Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1326

Search results for: Africa

1326 China Health Diplomacy in Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health diplomacy in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and foreign relations and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, china’s health diplomacy, COVID-19, bilateral relations

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1325 Gender and Political Participation in Africa

Authors: Ibrahim Baba

Abstract:

The work examines the nature and causes of differential politics in Africa with particular reference to the sub-Saharan region of the continent. It also among other objectives provides alternative panacea to gender discrimination in African politics and offers solutions on how to promote political inclusion of all citizens in respect of gender differences in Africa. The work is conducted using library base documentation analysis.

Keywords: gender, political, participation, differential politics, sub-Saharan Africa

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1324 Africa as Endemically a War Continent: Explaining the Changing Pattern of Armed Conflicts in Africa

Authors: Kenneth Azaigba

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The history of post-colonial African States has been dubbed a history of endemic warfare in existing literature. Indeed, Africa political environment is characterized by a multiplicity of threats to peace and security. Africa's leading drivers of conflict include abundant (especially mineral) resources, personal rule and attendant political authoritarianism, manipulation of identity politics across ethnicity, marginalization of communities, as well as electoral mal-practices resulting in contested legitimacy and resultant violence. However, the character of armed conflicts in Africa is changing. This paper attempts to reconstruct the trajectory of armed conflicts in Africa and explain the changing pattern of armed conflict. The paper contends that large scale political violence in Africa is on the decline rendering the endemic thesis an inappropriate paradigm in explaining political conflicts in Africa. The paper also posits that though small scale conflicts are springing up and exhibiting trans-border dimensions, these patterns of armed conflicts are not peculiar to Africa but emerging waves of global conflicts. The paper explains that the shift in the scale of warfare in Africa is a function of a multiplicity of post-cold war global contradictions. Inclusive governance, social justice and economic security are articulated as workable panaceas for mitigating warfare in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, conflicts, pattern, war

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1323 What Does FDI Inflow Mean for Emerging African Economies?

Authors: E.George, P. Ojeaga, O. Matthew, A. Adekola

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Can foreign direct investment (FDI), promote growth in Africa? What does the inflow of investment hold for African emerging economies? Are the determinants of FDI different for different regional blocs in Africa? This study reviews the implication of FDI for different regional blocs in Africa. FDI was found to have a significant effect on growth in North Africa but had no significant effect in East, Southern and West Africa. FDI was also found not to be driving growth in the whole of Africa in a significant manner. The implications of the findings are that even though trade openness seems to be a major factor driving FDI. Poor domestic markets were still preventing many African economies from taking full advantage of the gains from foreign direct investment. The study results could be useful to scholars who study the dynamics surrounding FDI disbursement and strategies on how FDI can drive growth in developing countries.

Keywords: Africa, political economy, FDI, regional policy, markets

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1322 Interrogating Democracy and Development in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria

Authors: Yusuf Bala

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The last decades of the 20th Centaury witnessed renewed hope about the birth of democracy and development in Africa the interface between democracy and development in Africa has long engaged the sustained interest of scholars and researchers across Africa. The process was actively supported by all segment of society, labour students market women, rural dweller who saw in it, the prospects of reversing the trend of political despair and in disillusionment that hither to characterized political life in Africa. The political tyranny and dictatorship while having it own clientele and beneficiaries had negative and suffocating effect on the majority of the people. The democratic aspiration of the Africa people is not only confined to the Arena of political Democracy of election and granting of civil and political rights, but it involves the demand for economic empowerment better living standards of the people and adequate social welfare indeed, for the majority of the people democracy is meaningful only when it delivers socio-economic goods. However, democracy and development have generated enormous interest no conclusive evidence seems to be shared in Africa. In the course of this research emphasis shall be made on certain issues, such as issues of corruption in democracy in Africa, ethnic conflict and democracy in Africa contribution of women to democratic practice and women participation in political arena, is still very low, democratization process and industrial relation in Africa as factor that hinder the development of Democracy in Africa, a case study of Nigeria.

