Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1426

Search results for: professional

1426 Structuring Taiwanese Elementary School English Teachers' Professional Dialogue about Teaching and Learning through Protocols

Authors: Chin-Wen Chien

Abstract:

Protocols are tools that help teachers inquire into the teaching and professional learning during the professional dialogue. This study focused on the integration of protocols into elementary school English teachers’ professional dialogue and discussed the influence of protocols on teachers’ teaching and learning. Based on the analysis of documents, observations, and interviews, this study concluded that with the introduction of protocols to elementary school English teachers, three major protocols were used during their professional dialogue. These protocols led the teachers to gain professional learning in content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. However, the facilitators’ lack of experience in using protocols led to interruptions during the professional dialogue. Suggestions for effective protocol-based professional dialogue are provided.

Keywords: protocols, professional learning, professional dialogue, classroom practice

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1425 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

Abstract:

Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

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1424 Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Success through Entrepreneurial Mindset, Professional Growth, and Innovation

Authors: Hummaira Qudsia Yousaf, Sidra Munawar

Abstract:

The study aims to examine in which way entrepreneurial education and attitude affect the entrepreneur’s success with the help of an entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, and innovation. The target population was the entrepreneurs of successful startups in Pakistan. Data was gathered through an e-questionnaire, and 230 responses were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, entrepreneurial education is an essential component for the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Also, an entrepreneurial attitude is responsible for the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, the study highlighted that innovation is as necessary as mindset and education are for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the findings confirmed that professional growth brings innovation to the success of entrepreneurs. This study provides proof of how entrepreneurial education and attitude influence pupils’ success in making entrepreneurs. This study extends the scope of education by incorporating predictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurial success. The study is unique due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth that ultimately bring career success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, entrepreneurial success, innovation

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1423 Qatari Licensure System: Giving Voice to Educators at Government-Funded Schools

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Hissa Sadiq, Fatma Al-Mutawah, Youmen Chabaan

Abstract:

The current study examined the experiences of educators in Qatar with the licensure process currently implemented at government schools. Using a survey study design, a total of 1,669 participants expressed their perceptions on the strengths and weaknesses of the licensure system, the professional standards, and the professional portfolio. Findings included participants’ beliefs on the importance of the licensure system in improving their performance, the necessity of using the professional standards as tools for professional growth and development, the importance of refining the professional portfolio for authenticity and reliability, and the inclusion of multiple sources of evidence, such as classroom observations, interviews, student learning outcomes, and surveys. Documenting teachers’ and school leaders’ voices was fundamental in finding ways to successfully drive future developments of the licensure system. The findings may also provide implications for other countries interested in developing or refining their own appraisal systems.

Keywords: licensure system, educator voice, professional standards, professional portfolio

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1422 Teacher Professional Development –Current Practices in a Secondary School in Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Shanthi Thomas

Abstract:

This research paper presents the current practices of teacher professional development, perceived as beneficial by teachers themselves, in a private secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This is part of the findings of a larger qualitative study on teacher empowerment, using ethnographic methods for data collection, i.e. participant observation, interviews and document analysis. The field work was carried out over a period of six months in 2013. An analysis of the field data revealed multiple pathways of teacher professional development existing in the school. The results indicate that school leaders, the teacher community in the school, students, and the teachers themselves were the agents in a school that facilitated teacher empowerment. Besides contributing to the knowledge base on teacher professional development, the results of this study provides directions for educational policy makers in their efforts to enhance professional development in secondary schools of similar characteristics. For school leaders and the teacher community, these findings offer guidelines for maximizing the opportunities for these professional development practices, by strengthening collegiality and by using the existing structures optimally for the benefit of all concerned.

