island with the Loss of the Majuli Island

Authors: Luna Moni Das

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This paper is an attempt to study the channel dynamics in the area bounded by the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the north, the Brahmaputra in the south and southeast and eastern side and the Subansiri River in the west. There are many streams in this region and only a few are perennial. There are two major anabranches of the Brahmaputra called Kharkutia Xuti and Charikoria. All of these makes it a very dynamic area. The analysis done in this paper is based on the remote sensing data and mapping of the channel planforms in GIS environment. The temporal trend of the change in channel planform has been produced. This study shows that, during the period from 1973 to 2013, the streams/rivers originating in the north have experienced a reduction in the total length. The other most important result is that even though the western edge of Majuli Island is eroding faster there is a formation of a larger island in between Charikoria and Brahmaputra, that comprises of Majuli island and parts of Dhakuakhana subdivision of Lakhimpur District along the south of Charikoria river. The field study shows that the Kharkutia Xuti, that divides Majuli from Dhakuakhana, do not experience any flow from the Brahmaputra for the major portion of the year and Charikoria has developed as a major anabranch of the Brahmaputra.

Keywords: channel dynamics, Brahmaputra river, Majuli Island, sinuosity

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32 The Impact of the Economic Crisis in the European Identity

Authors: Sofía Luna, Carla González Salamanca

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The 2008 economic crisis had huge implications in Europe. In this continent, the repercussions of the crisis were not only economic but also political and institutional. The economic stress has generated changes in the perception of the citizens, their attitude and the confidence placed in the political organizations. The lost of confidence is not only present in the debtor countries but it is also present in the European economic powers like Germany and France. This research explains how the economic crisis had an impact in the identity, population’s attitude and how this generated the rise of extreme right parties. In addition, it defines the different types of attitudes and support that exist towards these political and economic institutions. The results of this investigation show that the depression beside of its economic implications, it caused institutional, social and political difficulties for the Union. Moreover, the support and attitudes of the population were severely strained because the confidence in the political organization decreased. Furthermore, a rise in the otherness sentiment was shown. In other words, the distinction between “us” and “them” increased causing repercussions in the collective European identity. Additionally, there was a spread in national identities that caused the rise of the extreme right wing parties. In conclusion, the 2008 economic crisis caused not only economic stress but also it generated a political, social and institutional crisis in Europe.

Keywords: Europe, identity, economic crisis, otherness sentiment

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31 NaOH/Pumice and LiOH/Pumice as Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil: An Optimization Study

Authors: Joy Marie Mora, Mark Daniel De Luna, Tsair-Wang Chung

Abstract:

Transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol was carried out to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using calcined alkali metal (Na and Li) supported by pumice silica as the solid base catalyst. Pumice silica catalyst was activated by loading alkali metal ions to its surface via an ion-exchange method. Response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the operating parameters in biodiesel production, namely: reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentration. Using the optimized sets of parameters, FAME yields using sodium and lithium silicate catalysts were 98.80% and 98.77%, respectively. A pseudo-first order kinetic equation was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) sorptometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the reusability of the catalysts was successfully tested in two subsequent cycles.

Keywords: alkali metal, biodiesel, Box-Behnken design, heterogeneous catalyst, kinetics, optimization, pumice, transesterification

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30 Social Entrepreneurship against Depopulation: Network Analysis within the Theoretical Framework of the Quadruple Helix

Authors: Esperanza Garcia-Uceda, Josefina L. Murillo-Luna, M. Pilar Latorre-Martinez, Marta Ferrer-Serrano

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship represents an innovation of traditional business models. During the last decade, its important role in contributing to rural and regional development has been widely recognized, due to its capacity to combat the problem of depopulation through the creation of employment. However, the success of this type of innovative business initiatives depends to a large extent on the existence of an adequate ecosystem of support resources. Based on the theoretical framework of the quadruple helix (QH), which highlights the need for collaboration between different interest groups -university, industry, government and civil society- for the development of regional innovations, in this work the network analysis is applied to study the ecosystem of resources to support social entrepreneurship in the rural area of the province of Zaragoza (Spain). It is a quantitative analysis that can be used to measure the interactions between the different actors that make up the quadruple helix, as well as the networks created between the different institutions and support organizations, through the study of the complex networks they form. The results show the importance of the involvement of local governments and the university, as key elements in the development process, but also allow identifying other issues that are susceptible to improvement.

Keywords: ecosystem of support resources, network analysis, quadruple helix, social entrepreneurship

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29 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed.