Keywords: democracy, development, dictatorship, conflict, ethnicity

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1321 E-Government, China Internet Plus, and the One Belt One Road Initiative: The Africa Connection

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Mi Jianing

Abstract:

The lack of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure in African countries is hampering the successful adoption, development and implementation of e-government in Africa. Electronic government is the use of ICTs to modernize government public administration processes and to provide government services to citizens with a purpose to enhance efficiency, accountability, and transparency in government’s interaction with the citizenry. ICT application in public administration has the potential to modernize and create smarter government and improvement in public service delivery. China’s Internet Plus policy and One Belt One Road strategy present a golden opportunity for countries in Africa to attract the huge financial investment through Chinese IT companies to develop and close Africa’s ICT infrastructure gap. This study recommends the establishment of One Belt One Road ICT Infrastructure Fund for Africa (OBOR ICT Fund for Africa) to enable countries in Africa to source solely for the purpose of ICT infrastructure development in the public sector/government machinery which would in turn promote the adoption and development of e-government in the public sectors of respective countries in Africa.

Keywords: e-government, public service delivery, internet plus, one belt one road initiative, China, Africa

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1320 South Africa and U.S. AFRICOM: Reflections on a Lukewarm Relationship

Authors: Theo Neethling

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The United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) was established in 2007 as a military and diplomatic entity and is intended to assist African states and military actors to address their security needs. At the same time, AFRICOM is clearly an extension of US strategic interests on the African continent. The challenge for the US Department of Defence is to project AFRICOM as a cooperative and willing partner. This implies a partner that offers needed services and resources, and supports African security and military priorities with no presumption of having a privileged role in defining the African future. However, one of AFRICOM’s main challenges relates to the point that it has not been able to secure a firm partnership with South Africa as a key player on the continent: South Africa has continuously taken a lukewarm, if not cold, approach towards AFRICOM since its formation. The main aim of this article is to examine and discuss South Africa’s political-military relations with AFRICOM and to assess the underlying reasons currently inhibiting AFRICOM from achieving a fully productive relationship with the South African government.

Keywords: AFRICOM, South African foreign policy, US interests, defence capabilities in Africa, US-Africa relations

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1319 The Role of Zakah and Waqf in Poverty Alleviation: A Strategy for West Africa

Authors: Maryam Idris Bakori

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The level of poverty in our region (West Africa) is a severe problem. The statistics about it are scary and alarming. For example, Report on Economic and Social Conditions in West Africa by United Nations Economic Commission for Africa gives the following gloomy picture of social conditions in the region: In West Africa, approximately one person in three in the towns, and one in two in the rural areas, cannot afford the expenditure needed to cover their basic needs. The situation has reached emergency proportions and calls for urgent social action (Recent Economic and Social Developments in West Africa and Prospects for 2010). Many different policies and programs to combat the poverty in the region have been embarked upon by the government of various countries in West Africa, but yet the ugly face of poverty persists. However, to explore opportunities and avenues for making positive contributions to national and regional development, this paper sets out to examine the role of two Islamic institutions; Zakah and Waqf, in poverty alleviation and how Islam uses these two institutions among others to eradicate poverty. The paper suggests that the governments of various countries of West Africa should endeavor to integrate Zakah and Waqf into their poverty alleviation programs by borrowing a leaf from some countries in Africa and Asia that have integrated these Islamic institutions into their poverty reduction programs, and they have started to reap the positive result from the policy.

Keywords: waqf, poverty, zakah, Islamic economy, education

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1318 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

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The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: transport, infrastructure, economic growth, South Africa

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1317 Trade Liberalisation and South Africa’s CO2 Emissions

Authors: Marcel Kohler

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The effect of trade liberalization on environmental conditions has yielded a great deal of debate in the current energy economics literature. Although research on the relationship between income growth and CO2 emissions is not new in South Africa, few studies address the role that South Africa’s foreign trade plays in this context. This paper undertakes to investigate empirically the impact of South Africa’s foreign trade reforms over the last four decades on its energy consumption and CO2 emissions by taking into account not only the direct effect of trade on each, but also its indirect effect through income induced growth. Using co integration techniques we attempt to disentangle the long and short-run relationship between trade openness, income per capita and energy consumption and CO2 emissions in South Africa. The preliminary results of this study find support for a positive bi-directional relationship between output and CO2 emissions, as well as between trade openness and CO2. This evidence confirms the expectation that as the South African economy opens up to foreign trade and experiences growth in per capita income, the countries CO2 emissions will increase.

Keywords: trade openness, CO2 emissions, cointegration, South Africa

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1316 Towards Resource Sufficiency in Engineering Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Iyabosola B. Oronti, Adeoluwawale A. Adewusi, Olubusola O. Nuga

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Sub-Saharan Africa has long been known to be a region rife with poverty, inadequate health facilities, food shortages, high transport and communication costs and very low pace of infrastructural and technological development. These factors combined have led to decades of resource paucity in engineering education. Engineering is core to global development and building of capacity in engineering education with available resources in sub-Saharan Africa has become imperative. This paper identifies core political issues and policy shifts contributing adversely to this present state of affairs, and also explores the offshoots of the changing global political environment as it affects engineering education in the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa. Opportunities for instituting resource sufficiency are examined and corrective measures that can be taken to resuscitate and stabilize the educational sector in the region are also suggested.

