Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Yoseph Worku

9 Risk Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Outbreak in Diredawa Administration City, Ethiopia, October 2015: A Case Control Study

Authors: Luna Degife, Desalegn Belay, Yoseph Worku, Tigist Tesfaye, Assefa Tufa, Abyot Bekele, Zegeye Hailemariam, Abay Hagos

Abstract:

Half of the world’s population is at risk of Dengue Fever (DF), a highly under-recognized and underreported mosquito-borne viral disease with high prevalence in the tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, an estimated 50 to 200 million cases and 20, 000 DF deaths occur annually as per the world health organization report. In Ethiopia, the first outbreak occurred in 2013 in Diredawa administration city. Afterward, three outbreaks have been reported from the eastern part of the country. We received a report of the fifth DF outbreak for Ethiopia and the second for Diredawa city on October 4, 2015. We conducted the investigation to confirm the outbreak, identify the risk factors for the repeatedly occurrence of the disease and implement control measures. We conducted un- matched case-control study and defined a suspected DF case as any person with fever of 2-7 days and 2 or more of the following: a headache, arthralgia, myalgia, rash, or bleeding from any part of the body. Controls were residents of Diredawa city without DF symptoms. We interviewed 70 Cases and 140 controls from all health facilities in Diredawa city from October 7 to 15; 2015. Epi Info version 7.1.5.0 was used to analyze the data and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess risk factors for DF. Sixty-nine blood samples were collected for Laboratory confirmation.The mean age for cases was 23.7±9.5 standard deviation (SD) and for controls 31.2±13 SD. Close contact with DF patient (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=5.36, 95% confidence interval(CI): 2.75-10.44), nonuse of long-lasting insecticidal nets (AOR=2.74, 95% CI: 1.06-7.08) and availability of stagnant water in the village (AOR=3.61, 95% CI:1.31-9.93) were independent risk factors associated with higher rates of the disease. Forty-two samples were tested positive. Endemicity of DF is becoming a concern for Diredawa city after the first outbreak. Therefore, effective vector control activities need to be part of long-term preventive measures.

Keywords: dengue fever, Diredawa, outbreak, risk factors, second

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8 Demand for Index Based Micro-Insurance (IBMI) in Ethiopia

Authors: Ashenafi Sileshi Etefa, Bezawit Worku Yenealem

Abstract:

Micro-insurance is a relatively new concept that is just being introduced in Ethiopia. For an agrarian economy dominated by small holder farming and vulnerable to natural disasters, mainly drought, the need for an Index-Based Micro Insurance (IBMI) is crucial. Since IBMI solves moral hazard, adverse selection, and access issues to poor clients, it is preferable over traditional insurance products. IBMI is being piloted in drought prone areas of Ethiopia with the aim of learning and expanding the service across the country. This article analyses the demand of IBMI and the barriers to demand and finds that the demand for IBMI has so far been constrained by lack of awareness, trust issues, costliness, and the level of basis risk; and recommends reducing the basis risk and increasing the role of government and farmer cooperatives.

Keywords: agriculture, index based micro-insurance (IBMI), drought, micro-finance institution (MFI)

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7 Controlled Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots via Microwave-Enhanced Process: A Green Approach for Mass Production

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang

Abstract:

A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: average life time, CdSe QDs, microwave (MW), mass production oleic acid, Na2SeSO3

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6 Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Process for Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots for Large Scale Production and Manipulation of Optical Properties

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang

Abstract:

A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, Na2SeSO3, microwave (MW), oleic acid, mass production, average life time

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5 Pregnancy Nutritional Status in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Pregnant Women in Shashemene District, Southern Oromia Region

Authors: Yoseph Gela Ali

Abstract:

Inadequate quality and quantity diet is one of the major reasons for high levels of malnutrition in pregnant women. Across-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene District, Southern Oromia Region. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 15190 pregnant women aged 20-50 years from four rural villages Energy and nutrient intakes from foods were calculated from one-day weighed food records on a sub-sample (n = 83). The result of the study showed that the intakes of most nutrients were lower than the recommended intake. The energy intake of the study participants both in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy were 2,308 kcal and 1,420.5 kcal compared to the recommended 2,340 kcal and 2,452 kcal, respectively. Except iron, almost all micronutrient intakes were lower than the recommended intake. Vitamin A intake was 3 µg compared with the recommended 800 µg, while protein intake of the study respondents in 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy was 45.9 g and 31.5 g, respectively, compared with the recommended 71 g. Risk factors for under nutrition were multiple pregnancy and no consumption of cereal-based foods. This study revealed that the energy and nutrient intake of the pregnant women in the study area was below the recommended intakes. Furthermore, the situation might be aggravated by the high phytate content food consumption reported. Nutritional status of pregnant women in the study area was not adequate to support the increased energy and nutrient requirement of the participants.

Keywords: nutrition, pregnancy, protein, vitamin, energy

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4 Inclusive Business and Its Contribution to Farmers Wellbeing in Arsi Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence

Authors: Senait G. Worku, Ellen Mangnus

Abstract:

Inclusive business models which integrates low-income people with companies value chain in a commercially viable way has gained momentum for the perceived potential to contribute to poverty alleviation and food security in developing countries. This article investigates the impact of Community Revenue Enhancement through Technology Extension (CREATE) project of Heineken brewery on smallholder farmers’ wellbeing in Arsi zone Oromia regional state of Ethiopia. CREATE is a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) between Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands and Heineken N.V. which source malt barely from smallholder farmers in three zones of Oromia. The study assessed the impact of CREATE on malt barley productivity, food security and new asset purchase in Arsi zone by comparing households that participate in the project with non-participating households using propensity score matching method. The finding indicated that households that participated in the CREATE project had higher malt barley productivity and purchased more new assets than non-participating households. However, there is no significant difference on food security status of participating and non-participating households indicating that the project has a profound impact on asset accumulation than on food security improvement.