Abstract:

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20-60 and 6-18 µg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 µg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 µg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol

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28 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert

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The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

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27 Performance of the Kindergarten Teachers and Its Relation to Pupils Achievement in Different Learning Areas

Authors: Mary Luna Mancao Ninal

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This study aimed to determine the performance of the kindergarten teachers and its relation to pupils’ achievement in different learning areas in the Division of Kabankalan City. Using the standardized assessment and evaluation of the Department of Education secondary data, 100 kinder teachers and 2901 kinder pupils were investigated to determine the performance of the kindergarten teachers based on their Competency–Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers and the periodic assessment of kinder pupils collected as secondary data. Weighted mean, Pearson–r, chi-square, Analysis of Variance were used in the study. Findings revealed that the kindergarten teacher respondents were 26-31 years old and most of them were female and married; they spent teaching for two years and less and passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers. They were very satisfactory as to instructional competences, school, and home and community involvement, personal, social, and professional characteristics. It also revealed that performance of the kindergarten pupils on their period of assessment shows that they were slightly advanced in their development. It also shows that domain as to performance of the kindergarten pupils were average overall development. Based on the results, it is recommended that Kindergarten teacher must augment their educational qualification and pursue their graduate studies and must develop the total personality of the children for them to achieve high advanced development to become productive individual.

Keywords: performance, kindergarten teacher, learning areas, professional, pupil

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26 The Position of Space weather in Africa-Education and Outreach

Authors: Babagana Abubakar, Alhaji Kuya

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Although the field of Space weather science is a young field among the space sciences, but yet history has it that activities related to this science began since the year 1859 when the great solar storm happened which resulted in the disruptions of telegraphs operations around the World at that particular time subsequently making it possible for the scientist Richard Carrington to be able to connect the Solar flare observed a day earlier before the great storm and the great deflection of the Earth’s Magnetic field (geometric storm) simultaneous with the telegraph disruption. However years later as at today with the advent of and the coming into existence of the Explorer 1, the Luna 1 and the establishments of the United States International Space Weather Program, International Geophysical Year (IGY) as well as the International Center for Space Weather Sciences and Education (ICSWSE) have made us understand the Space weather better and enable us well define the field of Space weather science. Despite the successes recorded in the development of Space sciences as a whole over the last century and the coming onboard of specialized bodies/programs on space weather like the International Space Weather Program and the ICSWSE, the majority of Africans including institutions, research organizations and even some governments are still ignorant about the existence of theSpace weather science,because apart from some very few countries like South Africa, Nigeria and Egypt among some few others the majority of the African nations and their academic institutions have no knowledge or idea about the existence of this field of Space science (Space weather).

Keywords: Africa, space, weather, education, science

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25 Lessons Learned from Covid19 - Related ERT in Universities

Authors: Sean Gay, Cristina Tat

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This presentation will detail how a university in Western Japan has implemented its English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program during the onset of CoViD-19 in the spring semester of 2020. In the spring semester of 2020, after a 2 week delay, all courses within the School of Policy Studies EAP Program at Kwansei Gakuin University were offered in an online asynchronous format. The rationale for this decision was not to disadvantage students who might not have access to devices necessary for taking part in synchronous online lessons. The course coordinators were tasked with consolidating the materials originally designed for face-to-face14 week courses for a 12 week asynchronous online semester and with uploading the modified course materials to Luna, the university’s network, which is a modified version of Blackboard. Based on research to determine the social and academic impacts of this CoViD-19 ERT approach on the students who took part in this EAP program, this presentation explains how future curriculum design and implementation can be managed in a post-CoViD world. There are a wide variety of lessons that were salient. The role of the classroom as a social institution was very prominent; however, awareness of cognitive burdens and strategies to mitigate that burden may be more valuable for teachers. The lessons learned during this period of ERT can help teachers moving forward.