Keywords: capacity building, engineering education, resource sufficiency, sub-Saharan Africa

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1315 Enhancing Maritime Governance in Africa: Challenges of Maritime Policy Development in the East African Community

Authors: Christantus Begealawuh Nchongayi

Abstract:

As clearly stated in goal 14 of sustainable development goals, global oceans greatly contribute to making the earth habitable for mankind. This explains why ocean governance is an important global concern today. The emerging maritime security problems and the impact of climate change on African oceans, evidenced by tropical cyclones as seen recently in the Southern region of Africa, is also an indication that maritime governance and policymaking are important elements of peace and security in Africa. Within the last decade, there have been commendable efforts towards maritime governance and policymaking in Africa, although implementation of existing maritime policies is still lacking. This paper provides a snapshot of the overall state of the maritime policymaking process in Africa. It specifically explores the challenges facing policymakers in developing national and regional maritime security strategy in the East African Community. For methodology, the paper relied on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from informal discussions with policymakers and key policy-making bodies in Africa, and from a survey of public opinions. The study found that the Africa Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIMS) is a recent template for regional and national maritime security policymaking in Africa and that although maritime security has in the past not been prioritized in the security agenda of the East African Community, developing and aligning a regional maritime security strategy to the 2050 AIMS will result to positive regional integration outcomes in East Africa.

Keywords: 2050 Africa integrated maritime strategy, east African community, maritime policy-making, maritime security

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1314 The Role of ICT in Engaging Youth in Agricultural Transformation of Africa

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

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Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 percent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youth and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths to agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information.

Keywords: Africa, agriculture, ICT, tool, youth

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1313 Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa

Authors: Joseph Levodo, Andy Ford, ISSA Chaer

Abstract:

Africa enjoys some of the best solar radiation levels in the world averaging between 4-6 kWh/m2/day for most of the year and the global economic and political conditions that tend to make African countries more dependent on their own energy resources have caused growing interest in wanting renewable energy based technologies. However to-date, implementation of Modern Energy Technologies in Africa is still very low especially the use of solar conversion technologies. It was initially speculated that the low uptake of solar technology in Africa was associated with the continent’s high poverty levels and limitations in technical capacity as well as awareness. Nonetheless, this is not an academic based speculation and the exact reasons for this low trend in technology adoption are unclear and require further investigation. This paper presents literature review and analysis relating to the techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation in Africa. The literature review would include the following four main categories: design methods, techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation, performance evaluations of various systems, Then it looks at the role of policy and potential future of technological development of photovoltaic (PV) by exploring the impact of alternative policy instruments and technology cost reductions on the financial viability of investing solar photovoltaic (PV) in Africa.

Keywords: Africa Solar Potential, policy, photovoltaic, technologies

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1312 Integrated Framework for Establishing Born-Global Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nonso Ochinanwata, Patrick Oseloka Ezepue

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This paper explores the process of creating and capturing born-global firm opportunities. It reviews the key constructs that underpin the establishment of born-global firms in sub-Saharan Africa. These include entrepreneurial orientation, resources and capabilities, collaboration, and contextual influences. The paper discusses how individuals and entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa can establish home-based born-global firms that seek early international markets from inception. The paper suggests that sub-Saharan African governments should make a favourable microeconomics policy that will enable entrepreneurs and firms to acquire some certain minimal resources and capabilities, in order to develop global products and services.

Keywords: born global-firms, collaboration, internationalisation, dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurship, sub-Saharan Africa

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1311 The Principles of Democracy and Development: The Political and Philosophical Foundations of Development-Democracy in Africa

Authors: Fadeke Olu-Owolabi, Fayomi Oluyemi

Abstract:

The political and societal orders face the awesome task of overcoming the difficulties which lead to growing tensions and conflicts in Africa. At the core of analysis is the question, how stable and adaptable are established democracies, new democracies, and political and societal actors? The idea of development-democracy as implying the strong linkage between economic development and political democracy appropriately describes the distinguishing characteristic of this new demand for democracy in Africa. The theoretical study examines the political and philosophical foundation of the idea of development-democracy and the arguments presented to support the need for its adoption in Africa today. This paper critically examines the polemic between the advocates of developmental dictatorship and developmental-democracy and argues for the adoption of the latter in Africa. The paper sets out to expose for the political and philosophical foundation of developmental democracy maintaining that only democracy can facilitate development. This argument is supported further by the claim that both democracy and development are two sides of the same coin in the sense that the two are both ethical concepts. The paper also maintained that the only way by which democracy is worthwhile is when it is developmental. Finally, the paper affirms that since the two concepts of democracy and development are like the Siamese twins then the way out of Africa’s present crisis of development is to wholeheartedly embrace democracy. It posits that when genuine democracy is adopted, genuine and sustainable development can then be attained.

Keywords: democracy, development, polemic, principles

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1310 The Principles of Democracy and Development: The Political and Philosophical Foundations of Development-Development in Africa

Authors: Fadeke E. Olu-Owolabi, Fayomi Oluyemi

Abstract:

The political and societal orders face the awesome task of overcoming the difficulties which lead to growing tensions and conflicts in Africa. At the core of analysis is the question, how stable and adaptable are established democracies, new democracies, and political and societal actors? The idea of development-democracy as implying the strong linkage between economic development and political democracy appropriately describes the distinguishing characteristic of this new demand for democracy in Africa. The theoretical study examines the political and philosophical foundation of the idea of development-democracy and the arguments presented to support the need for its adoption in Africa today. This paper critically examines the polemic between the advocates of developmental dictatorship and developmental-democracy and argues for the adoption of the latter in Africa. The paper sets out to expose for the political and philosophical foundation of developmental democracy maintaining that only democracy can facilitate development. This argument is supported further by the claim that both democracy and development are two sides of the same coin in the sense that the two are both ethical concepts. The paper also maintained that the only way by which democracy is worthwhile is when it is developmental. Finally the paper affirms that since the two concepts of democracy and development are like the Siamese twins then the way out of Africa’s present crisis of development is to wholeheartedly embrace democracy. It posits that when genuine democracy is adopted, genuine and sustainable development can then be attained.

Keywords: democracy, development, polemic, principles

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1309 Industrial Applications of Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Technology: A Review from South Africa Perspective

Authors: Micheal O. Alabi

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Additive manufacturing (AM) is the official industry standard term (ASTM F2792) for all applications of the technology which is also known as 3D printing technology. It is defined as the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, and it is usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. This technology has gained significant interest within the academic, research institute and industry because of its ability to create complex geometries with customizable material properties. Despite the late adoption of the technology, additive manufacturing has been active in South Africa for past 21 years and it is predicted that additive manufacturing technology will play a significant and game-changing role in the fourth industrial revolution and in particular it promises to play an ever-growing role in efforts to re-industrialize the economy of South Africa. At the end of 2006, there are approximately ninety 3D printers in South Africa and in 2015 it was estimated that there are 3500 additive manufacturing systems and 3D printers in circulation in South Africa. A reasonable number of these additive manufacturing machines are in the high end of the market, in science councils and higher education institutions and this shows that the future of additive manufacturing in South Africa is very brighter compared to other African countries. This paper reviews the past and current industrial applications of additive manufacturing in South Africa from the academic research and industry perspective and what are the benefits of this technology to manufacturing companies and industrial sectors in the country.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D printing technology, industrial applications, manufacturing

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1308 Africa’s Political and Economic Transformation and the Role of the Disporas

Authors: Noah Yusuf

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The present paper examined the current level of socio-political and economic development in Africa. Models and experiences from other regions of the world, especially, developing ones with similar historical experience with Africa, were explored. The paper concluded that recommendations emanating from past conferences, seminars and symposia on the continent’s socio-economic and political challenges have been poorly implemented because of lack of strong political will; the donor syndrome; weak resource base; capacity constraints in institutions; and lack of accountability, transparency and poor governance. It is, therefore, recommended that African countries need implement sound policies and reforms on a comprehensive basis, if they are to achieve the desired socio-economic and political transformation; and the African in Diasporas represent critical instruments in attaining the socio-economic and political objectives of the continent.

