Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: ginger

46 Ginger Washer Tool Using Pedal to Increase the Quality of Herbal Medicine

Authors: Finda A. Mahardika, Niken Aristyawati, Retno W. Damayanti

Abstract:

Improvement technology needed to increase productivity of home industry that make herbal medicine is ginger washer tool. To solve this case, the writers develop existing technologies to create a tool that serves as a wash of ginger. This washer uses pedal tools to help the brush washer move. This tool is expected to produce ginger with good quality. In addition, this tool is also expected to be able to save time as well as water used when conducting the process of leaching. This tool is based on the size of the anthropometri people of Indonesia for the results of an ergonomic. The activities carried out by conducting a study of theory, experiment based on existing theories and make modifications based on the results obtained.

Keywords: ginger, ginger washer, technology, pedal

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
45 Critical Success Factor of Exporting Thailand’s Ginger to Japan

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam, Manop Tirastittam

Abstract:

Thailand is the agriculture country which mainly exports the agriculture product to the other countries in so many ways which are fresh vegetable, chilled vegetable or frozen vegetable. The gross export for Thailand’s vegetable is 30-40 billion baht per year, and the growth rate is about 15-20 percent per year. Ginger is one of the main vegetable product that Thailand export to Japan because Thailand’s Ginger has a good quality and be able to supply Japan’s demand with a reasonable price. This research paper is aimed to study the factors which affect the efficiency of the supply chain process of Thailand’s ginger to Japan. There are 5 factors which related to the exporting Thailand’s ginger to Japan which are quality, price, equipment and supply standard, custom process and distribution pattern. The result of the research showed that the factor which reached the 'very good' significant level is quality of Thailand’s ginger with the score of 4.86. The other 5 factors are in the 'good' significant level. So the most important factor for Thai ginger farmer to concern is the quality of the product.

Keywords: critical success factor, export, ginger, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
44 Zingiberofficinale Potential Effect on Nephrin mRNA Expression in Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Mehrevan M. Abdel-Moniem

Abstract:

Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been cultivated for medicinal purposes due to their various proprieties both in vitro and in vivo, so we designed to evaluate the ginger’s potential effect on nephrin m RNA expression in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats. Method: Forty male albino rats were divided into group I was injected (IP) with one ml saline, group II(cisplatin) injected (IP) with a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin, group III (ginger) received (PO) 310 mg/kg for 30 successive days, and group IV(cisplatin and ginger) rats received ginger extract (310 mg/kg) daily for 20 successive days (PO), and then on day 20 of ginger extract administration each rat was injected(IP) with a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin. The blood was sampled to assess urea, creatinine (SC), while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and paraoxonase (PON1) were measured in kidney tissue homogenate. Expression of urinary nephrin gene (nephrin mRNA) was detected using qRT-PCR. Results: Treatment with ginger significantly decreased the levels of kidney function parameters as well as MDA and NO elevated by cisplatin injection, while PON1 was significantly reduced in the cisplatin group. However, the protection of male rats with ginger significantly increased the levels of nephrin gene expression and PON1 compared with the cisplatin-treated group. Our results generated a proposal on the ameliorating effect of ginger on nephrin mRNA gene expression reduction in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: nephrin mRNA, ginger, cisplatin, nephrotoxicity

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43 Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinal) Root Extract on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Normal and Alloxan-Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

Ginger is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used in folk medicine. This study was designed to go further step and evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous ginger root extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Results revealed that the aqueous ginger has a significant hypoglycemic effect (P<0.05) in diabetic rabbits but a non-significant hypoglycemic effect (P>0.05) in normal rabbits. There were also significant decreases in the concentrations (P<0.05) in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL – cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Although there was an elevation in serum HDL- cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits, these elevations were non-significant (P>0.05). Our data suggest the aqueous ginger has a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits and lipid-lowering properties in both normal and diabetic rabbits.