Keywords: colleagues and the wider teacher community, school leaders, self-driven professional development, teacher professional development

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1421 A Unique Professional Development of Teacher Educators: Teaching Colleagues

Authors: Naomi Weiner-Levy

Abstract:

The Mofet Institute of Research, established a School of Professional Development, the only one of its kind in Israel and throughout the world. It offers specialized programs for teacher educators, providing them with the professional knowledge and skills. The studies aim at updating teachers about rapidly changing knowledge and skills. Teacher educators are conceptualized as shifting from first order practitioners (school teachers) to second order practitioners. Those who train teachers are referred to as third order practitioners. The instructors in the School of Professional Development are third-order practitioners – teacher educators specializing in teaching their colleagues. Collegial guidance by teachers’ college staff members is no simple task: Tutors must be expert in their field of specialization, as well as in instruction. Moreover, although colleagues, they have to position themselves within the group as authoritative figures in terms of instruction and knowledge. To date, the role and professional identity of these third-order practitioners, has not been studied. To understand the nature and development of professional identity, a qualitative study was conducted in which 12 tutors of various subjects were interviewed. These were analyzed by categorical content analysis. The findings, assessed professional identity through a post-modern prism, while examining the interplay among events that tutors experienced, the knowledge they acquired and the structuring of their professional identity. The Tutors’ identity transformed through negotiating with ‘self’ and ‘other’ in the class, and constructed by their mutual experiences as tutors and learners. Understanding the function and identity of tutors facilitates comprehension of this unique training process for teacher educators.

Keywords: professional development, professional identity, teacher education, tutoring

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1420 Case Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Methods of Treatment for a Professional Driver

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi

Abstract:

This study evaluates obstructive sleep apnea treatment through a case study involving a 67-year-old male driver who had a successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment at home but experienced difficulties with traveling and dental care. There are many cheap sleep apnea and snoring devices available, but there is little professional advice on what kind of devices can help. Professional drivers receive yearly specialized medical care follow-up.

Keywords: sleep, apnea patient, CPAP, professional driver

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1419 A Study on Assertiveness, Stigmatization, Gender Role Beliefs and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Young Adults in South East Asian

Authors: Chee Kwan Foong, Foong Mei Kei

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the influence of self-stigma, perceived public stigma, assertiveness and gender role beliefs on attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Two hundred and fifty young adults from universities in Brunei were recruited through convenience sampling to complete a survey. Individuals facing higher stigmatisation (both self-stigma and public-stigma) had less positive attitude towards seeking professional psychological help. Individuals who were more assertive had more positive attitude towards seeking professional psychological help. For males, individuals with more traditional gender role belief showed less positive attitude towards seeking professional psychological help. For female, there was no relationship between gender role beliefs and attitude towards seeking professional psychological help. Results confirmed there was a significant mediating effect between public stigma and attitude toward seeking professional psychological help. This study could guide the mental-health professionals in promoting more positive help-seeking attitude and raise the awareness about mental challenges which could assist in reducing stigmatization, and therefore, gain a deeper understanding.

Keywords: assertiveness, attitude towards seeking professional psychological help, gender role beliefs, stigmatization

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1418 Maximizing the Role of Companion Teachers for the Achievement of Professional Competencies and Pedagogics Workshop Activities of Teacher Professional Participants in the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Mulawarman University

Authors: Makrina Tindangen

Abstract:

The problems faced by participants of teacher profession program in Faculty of teaching and education Mulawarman University is professional and pedagogic competence. Professional competence related to the mastery of teaching materials, while pedagogic competence related with the ability to plan and to implement learning. Based on the problems, the purpose of the research is to maximize the role of companion teacher for the achievement of professional and pedagogic competencies in the workshop of the participants of teacher professional education in the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Mulawarman University. Qualitative research method with interview guidance and document to get in-depth data on how to maximize the role of companion teachers in the achievement of professional and pedagogic competencies in the workshop participants of professional education participants. Location of this research is on the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Mulawarman University, Samarinda City, East Kalimantan Province. Research respondents were 12 teachers of workshop facilitator. Descriptive data analysis is through interpretation of interview data. The conclusion of the research result, how to maximize the role of assistant teachers in workshop activities for the professional competence and pedagogic competence of professional teacher training program participants, through facilitation activities conducted by teachers of companion related to real problems faced by students in school, so that the workshop participants have professional competence and pedagogic as an initial competence before carrying out practical activities of field experience in school.