Keywords: asynchronous online learning, emergency remote teaching (ERT), online curriculum design, synchronous online learning

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24 Synthesis of Chitosan/Silver Nanocomposites: Antibacterial Properties and Tissue Regeneration for Thermal Burn Injury

Authors: B.L. España-Sánchez, E. Luna-Hernández, R.A. Mauricio-Sánchez, M.E. Cruz-Soto, F. Padilla-Vaca, R. Muñoz, L. Granados-López, L.R. Ovalle-Flores, J.L. Menchaca-Arredondo, G. Luna-Bárcenas

Abstract:

Treatment of burn injured has been considered an important clinical problem due to the fluid control and the presence of microorganisms during the healing process. Conventional treatment includes antiseptic techniques, topical medication and surgical removal of damaged skin, to avoid bacterial growth. In order to accelerate this process, different alternatives for tissue regeneration have been explored, including artificial skin, polymers, hydrogels and hybrid materials. Some requirements consider a nonreactive organic polymer with high biocompatibility and skin adherence, avoiding bacterial infections. Chitin-derivative biopolymer such as chitosan (CS) has been used in skin regeneration following third-degree burns. The biological interest of CS is associated with the improvement of tissue cell stimulation, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. In particular, antimicrobial properties of CS can be significantly increased when is blended with nanostructured materials. Silver-based nanocomposites have gained attention in medicine due to their high antibacterial properties against pathogens, related to their high surface area/volume ratio at nanomolar concentrations. Silver nanocomposites can be blended or synthesized with chitin-derivative biopolymers in order to obtain a biodegradable/antimicrobial hybrid with improved physic-mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites based on chitosan/silver nanoparticles (CS/nAg) were synthesized by the in situ chemical reduction method, improving their antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria and enhancing the healing process in thermal burn injuries produced in an animal model. CS/nAg was prepared in solution by the chemical reduction method, using AgNO₃ as precursor. CS was dissolved in acetic acid and mixed with different molar concentrations of AgNO₃: 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 M. Solutions were stirred at 95°C during 20 hours, in order to promote the nAg formation. CS/nAg solutions were placed in Petri dishes and dried, to obtain films. Structural analyses confirm the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (nAg) by means of UV-Vis and TEM, with an average size of 7.5 nm and spherical morphology. FTIR analyses showed the complex formation by the interaction of hydroxyl and amine groups with metallic nanoparticles, and surface chemical analysis (XPS) shows low concentration of Ag⁰/Ag⁺ species. Topography surface analyses by means of AFM shown that hydrated CS form a mesh with an average diameter of 10 µm. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was improved in all evaluated conditions, such as nAg loading and interaction time. CS/nAg nanocomposites films did not show Ag⁰/Ag⁺ release in saline buffer and rat serum after exposition during 7 days. Healing process was significantly enhanced by the presence of CS/nAg nanocomposites, inducing the production of myofibloblasts, collagen remodelation, blood vessels neoformation and epidermis regeneration after 7 days of injury treatment, by means of histological and immunohistochemistry assays. The present work suggests that hydrated CS/nAg nanocomposites can be formed a mesh, improving the bacterial penetration and the contact with embedded nAg, producing complete growth inhibition after 1.5 hours. Furthermore, CS/nAg nanocomposites improve the cell tissue regeneration in thermal burn injuries induced in rats. Synthesis of antibacterial, non-toxic, and biocompatible nanocomposites can be an important issue in tissue engineering and health care applications.

Keywords: antibacterial, chitosan, healing process, nanocomposites, silver

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23 Body, Sex and Culture: Gender Dissidences through Cinema

Authors: Piedad Lucia Bolivar Goez, Daniel Ignacio Garzon Luna, Maria Camila Balcero Angel, Sara Carolina Martinez Roman, Daniela Natalia Polo Rivas, Sandra Liliana Rocha Guitierrez

Abstract:

This article provides a critical analysis on the conception of disorders of sexual development (DSDs) within the bioethics framework. By means of analytical thought, the objective is to approach topics such as the rediscovery of the body, the reinvention of sexuality and link them to the liability that health personnel have to inform people about the options they have to decide over their health and body. The medicalization of sexed bodies in both psychosocial and anatomo-morpho-physiological dimensions from a legal standpoint were analyzed. Its also explored the gender stereotypes established by society and the role of laws in guaranteeing the right of autonomy that takes on greater relevance in DSD. Through this analysis, it was concluded that despite intersexuality having been analyzed by Colombia’s Constitutional Court, that it is stated as a fair entity, the stigmatization by society has not allowed these individuals to belong to an egalitarian context in which everyone has the same opportunities of access to the goods and services that they need. This leads individuals to hide their identity and expression of genre in order to be accepted in a set of contexts. Thus creating a vulnerability that the health system must be able to identify and in which it is necessary to intervene at a biopsychosocial level, in order to guarantee the protection of the individual within an unquestionable frame of equality and solidarity.