Keywords: aqueous extract of ginger root (AEGR), hypoglycemic, cholesterol, triglyceride

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
42 Effect of Ethanol Concentration and Enzyme Pre-Treatment on Bioactive Compounds from Ginger Extract

Authors: S. Lekhavat, T. Kajsongkram, S. Sang-han

Abstract:

Dried ginger was extracted and investigated the effect of ethanol concentration and enzyme pre-treatment on its bioactive compounds in solvent extraction process. Sliced fresh gingers were dried by oven dryer at 70 °C for 24 hours and ground to powder using grinder which their size were controlled by passing through a 20-mesh sieve. In enzyme pre-treatment process, ginger powder was sprayed with 1 % (w/w) cellulase and then was incubated at 45 °C for 2 hours following by extraction process using ethanol at concentration of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % (v/v), respectively. The ratio of ginger powder and ethanol are 1:9 and extracting conditions were controlled at 80 °C for 2 hours. Bioactive compounds extracted from ginger, either enzyme-treated or non enzyme-treated samples, such as total phenolic content (TPC), 6-Gingerol (6 G), 6-Shogaols (6 S) and antioxidant activity (IC50 using DPPH assay), were examined. Regardless of enzyme treatment, the results showed that 60 % ethanol provided the highest TPC (20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger), 6G (0.77%), 6S (0.036 %) and the lowest IC50 (625 μg/ml) compared to other ratios of ethanol. Considering the effect of enzyme on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, it was found that enzyme-treated sample has more 6G (0.17-0.77 %) and 6S (0.020-0.036 %) than non enzyme-treated samples (0.13-0.77 % 6G, 0.015-0.036 % 6S). However, the results showed that non enzyme-treated extracts provided higher TPC (6.76-20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger) and Lowest IC50 (625-1494 μg/ml ) than enzyme-treated extracts (TPC 5.36-17.50 GAE mg /g. dried ginger, IC50 793-2146 μg/ml).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, enzyme, extraction, ginger

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
41 Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and a Zeolite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate) in the Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broilers

Authors: Ryan Stevens, Wayne L. Bryden

Abstract:

This study focused on the effects of ginger and a zeolite (toxin binder) in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens 7 to 49 days of age. The chicks were maintained normally until experimental diets were introduced on day 7 post-hatching. Nine hundred and thirty six, 7-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 18 treatment groups; each group had four replicates, each with 13 chickens. The experimental groups or diets had factorial combinations of the following; AFB1 0, 1 and 2 mg/kg diet, ginger 0 and 5g/kg diet, and zeolite 0, 15 and 30 g/kg diet. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and a starter diet was fed from 1 to 14 days, a grower diet from15 to 28 days and a finisher diet was provided from day 29 until the end of the experiment. Both dietary levels of AFB1 decreased (P<0.05) body weight and feed conversion, and increased relative liver weights. Independent dietary inclusion of ginger or zeolite restored chick performance when diets contained 1mg/kg but not at 2mg/kg. Supplementation of zeolite together with ginger improved performance of birds fed contaminated diets. Interestingly, adding ginger to the control diet that was not contaminated with AFB1 improved (P<0.05) performance. Our results suggest that toxin binders and ginger can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on performance of broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, ginger, zeolite

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40 In vivo Protective Effects of Ginger Extract on Cyclophosphamide Induced Chromosomal Aberrations in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Mice

Authors: K. Yadamma, K. Rudrama Devi

Abstract:

The protective effect of Ginger Extract against cyclophosphamide induced cytotoxicity was evaluated in in vivo animal model using analysis of chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells of mice. Three doses of Ginger Extract (150mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 250mg/kg body weight) were selected for modulation and given to animals after priming. The animals were sacrificed 24, 48, 72 hrs after the treatment and slides were prepared for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice. When animals were treated with cyclophosphamide 50mg/kg, showed cytogenetic damage in somatic cells. However, a significant decrease was observed in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations when animals were primed with various doses of Ginger Extract. The present results clearly indicate the protective nature of Ginger Extract against cyclophosphamide induced genetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells.

Keywords: ginger extract, protection, bone marrow cells, swiss albino mice

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39 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli

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This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusion coefficients, drying model, drying time, ginger rhizomes, moisture ratio, thin layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
38 Effect of Ginger, Red Pepper, and Their Mixture in Diet on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Sarah Jorjani, Afshin Ghelichi, Mazyar Kamali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of addition of ginger and red pepper and their mixture in diet on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar fish). This study had been carried out for 8 weeks. For this reason 132 oscar fishes with intial weight of 2.44±0.26 (gr) were divided into 4 treatments with three replicate as compeletly randomize design test and fed by 100% Biomar diet (T1), Biomar + red pepper (55 mg/kg) (T2), Biomar + ginger (1%) (T3) and Biomar + mixture of red pepper and ginger (T4).The fish were fed in 5% of their body weight. The results showed T2 have significant differences in most of growth parameters in compare with other treatments, such as PBWI, SGR, PER and SR (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between treatments in FCR and FE (P > 0.05).