Keywords: companion teacher, professional and pedagogical competence, activities, workshop participants

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1417 An Exploration on Competency-Based Curricula in Integrated Circuit Design

Authors: Chih Chin Yang, Chung Shan Sun

Abstract:

In this paper, the relationships between professional competences and school curricula in IC design industry are explored. The semi-structured questionnaire survey and focus group interview is the research method. Study participants are graduates of microelectronics engineering professional departments who are currently employed in the IC industry. The IC industries are defined as the electronic component manufacturing industry and optical-electronic component manufacturing industry in the semiconductor industry and optical-electronic material devices, respectively. Study participants selected from IC design industry include IC engineering and electronic & semiconductor engineering. The human training with IC design professional competence in microelectronics engineering professional departments is explored in this research. IC professional competences of human resources in the IC design industry include general intelligence and professional intelligence.

Keywords: IC design, curricula, competence, task, duty

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1416 Modernization and Modernity: The Professional Education Concept in the Political Discourse of the Legislative Congress of Minas Gerais (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the historical processes of organization and reform of professional education contributed with the educational projects for the training/education starting from the idea of modernization of Brazil by way of industry and skilled worker. In the discourse of Congress Legislative of Minas Gerais is possible to identify the role of education as a mediating body of construction processes and rationalization modernizing of the country. The hypothesis is that education is an important instrument for promoting progress and citizenship and the way to form the professional who would serve the social and economic purposes of modernization of Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In this sense, we investigate the relationship of the concept of professional education with the ideas of modernization and modernity.

Keywords: education, modernization and education, legislative congress of Minas Gerais, professional education

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1415 Teaching Professional Competences through Projects: Experiencing Curriculum Development through Active Learning

Authors: Flavio Campos, Patricia Masmo, Fernanda Yamamoto

Abstract:

The report presents a research about teaching professional competencies through projects, considering the student as an active learner and curriculum development. Considering project based-learning, the report articulate the result of research about curriculum development for professional competencies and teaching-learning strategies to help the development of professional competencies in learning environments in the courses of National Learning Service in São Paulo, Brazil. There so, intend to demonstrate fundamentals to elaborate curriculum to learning environment, specific about teaching methodologies to enrich student-learning process, using projects. The practice that has been taking place since 2013 indicates the needs of rethinking knowledge and practice in courses that prepared students to labor.

Keywords: curriculum design, active learning, professional competencies, project based-learning

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1414 The Influence of Republican Culture in the Professional Education Reforms in Brazil (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

Abstract:

This paper is within the area of History of Education in Brazil, having a descriptive and exploratory nature. It has been built on the belief that professional education is organized under political guidelines and solidifies through institutionalized discourses, allowing to know its mission concerning the society in which it operates by studying these speeches. Our purpose is to analyze how the Republican political culture yielded changes in public education through reforms to professional education in the First Republic, based on seven procedures of law that occurred in the Legislature of State of Minas Gerais. The Republican effort to reform the teaching was the result of a conception of society that aspired to advance the country by way of the national worker.

Keywords: professional education, republican political culture, education reforms, Brazil

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1413 Assessing the Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers’ Continuation of Use of Technology After Participation in Professional Development

Authors: Ayoub Kafyulilo, Petra Fisser, Joke Voogt

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the continuation of the use of technology in science and mathematics teaching of the pre-service and in-service teachers who attended the professional development programme. It also assessed professional development, personal, institutional, and technological factors contributing to the continuous use of technology in teaching. The study involved 42 teachers, thirteen pre-service teachers, and twenty-nine in-service teachers. A mixed-method research approach was used to collect data for this study. Findings showed that the continuous use of technology in teaching after the termination of the professional development arrangement was high among the pre-service teachers, and differed for the in-service teachers. The regression model showed that knowledge and skills, access to technology and ease of use were strong predictors (R2 = 55.3%) of the teachers’ continuous use of technology after the professional development arrangement. The professional development factor did not have a direct effect on the continuous use of technology, rather had an influence on personal factors (knowledge and skills). In turn, the personal factors had influence on the institutional factors (access to technology) and technological factors (ease of use), which together had an effect on the teachers’ continuous use of technology in teaching.