Keywords: disorders of sex development, gender identity, sexuality, transgender persons

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22 Iterative Estimator-Based Nonlinear Backstepping Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton

Authors: Brahmi Brahim, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Maarouf Saad, Cristóbal Ochoa Luna

Abstract:

A repetitive training movement is an efficient method to improve the ability and movement performance of stroke survivors and help them to recover their lost motor function and acquire new skills. The ETS-MARSE is seven degrees of freedom (DOF) exoskeleton robot developed to be worn on the lateral side of the right upper-extremity to assist and rehabilitate the patients with upper-extremity dysfunction resulting from stroke. Practically, rehabilitation activities are repetitive tasks, which make the assistive/robotic systems to suffer from repetitive/periodic uncertainties and external perturbations induced by the high-order dynamic model (seven DOF) and interaction with human muscle which impact on the tracking performance and even on the stability of the exoskeleton. To ensure the robustness and the stability of the robot, a new nonlinear backstepping control was implemented with designed tests performed by healthy subjects. In order to limit and to reject the periodic/repetitive disturbances, an iterative estimator was integrated into the control of the system. The estimator does not need the precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton. Experimental results confirm the robustness and accuracy of the controller performance to deal with the external perturbation, and the effectiveness of the iterative estimator to reject the repetitive/periodic disturbances.

Keywords: backstepping control, iterative control, Rehabilitation, ETS-MARSE

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21 RP-HPLC Method Development and Its Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil Combination in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

Authors: S. Jain, R. Savalia, V. Saini

Abstract:

A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in bulk and tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC method has shown adequate separation for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil from its degradation products. The separation was achieved on a Phenomenex luna ODS C18 (250mm X 4.6mm i.d., 5μm particle size) with an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 50mM phosphate buffer pH 4.0 adjusted with glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 55:45 v/v. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min, Injection volume 20μl and wavelength of detection was kept at 225nm. The retention time for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil was 2.451±0.1min and 6.167±0.1min, respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 5-50μg/ml and 2-20μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999 and 0.9996 for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.2847μg/ml and 0.1251μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively and the limit of quantification was 0.8630μg/ml and 0.3793μg/ml for Metoprolol and Olmesartan, respectively. Proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness for estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in commercially available tablet dosage form and results were found to be satisfactory. Thus the developed and validated stability indicating method can be used successfully for marketed formulations.

Keywords: metoprolol succinate, olmesartan medoxomil, RP-HPLC method, validation, ICH

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20 Outcomes Following Overcorrecting Minus Lens Therapy for Intermittent Distance Exotropia

Authors: Alasdair Warwick, Luna Dhir

Abstract:

Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of overcorrecting minus lens therapy in intermittent distance exotropia. Methods: Retrospective audit of all intermittent distance exotropia patients seen in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital pediatric eye clinic between 1st January 2014 and 1st March 2016. Change in LogMAR visual acuity, stereopsis, near and distance angles of deviation, as well as the proportions of patients converting to exophoria or undergoing strabismus surgery, were recorded. Results: 22 patients were identified, 45% male, mean age 5 years (range 0.6 to 18.5 years). The median overminus prescription was -1.0 dioptres (range -0.5 to -1.75 dioptres) and mean follow-up was 15 months (range 3 to 54 months). Visual acuity, near and distance angles of deviation improved but were not statistically significant: -0.15 LogMAR, -0.2 prism dioptres and -1.2 prism dioptres respectively (p>0.05). However, a significant change in stereopsis was observed: -74'' (p<0.01). 27% underwent strabismus surgery and 36% converted to exophoria whilst wearing their overminus prescription. Conclusions: Overcorrecting minus lens therapy is an effective therapy for intermittent distance exotropia. There was no deterioration in visual acuity and a significant improvement in stereopsis was seen in our cohort, with many patients converting to an exophoria. The proportion of patients requiring strabismus surgery was comparable to other studies. Further, follow-up is needed to ascertain long-term outcomes.