Keywords: red pepper, ginger, oscar fish, growth performance, body composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
37 Effect of Omeprazole on the Renal Cortex of Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Ginger: Histological and Immunohistochemical study

Authors: Nashwa A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used commonly in the treatment of acid-peptic disorders. Although omeprazole is generally well tolerated, serious adverse effects such as renal failure have been reported. Ginger is an antioxidant that could play a protective role in models of experimentally induced nephropathies. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to study the possible histological changes induced by omeprazole on renal cortex and evaluate the possible protective effect of ginger on omeprazole-induced renal damage in adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats divided into four groups (six rats each) were used in this study. Group I served as the control group. Rats of group II received only an aqueous extract of ginger daily for 3 months through a gastric tube. Rats of group III were received omeprazole orally through a gastric tube for 3 months. Rats of group IV were given both ginger and omeprazole at the same doses and through the same routes as the previous two groups. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed. Renal tissue samples were processed for light, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination. The obtained results were analysed morphometrically and statistically. Results: Omeprazole caused several histological changes in the form of loss of normal appearance of renal cortex with degenerative changes in the renal corpuscle and tubules. Cellular infilteration was also observed. The filteration barrier was markedly affected. Ginger ameliorated the omeprazole-induced histological changes. Conclusion: Omeprazole induced injurious effects on renal cortex. Coadministration of ginger can ameliorate the histological changes induced by omeprazole.

Keywords: ginger, kidney, omeprazole, rat

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36 Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Male Rats after Administration of Extract and Nanoparticle of Ginger Torch Flower

Authors: Tresna Lestari, Tita Nofianti, Ade Yeni Aprilia, Lilis Tuslinah, Ruswanto Ruswanto

Abstract:

Nanoparticle formulation is often used to improve drug absorptivity, thus increasing the sharpness of the action. Ginger torch flower extract was formulated into nanoparticle form using poloxamer 1, 3 and 5%. The nanoparticle was then characterized by its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and morphological form by SEM. The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential -41.0 - (-24.3) mV and entrapment efficiency 89.93-97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of the drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, nanoparticle, poloxamer

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35 Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats

Authors: Tita Nofianti, Tresna Lestari, Ade Y. Aprillia, Lilis Tuslinah, Ruswanto Ruswanto

Abstract:

Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, nanoparticle, poloxamer

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
34 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: N. A. Zainuddin, I. Norhuda, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo

Abstract:

Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, RESS, solid oil particle, supercritical carbon dioxide,

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33 Protective Effect of Ginger Root Extract on Dioxin-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

Authors: Hamid Abdulroof Saleh

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Background: Dioxins are one of the most widely distributed environmental pollutants. Dioxins consist of feedstock during the preparation of some industries, such as the paper industry as they can be produced in the atmosphere during the process of burning garbage and waste, especially medical waste. Dioxins can be found in the adipose tissues of animals in the food chain as well as in human breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic component of a large group of dioxins. Humans are exposed to TCDD through contaminated food items like meat, fish, milk products, eggs etc. Recently, natural formulations relating to reducing or eliminating TCDD toxicity have been in focus. Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale R., family: Zingiberaceae), is used worldwide as a spice. Both antioxidative and androgenic activity of Z. officinale was reported in animal models. Researchers showed that ginger oil has dominative protective effect on DNA damage and might act as a scavenger of oxygen radical and might be used as an antioxidant. Aim of the work: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of TCDD on the structure and histoarchitecture of the testis and the protective role of co-administration of ginger root extract to prevent this toxicity. Materials & Methods: Male adult rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were assigned to four groups, eight rats in each; control group, dioxin treated group (given TCDD at the dose of 100 ng/kg Bwt/day by gavage), ginger treated group (given 50 mg/kg Bwt/day of ginger root extract by gavage), dioxin and ginger treated group (given TCDD at the dose of 100 ng/kg Bwt/day and 50 mg/kg Bwt/day of ginger root extract by gavages). After three weeks, rats were weighed and sacrificed where testis were removed and weighted. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining. Tissue sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. Results: Dioxin administration showed a harmful effects in the body, testis weight and other morphometric parameters of the testis. In addition, it produced varying degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules, which were shrunken and devoid of mature spermatids. The basement membrane was disorganized with vacuolization and loss of germinal cells. The co-administration of ginger root extract showed obvious improvement in the above changes and showed reversible morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Ginger root extract treatment in this study was successful in reversing all morphometric and histological changes of dioxin testicular damage. Therefore, it showed a protective effect on testis against dioxin toxicity.