Keywords: technology, professional development, teachers, science and mathematics

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1412 Exploration of Professional Skepticism among Entry-level Auditors in China from Psychological and Cultural Perspectives

Authors: Sammy Xiaoyan Ying

Abstract:

Professional skepticism remains one of the most important and controversial topics in auditing. This study examines the influence of client cooperativeness and fraud risk on judgments of professional skepticism among Chinese entry-level auditors in the context of evaluation of client-provided audit evidence. Given that the essence of auditors’ PS rests on distrust of clients, this study invokes trust-related theories from psychological and cultural perspectives. Specifically, invoking psychology theories of trust concerning positive relationship between risk and distrust, this study hypothesizes that professional skepticism is likely to be positively associated with client fraud risk. The results support the hypothesis and show that lower (higher) levels of client fraud risk lead to lower (higher) levels of professional skepticism. Furthermore, drawing on analysis of relationship between cooperation and trust, with particular reference to guanxi dynamics in the Chinese culture, this study hypothesizes that professional skepticism is likely to be negatively associated with client cooperativeness. The results support the hypothesis and show that higher (lower) levels of client cooperativeness lead to lower (higher) levels of professional skepticism. The findings may assist audit firms and auditing educators in improving training and education programs and enhancing entry-level auditors’ abilities to maintain professional skepticism. Also, practitioners and regulators may benefit from increasing awareness of psychological factors in influencing professional skepticism.

Keywords: audit judgment, Chinese culture, entry-level auditor, professional skepticism

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1411 Lecturers’ Need to Alter Their Identity in Remote Learning Environments: Case Study of Experiences from Uk and USA Universities

Authors: Richard Nelson

Abstract:

The knowledge, skills, and identity of the Higher Education professional are constantly challenged with a demanding environment of teaching, research, administration, and pastoral care. It is more important than ever for professors and lecturers to maintain their professional development in a constantly changing environment. The importance of professional development has become more focused as new skills are needed to meet the demands of remote teaching and learning during a pandemic. Uncertainty and performance pressures influence teachers to try to return to physical spaces or recreate lecture and seminar rooms despite more effective online spaces being available. This case study uses the Boys’ spatial triad as a framework for qualitative interviews to capture the Lecturers’ experiences in Universities in the UK and the USA of moving to online learning spaces. The study finds that without effective professional development and time to reflect critically on remote learning innovation in their teaching practices, lecturers attempt to defer to lecture theatres and seminar rooms, or similes of, as their preferred space for teaching and learning. Professional Development is needed to encourage teachers to reflect on their professional identity and relationship to the teaching space.

Keywords: professional identity, learning, online, remote

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1410 The Flipped Education Case Study on Teacher Professional Learning Community in Technology and Media Implementation

Authors: Juei-Hsin Wang, Yen-Ting Chen

Abstract:

The paper examines teacher professional learning community theory and implementation by using technology and media tools in Taiwan. After literature review, the researcher concluded in five elements of teacher professional learning community theory. They are ‘sharing the vision and value', ‘collaborative cooperation’, ‘ to support the situation', ‘to share practice' and 'Pay Attention to Student Learning Effectiveness' five levels by using technology and media in flipped education. Teacher professional learning community is one kind of models for teacher professional development in flipped education. Due to Taiwan education culture, there is no summative evaluation for teachers. So, there are multiple kinds of ways and education practice in teacher professional learning community nowadays. This study used literature review and quality analysis to analyze the connection theory and practice and discussed the official and non‐official strategies on teacher professional learning community by using technology and media in flipped education. The tablet is used as a camera tool for classroom students to solve problems. The students can instantly see and enable other students to watch the whole class discussion by operating the tablet. This would allow teachers and students to focus on discussing the connotation of subjects, especially bottom‐up and non‐official cases from teachers become an important influence in Taiwan.