Keywords: inclusive business, malt barley, propensity score matching, wellbeing

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3 Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimer-Cisplatin Nanocomplex Mixed with Multifunctional Ovalbumin Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Immuno-Chemotherapeutics with M1 Polarization of Macrophages

Authors: Tefera Worku Mekonnen, Hiseh Chih Tsai

Abstract:

Enhancement of drug efficacy is essential in cancer treatment. The immune stimulator ovalbumin (Ova)-coated citric acid (AC-)-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (AC-IO-Ova NPs) and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) based tumor targeted 4.5 (4.5G) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-cisplatin nanocomplex (4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC) were used for enhanced anticancer efficiency. The formations of 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC, AC-IO, and AC-IO-Ova NPs have been examined by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation of cisplatin (Cis-pt) with 4.5GDP was confirmed using carbon NMR. The tumor-specific 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC provided ~45% and 28% cumulative cisplatin release in 72 h at pH 6.5 and 7.4, respectively. A significant immune response with high TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine secretion was confirmed when the co-incubation of AC-IO-Ova with RAW 264.7 or HaCaT cells. AC-IO-Ova NP was biocompatible in different cell lines, even at a high concentration (200 µg mL−1). In contrast, AC-IO-Ova NPs mixed with 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC (Cis-pt at 15 µg mL−1) significantly increased the cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, which is dose-dependent on the concentration of AC-IO-Ova NPs. The increased anticancer effects may be attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the efficiency of anticancer cells may be further assisted by induction of an innate immune response via M1 macrophage polarization due to the presence of AC-IO-Ova NPs. We provide a better synergestic chemoimmunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the efficiency of anticancer of cisplatin via chemotherapeutic agent 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC and induction of proinflammatory cytokines to stimulate innate immunity through AC-IO-Ova NPs against tumors.

Keywords: cisplatin-release, iron oxide, ovalbumin, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer

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2 Non-Adherence to Antidepressant Treatment and Its Predictors among Outpatients with Depressive Disorders

Authors: Selam Mulugeta, Barkot Milkias, Mesfin Araya, Abel Worku, Eyasu Mulugeta

Abstract:

In Ethiopia, there is inadequate information on non-adherence to antidepressant treatment in patients with depressive disorders. Having awareness of the pattern of adherence is important in future prognosis, quality of life, and functionality in these patients. This hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was done on a sample of 216 consecutive outpatients with depressive disorders. Data were collected using questionnaires through in-person and phone call interviews. The 8-item Morisky scale was used to assess the pattern of medication adherence. Other specially developed tools were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information from electronic medical records and patient interviews. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version - 25. Univariate and multivariable analyses were carried out to assess factors associated with non-adherence. 90% of the participants had a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Based on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the prevalence of non-adherence was found to be 84.7%. Living distance between 11 to 50 km from the hospital (AOR= 11, 95% CI (29,46.6)), post-secondary level of education (AOR= 8.3, 95% CI (1, 64.4)) and taking multiple medications (AOR= 6.1, 95% CI (1, 34.9)) were found to have significantly increased odds of non-adherence. Non-adherence was significantly associated with factors such as increased living distance from the hospital, relatively higher educational level, and polypharmacy. Proper and patient-centered psychoeducation, addressing the communication gap between patients and doctors, adherence to prescribing guidelines, avoiding polypharmacy unless indicated & working on accessibility of treatment is essential to decrease non-adherence.

Keywords: depressive disorders, Ethiopia, medication adherence, Addis Ababa

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1 Epidemiology of Low Back Pain among Nurses Working in Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mengestie Mulugeta Belay, Serebe Abay Gebrie, Biruk Lambbiso Wamisho, Amare Worku

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) related to nursing profession, is a very common public health problem throughout the world. Various risk factors have been implicated in the etiology and LBP is assumed to be of multi-factorial origin as individual, work-related and psychosocial factors can contribute to its development. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors of LBP among nurses working in Addis Ababa City Public Hospitals, Ethiopia, in the year 2015. Settings: Addis Ababa University, Black-Lion (‘Tikur Anbessa’) Hospital-BLH, is the country’s highest tertiary level referral and teaching Hospital. The three departments in connection with this study: Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedics, run undergraduate and residency programs and receive referred patients from all over the country. Methods: A cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted throughout the period October-December, 2015. Sample was chosen by simple random sampling technique by taken the lists of nurses from human resource departments as a sampling frame. A well-structured, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantifiable information. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, back pain features, consequences of back pain, work-related and psychosocial factors. The collected data was entered into EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and was analyzed by SPSS. A probability level of 0.05 or less and 95% confidence level was used to indicate statistical significance. Ethical clearance was obtained from all respected administrative bodies, Hospitals and study participants. Results: The study included 395 nurses and gave a response rate of 91.9%. The mean age was 30.6 (±8.4) years. Majority of the respondents were female (285, 72.2%). Nearly half of the participants (n=181, 45.8% (95% CI (40.8%- 50.6%))) were complained low back pain. There was statistical significant association between low back pain and working shift, physical activities at work; sleep disturbance and felt little pleasure by doing things. Conclusion: A high prevalence of low back pain was found among nurses working in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals. Recognition and preventive measures like providing resting periods should be taken to reduce the risk of low back pain in nurses working in Public hospitals.

Keywords: low back pain, risk factors, nurses, public hospitals

Procedia PDF Downloads 184