Keywords: dioxin, ginger, rat, testis

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32 Libido and Semen Quality Characteristics of Post-Pubertal Rabbit Bucks Fed Ginger Rhizome Meal Based Diets

Authors: I. P. Ogbuewu, I. F. Etuk, V. U. Odoemelam, I. C. Okoli, M. U. Iloeje

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The effect of dietary ginger rhizome meal on libido and semen characteristics of post-pubertal rabbit bucks was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 12 weeks. Thirty-six post-pubertal bucks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups of 9 rabbits each in a completely randomized design. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain ginger rhizome meal at 0 g/kg feed (BT0), 5g/kg feed (BT5), 10 g/kg feed (BT10), and 15g/kg feed (BT15) were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals. Results revealed that semen colour changed from cream milky to milky. Data on semen pH and sperm concentration were similar (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. Semen volume for the bucks in BT0 (0.64 mL) and BT5 (0.60 mL) groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in BT10 (0.44 mL) and BT15 (0.46 mL) groups. Total spermatozoa concentration value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in BT0 and BT5 groups than those in BT10 and BT15 groups. Sperm motility and percent live sperm declined (p<0.05) progressively among the treatment groups. Percent dead sperm were significantly (p<0.05) lower for bucks in BT0 group than in BT10 and BT15 groups. Reaction time had a dose-dependent increase; however, the observed difference was not significant (p>0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of ginger rhizome meal at 5-15g per kg feed in ration for post-pubertal rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effect on semen production and quality.

Keywords: rabbits, semen, libido, ginger

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31 Study on the Effect Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extracts on Rat Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

Authors: Asmaa F. Hamouda, Randa M Shrourou

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Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) constitute apportion of regular human diet. The effect of Cabbage(CE) and Ginger extracts(GE) separately on liver nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(T.G), high density lipoprotein(HDL cholesterol), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) in rats treated and untreated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied. The levels of NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, LDLand TSH showed an elevation and decline in HDL, T3, and T4 in rats treated with CCl4 as compared to control. Treatment of rats with GE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration improved NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, HDL, LDL, TSH, T3, T4 as compared to CCl4, indicates that GE improve thyroid function and reduced oxidative stress as well as injuries induced by CCl4. Treatment of rats with CE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration did not improved in the thyroid hormones and lipid profile levels as compared to CCl4. These findings suggest that ginger treatment exerts a protective effect on metabolic disorders by decreasing oxidative stress.

Keywords: liver injuries, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), ginger (Zingiber officinale), thyroid function

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
30 Study on Preparation and Storage of Composite Vegetable Squash of Tomato, Pumpkin and Ginger

Authors: K. Premakumar, R. G. Lakmali, S. M. A. C. U. Senarathna

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In the present world, production and consumption of fruit and vegetable beverages have increased owing to the healthy life style of the people. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop composite vegetable squash by incorporating nutritional, medicinal and organoleptic properties of tomato, pumpkin and ginger. Considering the finding of several preliminary studies, five formulations in different combinations tomato pumpkin were taken and their physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content and total sugar and organoleptic parameters such as colour, aroma, taste, nature, overall acceptability were analyzed. Then the best sample was improved by using 1 % ginger (50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+ 1% ginger). Best three formulations were selected for storage studied. The formulations were stored at 30 °C room temperature and 70-75% of RH for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters , organoleptic and microbial activity (total plate count, yeast and mold, E-coil) were analyzed during storage periods and protein content, fat content, ash were also analysed%.The study on the comparison of physico-chemical and sensory qualities of stored Squashes was done up to 12 weeks storage periods. The nutritional analysis of freshly prepared tomato pumpkin vegetable squash formulations showed increasing trend in titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, non -reducing sugar, total soluble solids and decreasing trend in ascorbic acid and reducing sugar with storage periods. The results of chemical analysis showed that, there were the significant different difference (p < 0.05) between tested formulations. Also, sensory analysis also showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) for organoleptic character characters between squash formulations. The highest overall acceptability was observed in formulation with 50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+1% ginger and all the all the formulations were microbiologically safe for consumption. Based on the result of physico-chemical characteristics, sensory attributes and microbial test, the Composite Vegetable squash with 50% tomato+50% pumpkin+1% ginger was selected as best formulation and could be stored for 12 weeks without any significant changes in quality characteristics.