Keywords: professional learning community, collaborative cooperation, flipped education, technology application, media application

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1409 Personal Factors and Career Adaptability in a Call Centre Work Environment: The Mediating Effects of Professional Efficacy

Authors: Nisha Harry

Abstract:

The study discussed in this article sought to assess whether a sense of professional efficacy mediates the relationship between personal factors and career adaptability. A quantitative cross-sectional survey approach was followed. A non–probability sample of (N = 409) of which predominantly early career and permanently employed black females in call centres in Africa participated in this study. In order to assess personal factors, the participants completed sense of meaningfulness and emotional intelligence measures. Measures of professional efficacy and career adaptability were also completed. The results of the mediational analysis revealed that professional efficacy significantly mediates the meaningfulness (sense of coherence) and career adaptability relationship, but not the emotional intelligence–career adaptability relationship. Call centre agents with professional efficacy are likely to be more work engaged as a result of their sense of meaningfulness and emotional intelligence.

Keywords: call centre, professional efficacy, career adaptability, emotional intelligence

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1408 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong

Abstract:

Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

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1407 The Interaction of Lay Judges and Professional Judges in French, German and British Labour Courts

Authors: Susan Corby, Pete Burgess, Armin Hoeland, Helene Michel, Laurent Willemez

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In German 1st instance labour courts, lay judges always sit with a professional judge and in British and French 1st instance labour courts, lay judges sometimes sit with a professional judge. The lay judges’ main contribution is their workplace knowledge, but they act in a juridical setting where legal norms prevail. Accordingly, the research question is: does the professional judge dominate the lay judges? The research, funded by the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, is based on over 200 qualitative interviews conducted in France, Germany and Great Britain in 2016-17 with lay and professional judges. Each interview lasted an hour on average, was audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed using MaxQDA. Status theories, which argue that external sources of (perceived) status are imported into the court, and complementary notions of informational advantage suggest professional judges might exercise domination and control. Furthermore, previous empirical research on British and German labour courts, now some 30 years old, found that professional judges dominated. More recent research on lay judges and professional judges in criminal courts also found professional judge domination. Our findings, however, are more nuanced and distinguish between the hearing and deliberations, and also between the attitudes of judges in the three countries. First, in Germany and Great Britain the professional judge has specialist knowledge and expertise in labour law. In contrast, French professional judges do not study employment law and may only seldom adjudicate on employment law cases. Second, although the professional judge chairs and controls the hearing when he/she sits with lay judges in all three countries, exceptionally in Great Britain lay judges have some latent power as they have to take notes systematically due to the lack of recording technology. Such notes can be material if a party complains of bias, or if there is an appeal. Third, as to labour court deliberations: in France, the professional judge alone determines the outcome of the case, but only if the lay judges have been unable to agree at a previous hearing, which only occurs in 20% of cases. In Great Britain and Germany, although the two lay judges and the professional judge have equal votes, the contribution of British lay judges’ workplace knowledge is less important than that of their German counterparts. British lay judges essentially only sit on discrimination cases where the law, the purview of the professional judge, is complex. They do not sit routinely on unfair dismissal cases where workplace practices are often a key factor in the decision. Also, British professional judges are less reliant on their lay judges than German professional judges. Whereas the latter are career judges, the former only become professional judges after having had several years’ experience in the law and many know, albeit indirectly through their clients, about a wide range of workplace practices. In conclusion, whether or if the professional judge dominates lay judges in labour courts varies by country, although this is mediated by the attitudes of the interactionists.

