Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1115

Search results for: heterogeneous catalyst

1115 Oxidation of Alcohols Types Using Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan, Mina Roshani


We describe an efficient method for oxidation of alcohols to related aldehydes and ketones by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, under reflux conditions. Nano-graphene oxide (NGO) as a heterogeneous catalyst was used and had their activity compared with other various catalysts. This catalyst was found to be an excellent catalyst for oxidation of alcohols. The effects of various parameters, including catalyst type, nature of the substituent in the alcohols and temperature, on the yield of the carboxylic acids were studied. Nano-graphene oxide was synthesized by the oxidation of graphite powders. This nanocatalyst was found to be highly efficient in this reaction and products were obtained in good to excellent yields. The recovered nano-catalyst was successfully reused for several runs without significant loss in its catalytic activity.

Keywords: nano-graphene oxide, oxidation, aldehyde, ketone, catalyst

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1114 Production of Biodiesel Using Brine Waste as a Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Linda Sibali


In these modern times, we constantly search for new and innovative technologies to lift the burden of our extreme energy demand. The overall purpose of biofuel production research is to source an alternative energy source to replace the normal use of fossil fuel as liquid petroleum products. This experiment looks at the basis of biodiesel production with regards to alternative catalysts that can be used to produce biodiesel. The key factors that will be addressed during the experiments will focus on temperature variation, catalyst additions to the overall reaction, methanol to oil ratio, and the impact of agitation on the reaction. Brine samples sources from nearby plants will be evaluated and tested thoroughly and the key characteristics of these brine samples analysed for the verification of its use as a possible catalyst in biodiesel production. The one factor at a time experimental approach was used in this experiment, and the recycle and reuse characteristics of the heterogeneous catalyst was evaluated.

Keywords: brine sludge, heterogenous catalyst, biodiesel, one factor

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1113 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

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1112 Waste Bone Based Catalyst: Characterization and Esterification Application

Authors: Amit Keshav


Waste bone, produced in large quantity (8-10 kg./day) from a slaughterhouse, could be a cheap (cost $0.20 per kg) substitute for commercial catalysts. In the present work, catalyst for esterification reaction was prepared from waste bone and characterized by various techniques. Bone was deoiled and then sulfonated. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of prepared catalyst predicted –OH vibration at 3416 and 1630 cm⁻¹, S-O stretching at 1124 cm⁻¹ and intense bands of hydroxypatite in a region between 500 and 700 cm⁻¹. X-ray diffraction (XRD) predicts peaks of hydroxyapatite, CaO, and tricalcium phosphate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to reveal the presence of non-uniformity deposited fine particles on the catalyst surface that represents active acidic sites. The prepared catalyst was employed to study its performance on esterification reaction between acrylic acid and ethanol in a molar ratio of 1:1 at a set temperature of 60 °C. Results show an equilibrium conversion of 49% which is matched to the commercial catalysts employed in literature. Thus waste bone could be a good catalyst for acrylic acid removal from waste industrial streams via the process of esterification.Keywords— Heterogeneous catalyst, characterization, esterification, equilibrium conversion

Keywords: heterogeneous catalyst, characterization, esterification, equilibrium conversion

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1111 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil over Mg-Al Modified K-10 Clay Catalyst

Authors: Muhammad Ayoub, Abrar Inayat, Bhajan Lal, Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis


Biodiesel which comes from pure renewable resources provide an alternative fuel option for future because of limited fossil fuel resources as well as environmental concerns. The transesterification of vegetable oils for biodiesel production is a promising process to overcome this future crises of energy. The use of heterogeneous catalysts greatly simplifies the technological process by facilitating the separation of the post-reaction mixture. The purpose of the present work was to examine a heterogeneous catalyst, in particular, Mg-Al modified K-10 clay, to produce methyl esters of palm oil. The prepared catalyst was well characterized by different latest techniques. In this study, the transesterification of palm oil with methanol was studied in a heterogeneous system in the presence of Mg-Al modified K-10 clay as solid base catalyst and then optimized these results with the help of Design of Experiments software. The results showed that methanol is the best alcohol for this reaction condition. The best results was achieved for optimization of biodiesel process. The maximum conversion of triglyceride (88%) was noted after 8 h of reaction at 60 ̊C, with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to palm oil and 3 wt % of prepared catalyst.