Keywords: exotropia, overcorrecting minus lens, refraction, strabismus

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19 Analysis of Veterinary Drug Residues and Pesticide Residues in Beehive Products

Authors: Alba Luna Jimenez, Maria Dolores Hernando

Abstract:

The administration of veterinary treatments at higher doses than the recommended Varroa mite control in beehive matrices has the potential to generate residues in the honeybee colony and in the derived products for consumption. Honeybee colonies can also be indirectly exposed to residues of plant protection products when foraging in crops, wildflowers near the crops, or in urban gardens just after spraying. The study evaluates the presence of both types of residues, veterinary treatments, and pesticides in beeswax, bee bread, and honey. The study was carried out in apiaries located in agricultural zones and forest areas in Andalusia, Spain. Up to nineteen residues were identified above LOQ using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by a modified QuEChERs method. Chlorfenvinphos was detected in beeswax and bee bread despite its use is not authorized for Varroa mite control. Residues of fluvalinate-tau, authorized as veterinary treatment, were detected in most of the samples of beeswax and bee bread, presumably due to overdose or also to its potential for accumulation associated with its marked liposolubility. Residues of plant protection products were also detected in samples of beeswax and bee bread. Pesticide residues were detected above the LOQ that was established at 5 µg.kg⁻¹, which is the minimum concentration that can be quantified with acceptable accuracy and precision, as described in the European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis SANTE/11945/2015. No residues of phytosanitary treatments used in agriculture were detected in honey.

Keywords: honeybee colony, mass spectrometry analysis, pesticide residues, Varroa destructor, veterinary treatment

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18 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos

Abstract:

Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, bran, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, stalk

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17 Variation In Gastrocnemius and Hamstring Muscle Activity During Peak Knee Flexor Torque After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Hamstring Graft

Authors: Luna Sequier, Florian Forelli, Maude Traulle, Amaury Vandebrouck, Pascal Duffiet, Louis Ratte, Jean Mazeas

Abstract:

The study's objective is to compare the muscular activity of the flexor knee muscle in patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft and the individuals who have not undergone surgery. Methods: The participants were divided into two groups: a healthy group and an experimental group who had undergone an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft. All participants had to perform a knee flexion strength test on an isokinetic dynamometer. The medial Gastrocnemius, lateral Gastrocnemius, Biceps femoris, and medial Hamstring muscle activity were measured during this test. Each group’s mean muscle activity was tested with statistical analysis, and a muscle activity ratio of gastrocnemius and hamstring muscles was calculated Results: The results showed a significant difference in activity of the medial gastrocnemius (p = 0,004901), the biceps femoris (p = 5,394.10-6), and the semitendinosus muscles (p = 1,822.10-6), with a higher Biceps femoris and Semitendinosus activity for the experimental group. It is however noticeable that inter-subject differences were important. Conclusion: This study has shown a difference in the gastrocnemius and hamstring muscle activity between patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery and healthy participants. With further results, this could show a modification of muscle activity patterns after surgery which could lead to compensatory behaviors at a return to sport and eventually explain a higher injury risk for our patients.

Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament, electromyography, muscle activity, physiotherapy

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16 Relation between Electrical Properties and Application of Chitosan Nanocomposites

Authors: Evgen Prokhorov, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas

Abstract:

The polysaccharide chitosan (CS) is an attractive biopolymer for the stabilization of several nanoparticles in acidic aqueous media. This is due in part to the presence of abundant primary NH2 and OH groups which may lead to steric or chemical stabilization. Applications of most CS nanocomposites are based upon the interaction of high surface area nanoparticles (NPs) with different substance. Therefore, agglomeration of NPs leads to decreasing effective surface area such that it may decrease the efficiency of nanocomposites. The aim of this work is to measure nanocomposite’s electrical conductivity phenomena that will allow one to formulate optimal concentrations of conductivity NPs in CS-based nanocomposites. Additionally, by comparing the efficiency of such nanocomposites, one can guide applications in the biomedical (antibacterial properties and tissue regeneration) and sensor fields (detection of copper and nitrate ions in aqueous solutions). It was shown that the best antibacterial (CS-AgNPs, CS-AgNPs-carbon nanotubes) and would healing properties (CS-AuNPs) are observed in nanocomposites with concentrations of NPs near the percolation threshold. In this regard, the best detection limit in potentiometric and impedimetric sensors for detection of copper ions (using CS-AuNPs membrane) and nitrate ions (using CS-clay membrane) in aqueous solutions have been observed for membranes with concentrations of NPs near percolation threshold. It is well known that at the percolation concentration of NPs an abrupt increasing of conductivity is observed due to the presence of physical contacts between NPs; above this concentration, agglomeration of NPs takes place such that a decrease in the effective surface and performance of nanocomposite appear. The obtained relationship between electrical percolation threshold and performance of polymer nanocomposites with conductivity NPs is important for the design and optimization of polymer-based nanocomposites for different applications.

Keywords: chitosan, conductivity nanoparticles, percolation threshold, polymer nanocomposites

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