Keywords: cross-national comparisons, labour courts, professional judges, lay judges

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1406 English Language Teachers' Personal Motivation Influences Their Professional Motivation

Authors: Gulderen Saglam

Abstract:

This study explores the elements of personal motivation which influence professional motivation of in-service English language teachers in Bursa in Turkey. Fifty English language teachers participated in a seminar held on ‘teachers’ motivation’ for the length of six hours in two days, which were organized by the local Ministry of Education. During the seminar, teachers firstly aimed to share cornerstones of their professional motivation. Later, those teachers stated the significance of their personal motivation. Two months’ later, those teachers were given the questionnaire including both closed and open-ended questions involving those two types of motivational acts of teachers. Questionnaire items were tested by Crombah’s Alfa Reliability Statistics. Responses to the questionnaire were analyzed by factor analysis and test of normality. The results were also tested by non-parametric and parametric tests. As a result, it was found that language teachers who were personally motivated reported higher professional motivation of theirs in teaching profession in-service.

Keywords: influencing factor, in-service-teachers, personal motivation, professional motivation, in-service-teachers, influencing factor

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1405 Design of a Professional Development Framework in Teaching and Learning for Engineering Educators

Authors: Orla McConnell, Cormac MacMahon, Jen Harvey

Abstract:

Ireland’s national professional development framework for those who teach in higher education, aims to provide guidance and leadership in the planning, developing and engaging in professional development practices. A series of pilot projects have been initiated to help explore the framework’s likely utility and acceptance by educators and their institutions. These projects require engagement with staff in the interpretation and adaption of the framework within their working contexts. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of one such project with engineering educators at three Institutes of Technology seeking designation as a technological university. The initiative aims to gain traction in the acceptance of the framework with the engineering education community by linking core and discipline-specific teaching and learning competencies with professional development activities most valued by engineering educators. Informed by three strands of literature: professional development in higher education; engineering education; and teaching and learning training provisions, the project begins with a survey of all those involved in teaching and learning in engineering across the three institutes. Based on engagement with key stakeholders, subsequent qualitative research informs the contextualization of the national framework for discipline-specific and institutional piloting. The paper concludes by exploring engineering educator perceptions of the national framework’s utility based on their engagement with the pilot process. Feedback from the pilot indicates that there is a significant gap between the professional development needs of engineering educators and the current professional development provision in teaching and learning.

Keywords: engineering education, pilot, professional development, teaching and learning

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1404 Academic Education and Internship towards Architecture Professional Practice

Authors: Sawsan Saridar masri, Hisham Arnaouty

Abstract:

Architecture both defines and is defined by social, cultural, political and financial constraints: this is where the discipline and the profession of architecture meet. This mutual sway evolves wherever interferences in the built environment are thought-out and can be strengthened or weakened by the many ways in which the practice of architecture can be undertaken. The more familiar we are about the concerns and factors that control what can be made, the greater the opportunities to propose and make appropriate architectures. Apparently, the criteria in any qualification policy should permit flexibility of approach and will – for reasons including cultural choice, political issues, and son on – vary significantly from country to country. However the weighting of the various criteria have to ensure adequate standards both in educational system as in the professional training. This paper develops, deepens and questions about the regulatory entry routes to the professional practice of architecture in the Arab world. It is also intended to provide an informed basis about strategies for conventional and unconventional models of practice in preparation for the next stages of architect’s work experience and professional experience. With the objective of promoting the implementation of adequate built environment in the practice of architecture, a comprehensive analysis of various pathways of access to the profession are selected as case studies, encompassing examples from across the world. The review of such case studies allows the creation of a comprehensive picture in relation to the conditions for qualification of practitioners of the built environment at the level of the Middle Eastern countries and the Arab World. Such investigation considers the following aspects: professional title and domain of practice, accreditation of courses, internship and professional training, professional examination and continuing professional development.