Keywords: palm oil, transestrefication, clay, biodiesel, mesoporous clay, K-10

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1110 Lithium Ion Supported on TiO2 Mixed Metal Oxides as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil

Authors: Mariam Alsharifi, Hussein Znad, Ming Ang


Considering the environmental issues and the shortage in the conventional fossil fuel sources, biodiesel has gained a promising solution to shift away from fossil based fuel as one of the sustainable and renewable energy. It is synthesized by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol (methanol or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst. This study focuses on synthesizing a high efficient Li/TiO2 heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from canola oil. In this work, lithium immobilized onto TiO2 by the simple impregnation method. The catalyst was evaluated by transesterification reaction in a batch reactor under moderate reaction conditions. To study the effect of Li concentrations, a series of LiNO3 concentrations (20, 30, 40 wt. %) at different calcination temperatures (450, 600, 750 ºC) were evaluated. The Li/TiO2 catalysts are characterized by several spectroscopic and analytical techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, BET, TG-DSC and FESEM. The optimum values of impregnated Lithium nitrate on TiO2 and calcination temperature are 30 wt. % and 600 ºC, respectively, along with a high conversion to be 98 %. The XRD study revealed that the insertion of Li improved the catalyst efficiency without any alteration in structure of TiO2 The best performance of the catalyst was achieved when using a methanol to oil ratio of 24:1, 5 wt. % of catalyst loading, at 65◦C reaction temperature for 3 hours of reaction time. Moreover, the experimental kinetic data were compatible with the pseudo-first order model and the activation energy was (39.366) kJ/mol. The synthesized catalyst Li/TiO2 was applied to trans- esterify used cooking oil and exhibited a 91.73% conversion. The prepared catalyst has shown a high catalytic activity to produce biodiesel from fresh and used oil within mild reaction conditions.

Keywords: biodiesel, canola oil, environment, heterogeneous catalyst, impregnation method, renewable energy, transesterification

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1109 Preparation of Heterogeneous Ferrite Catalysts and Their Application for Fenton-Like Oxidation of Radioactive Organic Wastewater

Authors: Hsien T. Hsieh, Chao R. Chen, Li C. Chuang, Chin C. Shen


Fenton oxidation technology is the general strategy for the treatment of organic compounds-contained wastewater. However, a considerable amount of ferric sludge was produced during the Fenton process as secondary wastes, which were needed to be further removed from the effluent and treated. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts based on ferrite oxide (Cu-Fe-Ce-O) were synthesized and characterized, and their application for Fenton-like oxidation of simulated and actual radioactive organic wastewater was investigated. The results of TOC decomposition efficiency around 54% ~ 99% were obtained when the catalyst loading, H2O2 loading, pH, temperature, and reaction time were controlled. In this case, no secondary wastes formed and the given catalysts were able to be separated by magnetic devices and reused again.

Keywords: fenton, oxidation, heterogeneous catalyst, wastewater

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1108 Evaluation of Esters Production by Oleic Acid Epoxidation Reaction

Authors: Flavio A. F. Da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, Monica C. G. Albuquerque


In recent years a worldwide interest in renewable resources from the biomass has spurred the industry. In this work the chemical structure of oleic acid chains was modified by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in order to produce esters. The homogeneous epoxidation was carried out at H2O2 to oleic acid unsaturation molar ratio of 20:1. The reaction temperature was 338 K and reaction time 16 h. Formic acid was used as catalyst. For heterogeneous catalysis reaction temperature was 343 K and reaction time 24 h. The esters production was carried out by heterogeneous catalysis of the epoxidized oleic acid and butanol using Mg/SBA-15 as catalyst. The resulting products were confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) and FTIR spectroscopy. The products were characterized before and after each reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and BET surface areas. The results were satisfactory for the bioproducts formed.