Keywords: nutritional analysis, formulations, sensory attributes, squash

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29 Resistance Training and Ginger Consumption on Cytokines Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Regular body trainings cause adaption in various system in body. One of the important effect of body training is its effect on immune system. It seems that cytokines usually release after long period exercises or some exercises which cause skeletal muscular damages. If some of the cytokines which cause responses such as inflammation of cells in skeletal muscles, with manipulating of training program, it can be avoided or limited from those exercises which induct cytokines release. Ginger plant is a kind of medicinal plants which is known as a anti inflammation plant. This plant is as most precedence medicinal plants in medicine science especially in inflammation cure. The aim of the present study was the effect of selected resistance training and consumption of ginger extract on IL-1α and TNFα untrained young women. The population includes young women interested in participating in the study with the average of 30±2 years old from Abbas Abad city among which 32 participants were chosen randomly and divided into 4 four groups, resistance training (R), resistance training and ginger consumption(RG), Ginger consumption(G)and Control group(C). The training groups performed circuit resistance training at the intensity of 65-75% one repeat maximum, 3 days a week for 6 weeks. Besides resistance training, subjects were given either ginseng (5 mg/kg per day) or placebo. Prior to and 48 hours after interventions body composition was measured and blood samples were taken in order to assess serum levels of IL-1α and TNFα. Plasma levels of cytokines were measured with commercially available ELISA Kits.IL-1α kit and TNFα kit were used in this research. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the independent variable and the comparison between groups, t-test and ANOVA were used. To determine differences between the groups, the Scheffe test was used that showed significant changes in any of the variables. we observed that circuit resistance training in R and RG groups can significant decreased in weight and body mass index in untrained females (p<0.05). The results showed a significant decreased in the mean level of IL-1α levels before and after the training period in G group (p=0.046) and RG group (p=0.022). Comparison between groups also showed there was significant difference between groups R-RG and RG-C. Intergroup comparison results showed that the mean levels of TNFα before and after the training in group G (p=0.044) and RG (p=0.037), significantly decreased. Comparison between groups also showed there was significant difference between groups R–RG , R-G ,RG-C and G-C. The research shows that circuit resistance training with reducing overload method results in systemic inflammation had significant effect on IL-1α levels and TNFα. Of course, Ginger can counteract the negative effects of resistance training exercise on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Considerable evidence supported the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger for several constituents, especially gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerones, through decreased cytokine gene TNF α and IL-1Α expression and inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. These established biological actions suggest that ingested ginger could block the increase in IL-1α.

Keywords: resistance training, ginger, IL-1α , TNFα

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28 Cytotoxicity thiamethoxam Study on the Hepatopancreas and Its Reversibility under the Effect of Ginger in Helix aspersa

Authors: Samira Bensoltane, Smina Ait Hamlet, Samti Meriem, Semmasel Asma

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Living organisms in the soil are subject to regular fluctuations of abiotic parameters, as well as a chemical contamination of the environment due to human activities. They are subject to multiple stressors they face. The aim of our work was to study the effects of insecticide: thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid), and the potential reversibility of the effects by an antioxidant: ginger on a bioindicator species in ecotoxicology, the land snail Helix aspersa. The effects were studied by a targeted cell approach of evaluating the effect of these molecules on tissue and cellular aspect of hepatopancreas through histological study. Treatment with thiamethoxam concentrations 10, 20, and 40 mg/l shows signs of inflammation even at low concentrations and from the 5th day of treatment. Histological examination of the hepatopancreas of snails treated with thiamethoxam showed significant changes from the lowest concentrations tested , note intertubular connective tissue enlargement, necrosis deferent types of cells (cells with calcium , digestive, excretory) , also damage acini, alteration of the apical membrane and lysis of the basement membrane in a dose- dependent manner. After 10 days of treatment and with 40 mg/l, the same changes were observed with a very advanced degeneration of the wall of the member that could be confused with the cell debris. For cons, the histological study of the hepatopancreas in Helix aspersa treated with ginger for a period of 15 days after stopping treatment with thiamethoxam has shown a partial regeneration of hepatopancreatic tissue snails treated with all concentrations of thiamethoxam and especially in the intertubular connective tissue of the wall and hepatopancreatic digestive tubules. Finally, we can conclude that monitoring the effect of the insecticide thiamethoxam showed significant alterations, however, treatment with ginger shows regeneration of damaged cells themselves much sharper at low concentration (10 mg/L).