Keywords: architecture, internship, mobility, professional practice

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1403 A Comparative Study of Primary Revenue Sources in the U.S. Professional Sports, Intercollegiate Sports, and Sporting Goods Industry

Authors: Chenghao Ma

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines and compares the primary revenue sources in the professional sports, intercollegiate sports, and sporting goods industries in the U.S. In the professional team sport, revenues may come from different resources, including broadcasting rights, ticket sales, corporate partnerships, naming rights, licensed merchandise, luxury suites, club seating, ancillary activities, and transfer fees. Many universities use university budgets and student fees to cover the cost of collegiate athletics. Other sources of revenue include ticket sales, broadcast rights, concessions, corporate partnerships, cash contributions from alumni, and others. Revenues in the sporting goods industry are very different compared with professional sports teams and collegiate athletics. Sporting goods companies mainly sell a line of products and equipment to generate revenue. Revenues are critical for sports organizations, including professional sports teams, intercollegiate athletics, and sporting goods companies. There are similarities and differences among these areas. Sports managers are looking for new ways to generate revenues, and there are many changes of sources because of the development of the internet and technology. Compared with intercollegiate athletics, professional sport and sporting goods companies will create more revenue opportunities globally.

Keywords: revenue sources, professional sports, intercollegiate athletics, sporting goods industry

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1402 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

Abstract:

As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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1401 Teacher Professional Development with Collaborative Action Research: Teachers' Responses to Research

Authors: Sumaya Saqr

Abstract:

Although many teachers regard academic research as the inclusive domain of academic researchers, teachers should contribute to the body of research guiding their own practice. Drawing on the qualitative analysis of 20 teachers’ reflection journals and interviews, this case study sheds light on the personal and professional benefits of teachers’ applications of collaborative action research in English language teaching context. The findings reveal that several aspects of teacher identity and classroom practice were changed. The present paper aspires to reveal the way in which collaborative action research process, as a learner-centered approach to staff development, would help teachers to become more independent and professionally autonomous and hence effecting change that is far greater than its initial purpose.

Keywords: change, collaborative action research, personal and professional benefits, professional development

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1400 Being a Teacher in Higher Education: Techne or Praxis

Authors: Thi V. S. Nguyen, Kevin Laws

Abstract:

This study investigates the construction of higher education teachers’ roles from the perspectives of participants in a compulsory teachers’ professional development for Vietnamese higher education teachers. Constructivist grounded theory was used as methodology and analysis of the study. Fifteen program participants were semi-structured interviewed before they started the professional development program for higher education teachers. Five trainers of the program were interviewed and documents related to teachers’ standards in Vietnam were analysed to supplement participants’ perspectives. Standards and roles of higher education teachers emerged as two categories grounded from data. Standard category involves moral and professional criteria, whereas roles of higher education teachers category consists of specific roles related to guiding student learning, and advising their academic, moral and social activities. A model of higher education teachers’ conceptions of their roles in a Vietnamese context addressing both professional (techne) and moral (praxis) responsibilities is constructed from this study. A discussion on teachers’ roles in higher education is put forward and insightful implications for the design and possible restructure of teachers’ professional development for early career higher education teachers is suggested.

Keywords: higher education teachers' roles and standards, moral roles, teachers' professional development, teachers' conceptions of their roles

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1399 Investigation of Engineers` and Student Engineers` University Choices Effect over Professional Expectations

Authors: Alev Erenler, Yeliz Yazici

Abstract:

It is undoubtful that the development in the technology has been increasing the importance of engineering day by day along with the interest of the profession also. Like in any other genre, the success in engineering career is directly related to the amount of the satisfaction from the profession. Having satisfaction is an important factor for both having psychological health and efficiency. In this concept, the engineers from all steps, like students from different grades, working in related professions and the candidates of engineering have been included in order to define the expectations of the profession and the levels if professional satisfaction. In the concept of the study, the factors such as; the graduated university, the university which has been attending at, the grades of the participants, the reasons behind the choosing the university, the order of the choices and demographic values have planned to examine. It is thought that these factors have a meaningful effect on the professional expectations. It is also aimed to find the similar participants from the working life, and the data is to be compared to candidates of engineering in terms if differentiation of expectations. The related data will be gathered by the help of the scale prepared and developed by the researchers special for this study, titled as ' the professional expectation scale for engineers'. The data is to be analyzed in SPSS program, and the results will be interpreted in relation with the literature.