Keywords: acid oleic, bioproduct, esters, epoxidation

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1107 Cellulose Supported Heterogeneous Pd(II) Catalyst for Synthesis of Biaryls

Authors: Talat Baran


The Suzuki C(sp2)-C(sp2) coupling reaction is considered to be one of the best ways for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. There are many studies reporting the catalytic performance of palladium catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions. Natural biopolymer (such as zeolite, carbon, silica, and chitosan) supporting catalysts have been lately attracted interest because of their low-cost, nontoxicity, and eco-friendliness. One of the most important natural biopolymer is cellulose, which is widely considered as an eco-friendly biopolymer due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable nature. In this study, (1) cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized (2) its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES techniques (3) to investigate the performance of the catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions by using microwave irradiation technique (4) reusability of the catalyst was done under optimum conditions. This cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst exhibited high selectivity and efficiency in Suzuki coupling reactions under mild conditions (50°C). High TON and TOF values were recorded for the catalyst. Also, the reusability tests showed the catalysts could be used for several times in consequence of reusability tests.

Keywords: palladium, cellulose, Schiff base, reusability

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1106 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia


A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: nano alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel

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1105 Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Chedly Tizaoui, Hussain Mohammed, Lobna Mansouri, Nidal Hilal, Latifa Bousselmi


The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was studied using heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Activated carbon was used as a catalyst. The degradation of DEP with ozone alone was slow while catalytic ozonation increased degradation rates. Second-order reaction kinetics was used to describe the experimental data, and the corresponding rate constant values were 1.19 and 3.94 M-1.s-1 for ozone and ozone/activated carbon respectively.

Keywords: ozone, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, diethyl phthalate, endocrine disrupting chemicals

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1104 Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Nano-Catalyst: Cr Loaded in to MCM-41

Authors: A. Salemi Golezania, A. Sharifi Fateha


In this study a nano-composite catalyst was synthesized by incorporation of chromium into the framework of MCM-41 as a base catalyst. Mesoporous silica molecular sieves MCM-41 were synthesized under Hydrothermal Continues pH Adjusting Path Way. Then, MCM-41 was impregnated by chromium nitrate aqueous solution for several times under water aspiration. Raw powder was cured by heat treatment in vacuum furnace at 500°C. Phase formation, morphology and gas absorption properties of resulted materials were characterized by XRD, TEM and BET analysis, respectively. The results showed that high quality hexagonal meso structure as a matrix and Cr as a second phase has been formed with a narrow size pore diameter distribution and high surface area in Cr/MCM-41 nano-composite structure. The specific surface and total volume of porosity of the synthesized nanocomposite are obtained 931m^2/gr and 1.12 cm^3/gr, respectively.

Keywords: nano-catalyst, MCM-41, Cr/MCM-41, Marine Science and Engineering

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1103 Effectiveness of Catalysis in Ozonation for the Removal of Herbizide 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from Contaminated Water

Authors: S. Shanthi


Catalyzed oxidation processes show extraordinary guarantee for application in numerous wastewater treatment ranges. Advanced oxidation processes are emerging innovation that might be utilized for particular objectives in wastewater treatment. This research work provides a solution for removal a refractory organic compound 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid a common water pollutant. All studies were done in batch mode in a constantly stirred reactor. Alternative ozonation processes catalysed by transition metals or granular activated carbon have been investigated for degradation of organics. Catalytic ozonation under study are homogeneous catalytic ozonation, which is based on ozone activation by transition metal ions present in aqueous solution, and secondly as heterogeneous catalytic ozonation in the presence of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The present studies reveal that heterogeneous catalytic ozonation using GAC favour the ozonation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid by increasing the rate of ozonation and a much higher degradation of substrates were obtained in a given time. Be that it may, Fe2+and Fe3+ ions decreased the rate of degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid indicating that it acts as a negative catalyst. In case of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation using GAC catalyst it was found that during the initial 5 minutes of contact solution concentration decreased significantly as the pollutants were adsorbed initially. Thereafter the substrate started getting oxidized and ozonation became a dominates the treatment process. The exhausted GAC was found to be regenerated in situ. The percentage reduction of the substrate was maximum achieved in minimum possible time when GAC catalyst is employed.

Keywords: ozonation, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, granular activated carbon

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1102 NaOH/Pumice and LiOH/Pumice as Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil: An Optimization Study

Authors: Joy Marie Mora, Mark Daniel De Luna, Tsair-Wang Chung


Transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol was carried out to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using calcined alkali metal (Na and Li) supported by pumice silica as the solid base catalyst. Pumice silica catalyst was activated by loading alkali metal ions to its surface via an ion-exchange method. Response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the operating parameters in biodiesel production, namely: reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentration. Using the optimized sets of parameters, FAME yields using sodium and lithium silicate catalysts were 98.80% and 98.77%, respectively. A pseudo-first order kinetic equation was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) sorptometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the reusability of the catalysts was successfully tested in two subsequent cycles.