Keywords: Helix aspersa, insecticides, thiamethoxam, ginger, hepatopancreas

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
27 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai

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The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: mechanism, ginger bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction

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26 The Study of Natural Synthetic Linalool Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Using Photochemical Reactions

Authors: Elgendy M. Eman, Sameeh Y. Manal

Abstract:

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is so important plant for its medicinal properties from ancient time and used as a spicy herb all over the world. This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and various crude extracts (n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol) of Zingiber officinale as well. GC–MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 68 compounds,; 1,8-cineole (8.9%) and linalool (15.1%) were the main components in the essential oil .The crude extracts were analyzed with TLC plates and revealed several spots under UV light; however the hexane extract exhibited the highest number of spots compared to the other extracts. Hexane extract was selected for GC-MS profile, and the results revealed the presence of several volatile compounds and linalool was the major component with high percentage (11.4 %). Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound (linalool) using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques compared to authenticated linalool then subjected to purification using preparative and column chromatography. Linalool has been epoxidized using m-chloroperbenzoicacid (mcpba) at room temperature in the presence of florescent lamps to give two cyclic oxygenated products (furan epoxide & pyran epoxide) as a stereospecific product.it is concluded that, oxidation process is enhanced by irradiation to form epoxide derivative, which acts as the precursor of important products.

Keywords: epoxide, ginger, irradiation, linalool

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25 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed.

Abstract:

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20-60 and 6-18 µg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 µg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 µg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol

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24 Intercropping Immature Oil Palm (Elaeisguineensis) with Banana, Ginger and Turmeric in Galle District, Sri Lanka

Authors: S. M. Dissanayake, I. R. Palihakkara , K. G. Premathilaka

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Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is the world’s leading vegetable oil-producing plant and is well established as a perennial plantation crop in tropical countries. Oil palm in Sri Lanka has spread over 10,000 hectares in the wet zone of the Island. In immature plantations, land productivity can be increased with some selected intercrops. At the immature stage of the plantations (age up to 3-5 years), there is a large amount of free space available inside the plantations. This study attempts to determine the suitability of different intercrops during the immature phase of the oil palm. A field experiment is being conducted at Thalgaswella estate (WL2a) in Galle district, Sri Lanka. The objectives of the study are to evaluate and recommend a suitable immature oil palm-based intercropping system/s. This experiment was established with randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments, including control in three replicates. Banana, ginger, and turmeric were selected as intercrops. Growth parameters of intercrops (plant height, length, width of D-leaf, and yield of intercrops) and girth, length, and number of leaflets of 17th frond in oil palms were taken at two months intervals. In addition to this, chlorophyll content was also measured in both intercrops and oil palm trees. Soil chemical parameters were measured annually. Results were statistically analyzed with SAS software. Results revealed that intercropped banana, turmeric, and ginger had given yields of 7.61Mt/ha, 4.92Mt/ha, and 4.53Mt/ha, respectively. When comparing these yields with mono-crop, banana, turmeric, and ginger intercrop yields as percentages of 16.9%, 24.6%, and 30.2%, respectively. The results of this study could be used to make appropriate policies to increase the unit land productivity in oil palm plantations in a low country wet zone (WL2a) of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: inter-cropping, oil palm, policies, mono-crop, land productivity

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23 Potential Impact of Sodium Salicylate Nanoemulsion on Expression of Nephrin in Nephrotoxic Experimental Rat

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Zakaria El-Khayat, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Mehrez E. El-Naggar