Keywords: engineering education, engineers' professional expectations, engineering students' professional expectations, students’ university choices

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1398 [Keynote Talk]: Pragmatic Leadership in School Organization and Research in Physical Education Professional Development

Authors: Ellie Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is a review of a recently published book (April 2018) by Dr. Ellie Abdi. The book divides into two sections of 1) leadership in school organization and 2) pragmatic research in physical education professional development. The first part of the book explores school organizational development in terms of 1) communication development, 2) community development, and 3) decision making development. It concludes to acknowledge that decision making is the heart of educational management. This is while communication and community are essential to the development of the school organization. The role of a leader in a professional learning community (PLC) is acknowledged with the organizational development plan and moves onto 5 overall objectives of a professional development plan. It clarifies that professional learning community (PLC) benefits both students and professionals in education. Furthermore, professional development needs to be involved in opportunities to value diversity and foundations of learning, in addition to search for veteran teachers who offer a rich combination of experience and perspective. School educational platform in terms of teacher training in physical education is discussed in the second part. The book reviews that well-designed programs are powerful and constructive ways to identify the strength and weaknesses of teachers. Post-positivism, constructivism, advocacy/participatory, and pragmatism in teacher education are also disclosed. The book specifically unfolds pragmatic research in professional development of physical education. It provides researchers, doctoral, and masters level students with defined examples. In summary, the book shows how appropriate it is when many different traditions are displayed in a pragmatic way, following the stages of research from development to dissemination.

Keywords: leadership, physical education, pragmatic, professional development

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1397 A Study on the Relationships among Teacher Empowerment, Professional Commitment and School Effectiveness

Authors: S. C. Lin, W. F. Hung, W. W. Cheng

Abstract:

Teacher empowerment was regarded as investing teachers with the right to participate in the determination of school goals and policies and to exercise professional judgment about what and how to teach. Professional commitment was considered as a person’s belief in and acceptance of the values of his or her chosen occupation or line of work, and a willingness to maintain membership in that occupation. An effective school has been defined as one in which students’ progress further than might be expected from consideration of its intake. An effective school thus adds extra value to its students' outcomes, in comparison with other schools serving similar intakes. A number of literature from various countries explored that teacher empowerment and professional commitment significantly influenced school effectiveness. However, there lacked more empirical studies to examine the relationships among them. Hence, this study was to explore the relationships among teacher empowerment, professional commitment and school effectiveness in junior high schools in Taiwan. Samples were seven hundred and five junior high school teachers selected from Taichung City, Changhua County and Nantou County. Questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study were as follows: First, the overall performances of teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment, teacher professional commitment and school effectiveness were above average. Second, the teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment were significant different in gender, designated duty, and school size. Third, the teachers’ perceptions of teacher professional commitment were significant different in gender, designated duty, and school size. Fourth, the teachers’ perceptions of school effectiveness were significant different in designated duty. Fifth, teacher empowerment was mid-positively correlation by teacher professional commitment. Sixth, there was mid-positively correlation between teacher empowerment and school effectiveness. Seventh, there was mid-positively correlation between teacher professional commitment and school effectiveness. Eighth, Teacher empowerment and professional commitment could significantly predict school effectiveness. Based on the findings of this study, the study proposed some suggestions for educational authorities, schools, teachers, and future studies as well.

Keywords: junior high school teacher, teacher empowerment, teacher professional commitment, school effectiveness

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