Keywords: alkali metal, biodiesel, Box-Behnken design, heterogeneous catalyst, kinetics, optimization, pumice, transesterification

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1101 Investigation of Flow Behavior inside the Single Channel Catalytic Combustor for Lean Mixture

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustor substantially reduces emission entailing fuel-air premixing at very low equivalence ratios. The catalytic combustion of natural gas has the potential to become sufficiently active at light off temperature by the convection of heat from the catalyst surface. Only one channel is selected to investigate both the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed because of the honeycomb structure of the catalytic combustor. The objective of the present study is to find the methane catalytic combustion behavior inside the catalytic combustor, where the gas phase kinetics is employed by homogeneous methane combustion and surface chemistry is described with the heterogeneous catalysis of the oxidation of methane on a platinum catalyst. The reaction of the premixed mixture in the catalytic regime improves flame stability with complete combustion for lower operating flame temperature. An overview of the flow behavior is presented inside the single channel catalytic combustor including the operation of catalytic combustion with various F/A ratios and premixed inlet temperature.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, equivalence ratios, flame temperature, heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous combustion

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1100 MOF [(4,4-Bipyridine)₂(O₂CCH₃)₂Zn]N as Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts for the Transesterification of Canola Oil

Authors: H. Arceo, S. Rincon, C. Ben-Youssef, J. Rivera, A. Zepeda


Biodiesel has emerged as a material with great potential as a renewable energy replacement to current petroleum-based diesel. Recently, biodiesel production is focused on the development of more efficient, sustainable process with lower costs of production. In this sense, a “green” approach to biodiesel production has stimulated the use of sustainable heterogeneous acid catalysts, that are better alternatives to conventional processes because of their simplicity and the simultaneous promotion of esterification and transesterification reactions from low-grade, highly-acidic and water containing oils without the formation of soap. The focus of this methodology is the development of new heterogeneous catalysts that under ordinary reaction conditions could reach yields similar to homogeneous catalysis. In recent years, metal organic frameworks (MOF) have attracted much interest for their potential as heterogeneous acid catalysts. They are crystalline porous solids formed by association of transition metal ions or metal–oxo clusters and polydentate organic ligands. This hybridization confers MOFs unique features such as high thermal stability, larger pore size, high specific area, high selectivity and recycling potential. Thus, MOF application could be a way to improve the biodiesel production processes. In this work, we evaluated the catalytic activity of MOF [(4,4-bipyridine)2(O₂CCH₃)2Zn]n (MOF Zn-I) for the synthesis of biodiesel from canola oil. The reaction conditions were optimized using the response surface methodology with a compound design central with 24. The variables studied were: Reaction temperature, amount of catalyst, molar ratio oil: MetOH and reaction time. The preparation MOF Zn-I was performed by mixing 5 mmol 4´4 dipyridine dissolved in 25 mL methanol with 10 mmol Zn(O₂CCH₃)₂ ∙ 2H₂O in 25 mL water. The crystals were obtained by slow evaporation of the solvents at 60°C for 18 h. The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). Experiments were performed using commercially available canola oil in ace pressure tube under continuous stirring. The reaction was filtered and vacuum distilled to remove the catalyst and excess alcohol, after which it was centrifuged to separate the obtained biodiesel and glycerol. 1H NMR was used to calculate the process yield. GC-MS was used to quantify the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The results of this study show that the acid catalyst MOF Zn-I could be used as catalyst for biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of canola oil with FAME yield 82 %. The optimum operating condition for the catalytic reaction were of 142°C, 0.5% catalyst/oil weight ratio, 1:30 oil:MeOH molar ratio and 5 h reaction time.