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Drug nephrotoxicity is still a problem for patients who have taken drugs for elongated periods or permanently. Ultrasound-assisted sol−gel method was used to prepare hollow structured poroussilica nanoemulsion loaded with sodium salicylate as a model drug. The work was extended to achieve the target of the current work via investigating the protective role of this nanoemulsion model as anti-inflammatory drug or ginger for its antioxidant effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats. The results clarify that the nanoemulsion model was synthesized using ultrasonic assisted with small size and well stabilization as proved by TEM and DLS analysis. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Serum creatinine (SC) and Urinary total protein (UTP) were increased, and the level of creatinine clearance (Crcl) was decreased. All those were met with disorders in oxidative stress and downregulation in the expression of the nephrin gene. Also, histopathological changes of the kidney tissue were observed. These changes back to normal by treatment with silica nanoparticles loaded sodium salicylate (Si-Sc-NPs), ginger or both. Conclusions oil/water nanoemulsion of (Si-Sc NPs) and ginger showed a protective and promising preventive strategy against nephrotoxicity due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and that offers a new approach in attenuating drug induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: sodium salicylate nanoencapsulation, nephrin mRNA, drug nephrotoxicity, cisplatin, experimental rats

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22 Assessment of Cell-Rebuilding Efficacy of Selected Food Plants in the Lungs of Wild Rats Living in a Polluted Environment

Authors: Yahaya Tajudeen, Joy Okpuzor, Tolu Ajayi

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The cell-rebuilding efficacy of four food plants eating as vegetables and spices in Nigeria was assessed in the lungs of wild rats (Rattus rattus) living in a polluted environment. The plants are roselle (Hibiscus sabdarrifa), moringa (Moringa oleifera), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ugwu (Telfairia occidentalis). Sixty rats were caught from the vicinity of a cement factory in Sagamu, Southwestern-Nigeria and grouped into 6. The control group was administered distilled water, while the test groups were given ethanolic extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ugwu and the mixture of the extracts for 180 days. The histopathology of the rats was conducted before and at the end of 180 days extracts administration. Before administering the extracts, the lungs of the rats showed vascular congestion, severe fibrosis and congested alveolus; all which were also observed in the lungs of control rats at the end of the treatment. However, the lungs of rats that were treated with the extracts of the plants showed moderate, mild or no histological damage compared to the control rats. The extract of the mixture of the plants performed best, followed by ginger, ugwu and roselle, respectively. These findings suggest that the food plants contain phytonutrients and phytochemicals, which repaired damaged cells and tissues in the exposed rats. Consequently, the plants could play a role in ameliorating health effects of environmental pollution.

Keywords: food plants, wild rats, lung, histopathology, fibrosis, cell-rebuilding

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21 High Catalytic Activity and Stability of Ginger Peroxidase Immobilized on Amino Functionalized Silica Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite: A Promising Tool for Bioremediation

Authors: Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain, Nida Alam, Masood Ahmad

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Improving the activity and stability of the enzyme is an important aspect in bioremediation processes. Immobilization of enzyme is an efficient approach to amend the properties of biocatalyst required during wastewater treatment. The present study was done to immobilize partially purified ginger peroxidase on amino functionalized silica coated titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Interestingly there was an enhancement in enzyme activity after immobilization on nanosupport which was evident from effectiveness factor (η) value of 1.76. Immobilized enzyme was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immobilized peroxidase exhibited higher activity in a broad range of pH and temperature as compared to free enzyme. Also, the thermostability of peroxidase was strikingly improved upon immobilization. After six repeated uses, the immobilized peroxidase retained around 62% of its dye decolorization activity. There was a 4 fold increase in Vmax of immobilized peroxidase as compared to free enzyme. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated conformational changes in the secondary structure of enzyme, a possible reason for the enhanced enzyme activity after immobilization. Immobilized peroxidase was highly efficient in the removal of acid yellow 42 dye in a stirred batch process. Our study shows that this bio-remediating system has remarkable potential for treatment of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater.

Keywords: acid yellow 42, decolorization, ginger peroxidase, immobilization

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20 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama

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Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

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19 The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Shahira M. Ezzat, Marwa I. Ezzat, Mona M. Okba, Esther T. Menze, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Shahnas O. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.

Keywords: anti-lipoxygenase activity, inflammatory markers, 1-dehydro-6-gingerol, 6-shogaol

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18 Chemical and Electrochemical Syntheses of Two Organic Components of Ginger

Authors: Adrienn Kiss, Karoly Zauer, Gyorgy Keglevich, Rita Molnarne Bernath

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a perennial plant from Southeast Asia, widely used as a spice, herb, and medicine for many illnesses since its beneficial health effects were observed thousands of years ago. Among the compounds found in ginger, zingerone [4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl-2-butanone] deserves special attention: it has an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effect, it can be used in case of diarrheal disease, helps to prevent the formation of blood clots, has antimicrobial properties, and can also play a role in preventing the Alzheimer's disease. Ferulic acid [(E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-prop-2-enoic acid] is another cinnamic acid derivative in ginger, which has promising properties. Like many phenolic compounds, ferulic acid is also an antioxidant. Based on the results of animal experiments, it is assumed to have a direct antitumoral effect in lung and liver cancer. It also deactivates free radicals that can damage the cell membrane and the DNA and helps to protect the skin against UV radiation. The aim of this work was to synthesize these two compounds by new methods. A few of the reactions were based on the hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone [4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one] to zingerone. Dehydrozingerone can be synthesized by a relatively simple method from acetone and vanillin with good yield (80%, melting point: 41 °C). Hydrogenation can be carried out chemically, for example by the reaction of zinc and acetic acid, or Grignard magnesium and ethyl alcohol. Another way to complete the reduction is the electrochemical pathway. The electrolysis of dehydrozingerone without diaphragm in aqueous media was attempted to produce ferulic acid in the presence of sodium carbonate and potassium iodide using platinum electrodes. The electrolysis of dehydrozingerone in the presence of potassium carbonate and acetic acid to prepare zingerone was carried out similarly. Ferulic acid was expected to be converted to dihydroferulic acid [3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid] in potassium hydroxide solution using iron electrodes, separating the anode and cathode space with a Soxhlet paper sheath impregnated with saturated magnesium chloride solution. For this reaction, ferulic acid was synthesized from vanillin and malonic acid in the presence of pyridine and piperidine (yield: 88.7%, melting point: 173°C). Unfortunately, in many cases, the expected transformations did not happen or took place in low conversions, although gas evolution occurred. Thus, a deeper understanding of these experiments and optimization are needed. Since both compounds are found in different plants, they can also be obtained by alkaline extraction or steam distillation from distinct plant parts (ferulic acid from ground bamboo shoots, zingerone from grated ginger root). The products of these reactions are rich in several other organic compounds as well; therefore, their separation must be solved to get the desired pure material. The products of the reactions described above were characterized by infrared spectral data and melting points. The use of these two simple methods may be informative for the formation of the products. In the future, we would like to study the ferulic acid and zingerone content of other plants and extract them efficiently. The optimization of electrochemical reactions and the use of other test methods are also among our plans.

Keywords: ferulic acid, ginger, synthesis, zingerone

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17 Quality Characteristics of Cured Dried Camel Meat Formulated with Different Medicinal Plants as Natural Preservatives

Authors: H. S. Aljabeili, E. A. Abd El-Hady, M. M. Abd El-Razik, M. Abd Elgadir

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The aim of the study is determining the quality characteristics of produced curing and dried camel meat contained some medicinal plants of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger as natural preservatives. Camel meat samples were sliced and divided into five batches, one batch recorded as control sample was treated by the curing mixture (2.5%) contained the following ingredients: black pepper 1 gm, cumin 0.4 gm, spices mixture 0.5 gm, dried onion 3 gm, dried garlic 0.5 gm and salt 2 gm. To evaluate the effect of different natural preservatives sources of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger, 3.0% of the aforementioned natural preservatives was mixed with the aforementioned curing mixture and used for curing the four batches of sliced camel meat. After curing process, cured sliced camel meat (control and treated with the natural preservatives) were conducting to drying process at 35 ± 3 °C for 36 h in a drying cabinet. The quality characteristics of prepared dried camel meat were evaluated such as chemical composition, microbiological characteristics and sensory characteristics. Based on the microbiological and sensory characteristics, it could be suggested that the selected medicinal plants specially thyme and rosemary could be used as natural preservatives for preparing semi dry camel meat without negative effects.

Keywords: curing, dried camel meat, medicinal plants, natural preservatives, quality characteristics

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