Keywords: fatty acid methyl ester, heterogeneous acid catalyst, metal organic framework, transesterification

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1099 Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using g-C3N4 Photocatalyst

Authors: A. Elgendi, H. Farag, M. E. Ossman, M. Abd-Elfatah


This paper explores the using of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an attractive option to reduce the raw material cost for the biodiesel production. This can be achieved through two steps; esterification using g-C3N4photocatalyst and then alkali transesterification. Several parameters have been studied to determine the yield of the biodiesel produced such as: Reaction time (2-6 hrs), catalyst concentration (0.3-1.5 wt.%), number of UV lamps (1or 3 lamps) and methanol: oil ratio (6:1-12:1). From the obtained results, the highest percentage yield was obtained using methanol: Oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst dosage 0.3%, time of 4 hrs and using 1 lamp. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel from waste cooking oil can be used as fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, photocatalytic esterification, waste cooking oil

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1098 Study of Biofuel Produced by Babassu Oil Fatty Acids Esterification

Authors: F. A. F. da Ponte, J. Q. Malveira, I. A. Maciel, M. C. G. Albuquerque


In this work aviation, biofuel production was studied by fatty acids (C6 to C16) esterification. The process variables in heterogeneous catalysis were evaluated using an experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the studied parameters, and the methyl esters content was the response of the experimental design. An ion exchange resin was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The process optimization was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and polynomial model of second order. Results show that the most influential variables on the linear coefficient of each effect studied were temperature and reaction time. The best result of methyl esters conversion in the experimental design was under the conditions: 10% wt of catalyst; 100 °C and 4 hours of reaction. The best-achieved conversion was 96.5% wt of biofuel.

Keywords: esterification, ion-exchange resins, response surface methodology, biofuel

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1097 Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Benzylamino Coumarin Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani


A green and efficient one-pot synthesis of benzylamino coumarin derivatives by a three-component condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, cyclic secondary amine, and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a heterogeneous catalyst in water at room temperature has been reported.

Keywords: 3-benzyl substituted coumarin derivative, ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), green synthesis, multicomponent reaction

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1096 Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydroesterification of Soybean Oil to Develop a Biodiesel Formation

Authors: O. Mowla, E. Kennedy, M. Stockenhuber


Finding alternative renewable resources of energy has attracted the attentions in consequence of limitation of the traditional fossil fuel resources, increasing of crude oil price and environmental concern over greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel (or Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)), an alternative energy source, is synthesised from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats and can be produced from waste oils. FAME can be produced via hydroesterification of oils. The process involves two stages. In the first stage of this process, fatty acids and glycerol are being obtained by hydrolysis of the feed stock oil. In the second stage, the recovered fatty acids are then esterified with an alcohol to methyl esters. The presence of a catalyst accelerates the rate of the hydroesterification reaction of oils. The overarching aim of this study is to find the effect of using zeolite as a catalyst in the heterogeneous hydroesterification of soybean oil. Both stages of the catalytic hydroesterification of soybean oil had been conducted at atmospheric and high-pressure conditions using reflux glass reactor and Parr reactor, respectively. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature and reaction time on the overall yield of biodiesel formation was also investigated.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalytic hydroesterification, soybean oil, zeolite

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1095 New Heterogenous α-Diimine Nickel (II)/MWCNT Catalysts for Ethylene Polymerization

Authors: Sasan Talebnezhad, Saeed Pourmahdian, Naghi Assali


Homogeneous α-diimine nickel (II) catalyst complexes, with and without amino para-aryl position functionality, were synthesized. These complexes were immobilized on carboxyl, hydroxyl and acyl chloride functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form five novel heterogeneous α diiminonickel catalysts. Immobilization was performed by covalent or electrostatic bonding via methylaluminoxane (MAO) linker or amide linkage. Both the nature of α-diimine ligands and the kind of interaction between anchored catalyst complexes and multi-walled carbon nanotube surface influenced the catalytic performance, microstructure, and morphology of obtained polyethylenes. The catalyst prepared by amide bonding showed lowest relative weight loss in thermogravimetry analysis and highest activities up to 5863 gr PE This catalyst produced polyethylene with dense botryoidal morphology.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complexes, immobilization, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, ethylene polymerization

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1094 New Heterogenous α-Diimine Nickel (II)/ MWCNT Catalysts for Ethylene Polymerization

Authors: Sasan Talebnezhad, Saeed Pormahdian, Naghi Assali


Homogeneous α-diimine nickel (II) catalyst complexes, with and without amino para-aryl position functionality, were synthesized. These complexes were immobilized on carboxyl, hydroxyl, and acyl chloride functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form five novel heterogeneous α-diiminonickel catalysts. Immobilization was performed by covalent or electrostatic bonding via methylaluminoxane (MAO) linker or amide linkage. Both the nature of α-diimine ligands and the kind of interaction between anchored catalyst complexes and multi-walled carbon nanotube surface influenced the catalytic performance, microstructure, and morphology of obtained polyethylenes. The catalyst prepared by amide bonding showed lowest relative weight loss in thermogravimetry analysis and highest activities up to 5863 gr PE This catalyst produced polyethylene with dense botryoidal morphology.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complexes, immobilization, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, ethylene polymerization

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1093 Competitive Coordination Strategy Towards Reversible Hybrid Hetero-Homogeneous Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst

Authors: Peikun Zhang, Chunhua Cui


Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting provides a promising pathway to convert solar energy into renewable fuels. However, the main and seemingly insurmountable obstacle is that the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) severely jeopardizes the overall efficiency, thus exploring highly active, stable, and appreciable catalysts is urgently requested. Herein a competitive coordination strategy was demonstrated to form a reversible hybrid homo-heterogeneous catalyst for efficient OER in alkaline media. The dynamic process involves an in-situ anchoring of soluble nickel–bipyridine pre-catalyst to a conductive substrate under OER and a re-dissolution course under open circuit potential, induced by the competitive coordination between nickel–bipyridine and nickel-hydroxyls. This catalyst allows to elaborately self-modulate a charge-transfer layer thickness upon the catalytic on-off operation, which affords substantially increased active sites, yet remains light transparency, and sustains the stability of over 200 hours of continuous operation. The integration of this catalyst with exemplified state-of-the-art Ni-sputtered Si photoanode can facilitate a ~250 mV cathodic shift at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. This finding helps the understanding of catalyst from a “dynamic” perspective, which represents a viable alternative to address remaining hurdles toward solar-driven water oxidation.

Keywords: molecular catalyst, oxygen evolution reaction, solar energy, transition metal complex, water splitting

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1092 Nanoparticle Supported, Magnetically Separable Metalloporphyrin as an Efficient Retrievable Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst in Oxidation Reactions

Authors: Anahita Mortazavi Manesh, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh


Metalloporphyrins are well known to mimic the activity of monooxygenase enzymes. In this regard, metalloporphyrin complexes have been largely employed as valuable biomimetic catalysts, owing to the critical roles they play in oxygen transfer processes in catalytic oxidation reactions. Investigating in this area is based on different strategies to design selective, stable and high turnover catalytic systems. Immobilization of expensive metalloporphyrin catalysts onto supports appears to be a good way to improve their stability, selectivity and the catalytic performance because of the support environment and other advantages with respect to recovery, reuse. In other words, supporting metalloporphyrins provides a physical separation of active sites, thus minimizing catalyst self-destruction and dimerization of unhindered metalloporphyrins. Furthermore, heterogeneous catalytic oxidations have become an important target since their process are used in industry, helping to minimize the problems of industrial waste treatment. Hence, the immobilization of these biomimetic catalysts is much desired. An attractive approach is the preparation of the heterogeneous catalyst involves immobilization of complexes on silica coated magnetic nano-particles. [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles have been studied extensively due to their superparamagnetism property, large surface area to volume ratio and easy functionalization. Using heterogenized homogeneous catalysts is an attractive option to facile separation of catalyst, simplified product work-up and continuity of catalytic system. Homogeneous catalysts immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) surface occupy a unique position due to combining the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, superparamagnetic nature of MNPs enable very simple separation of the immobilized catalysts from the reaction mixture using an external magnet. In the present work, an efficient heterogeneous catalyst was prepared by immobilizing manganese porphyrin on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles through the amino propyl linkage. The prepared catalyst was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Application of immobilized metalloporphyrin in the oxidation of various organic substrates was explored using Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The results showed that the supported Mn-porphyrin catalyst ([email protected]@MnPor) is an efficient and reusable catalyst in oxidation reactions. Our catalytic system exhibits high catalytic activity in terms of turnover number (TON) and reaction conditions. Leaching and recycling experiments revealed that nanocatalyst can be recovered several times without loss of activity and magnetic properties. The most important advantage of this heterogenized catalytic system is the simplicity of the catalyst separation in which the catalyst can be separated from the reaction mixture by applying a magnet. Furthermore, the separation and reuse of the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were very effective and economical.

Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticle, immobilized metalloporphyrin, magnetically separable nanocatalyst, oxidation reactions

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1091 Catalytic Pyrolysis of Barley Straw for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals

Authors: Funda Ates


Primary energy sources, such as petroleum, coal and natural gas are principle responsible of world’s energy consumption. However, the rapid worldwide increase in the depletion of these energy sources is remarkable. In addition to this, they have damaging environmentally effect. Renewable energy sources are capable of providing a considerable fraction of World energy demand in this century. Biomass is one of the most abundant and utilized sources of renewable energy in the world. It can be converted into commercial fuels, suitable to substitute for fossil fuels. A high number of biomass types can be converted through thermochemical processes into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of air or oxygen. In this study, barley straw has been investigated as an alternative feedstock to obtain fuels and chemicals via pyrolysis in fixed-bed reactor. The influence of pyrolysis temperature in the range 450–750 °C as well as the catalyst effects on the products was investigated and the obtained results were compared. The results indicated that a maximum oil yield of 20.4% was obtained at a moderate temperature of 550 °C. Oil yield decreased by using catalyst. Pyrolysis oils were examined by using instrumental analysis and GC/MS. Analyses revealed that the pyrolysis oils were chemically very heterogeneous at all temperatures. It was determined that the most abundant compounds composing the bio-oil were phenolics. Catalyst decreased the reaction temperature. Most of the components obtained using a catalyst at moderate temperatures was close to those obtained at high temperatures without using a catalyst. Moreover, the use of a catalyst also decreased the amount of oxygenated compounds produced.

Keywords: Barley straw, pyrolysis, catalyst, phenolics

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1090 Dioxomolybdenum (VI) Schiff Base Complex Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Green Nanocatalysis in Epoxidation of Olefins

Authors: Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Sahar Khatami


Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and silica was then coated on the magnetic nanoparticles followed by modification with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane. Then, dioxomolybdenum(VI) Schiff base complex of N,N′-bis(5-chloromethyl-salicylidine)-1,2-phenylenediamine) was immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The catalyst shows excellent catalytic activity in epoxidation of olefins using tert-butylhydroperoxide in 1,2-dichloroethane. In this report, the supported complex exhibited 100% selectivity for epoxidation with 100% conversion for cyclooctene. Nanocatalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for subsequent reactions for at least 5 times with less deterioration in catalytic activity.

Keywords: dioxomolybdenum (VI), epoxidation, nanocatalysis, nanoparticles, Schiff base

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1089 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi


In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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1088 Production of Renewable and Clean Bio-Fuel (DME) from Biomethanol over Copper Modified Alumina Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, David W. Rooney, Jillian Thompson


The effect of loading of copper on the catalytic performance of different alumina support during the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. There are two levels of loading; low loading (1, 2, 4 and 6% Cu wt/wt) and high loading (10 and 15% Cu wt/wt) on both AC350 (alumina catalyst calcined at 350) and AC550 (alumina catalyst calcined at 550), to study the effect of loading and the effect of the support during methanol dehydration to DME (MTD). The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3, TEM and DRIFT-Pyridine. Under reaction conditions where the temperature ranged from 180-300˚C with a WHSV= 12.1 h-1 it was found that all the catalysts calcined at 550˚C showed higher activity than those calcined at 350˚C. In this study, the optimum catalyst was 6% Cu/AC550. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability, had one half activity of the pure catalyst (AC550) and double the activity of the optimum catalyst calcined at 350˚C (6% Cu/AC350). So, we recommended 6% Cu/AC550 for the production of DME from methanol.

Keywords: bio-fuel, nano composite catalyst, DME, Cu-Al2O3

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1087 Comparision of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidthiobacillus Thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee


The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.

Keywords: At. ferrooxidans, bioleaching, metal recovery, spent catalyst

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1086 Optimization of Catalyst Parameters to Get Chlorine Free Bimetallic Catalysts

Authors: Noreen Sajjad Ghulam Hussain


Catalysts are prepared by simple physical mixing and thermal treatment of support and metal acetate precursors.The effect of metal ratio and metal loading to produce highly active catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol are studied.

Keywords: catalyst, acetates, benzyl alcohols

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