Keywords: Africa, political transformation, economic transformation, Africans in diasporas

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1307 Power-Sharing Politics: A Panacea to Conflict Resolution and Stability in Africa

Authors: Emmanuel Dangana Monday

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Africa as a continent has been ravaged and bedeviled by series of political conflicts associated with politics and power-sharing maneuvering. As a result it has become the most unstable continent in the world in terms of power distribution and stable political culture. This paper examines the efficacy of conscious and deliberate power-sharing strategies to settle or resolve political conflicts in Africa in the arrangements of creation of states, revenue and resources allocation, and office distribution systems. The study is concerned with the spatial impact of conflicts generated in some renowned African countries in which power-sharing would have been a solution. Ethno-regional elite groups are identified as the major actors in the struggles for the distribution of territorial, economic and political powers in Africa. The struggle for power has become so intense that it has degenerated to conflicts and wars of inter and intra-political classes and parties respectively. Secondary data and deductive techniques were used in data collection and analysis. It is discovered that power-sharing has become an indispensable tool to curb the incessant political and power crisis in Africa. It is one of the finest tolerable modality of mediating elite’ competition, since it reflects the interests of both the dominant and the perceived marginalized groups. The study recommends that countries and regions of political, ethnic and religious differences in Africa should employed power-sharing strategy in order to avoid unnecessary political tension and resultant crisis. Interest groups should always come to the negotiation table to reach a realistic, durable and expected compromise to secure a peacefully resolute Africa.

Keywords: Africa, power-sharing, conflicts, politics and political stability

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1306 Is Privatization Related with Macroeconomic Management? Evidence from Some Selected African Countries

Authors: E. O. George, P. Ojeaga, D. Odejimi, O. Mattehws

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Has macroeconomic management succeeded in making privatization promote growth in Africa? What are the probable strategies that should accompany the privatization reform process to promote growth in Africa? To what extent has the privatization process succeeded in attracting foreign direct investment to Africa? The study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic management and privatization. Many African countries have embarked on one form of privatization reform or the other since 1980 as one of the stringent conditions for accessing capital from the IMF and the World Bank. Secondly globalization and the gradually integration of the African economy into the global economy also means that Africa has to strategically develop its domestic market to cushion itself from fluctuations and probable contagion associated with global economic crisis that are always inevitable Stiglitz. The methods of estimation used are the OLS, linear mixed effects (LME), 2SLS and the GMM method of estimation. It was found that macroeconomic management has the capacity to affect the success of the privatization reform process. It was also found that privatization was not promoting growth in Africa; privatization could promote growth if long run growth strategies are implemented together with the privatization reform process. Privatization was also found not to have the capacity to attract foreign investment to many African countries.

Keywords: Africa, political economy, game theory, macroeconomic management and privatization

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1305 Computing Transition Intensity Using Time-Homogeneous Markov Jump Process: Case of South African HIV/AIDS Disposition

Authors: A. Bayaga

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This research provides a technical account of estimating Transition Probability using Time-homogeneous Markov Jump Process applying by South African HIV/AIDS data from the Statistics South Africa. It employs Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) model to explore the possible influence of Transition Probability of mortality cases in which case the data was based on actual Statistics South Africa. This was conducted via an integrated demographic and epidemiological model of South African HIV/AIDS epidemic. The model was fitted to age-specific HIV prevalence data and recorded death data using MLE model. Though the previous model results suggest HIV in South Africa has declined and AIDS mortality rates have declined since 2002 – 2013, in contrast, our results differ evidently with the generally accepted HIV models (Spectrum/EPP and ASSA2008) in South Africa. However, there is the need for supplementary research to be conducted to enhance the demographic parameters in the model and as well apply it to each of the nine (9) provinces of South Africa.

Keywords: AIDS mortality rates, epidemiological model, time-homogeneous markov jump process, transition probability, statistics South Africa

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1304 A Usability Framework to Influence the Intention to Use Mobile Fitness Applications in South Africa

Authors: Bulelani Ngamntwini, Liezel Cilliers

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South Africa has one of the highest prevalence of obese people on the African continent. Forty-six percent of the adults in South Africa are physically inactive. Fitness applications can be used to increase physical inactivity. However, the uptake of mobile fitness applications in South Africa has been found to be poor due to usability challenges with the technology. The study developed a usability framework to influence the intention to use mobile fitness applications in South Africa. The study made use of a positivistic approach to collect data. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 377 respondents that have used mobile fitness applications in the past. A response rate of 80.90% was recorded. To analyse the data, the Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships between the various hypotheses. There are four usability factors, efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, which contribute to the intention of users to make use of mobile fitness applications. The study, therefore, recommends that for a mobile fitness application to be successful, these four factors must be considered and incorporated by developers when designing the applications.

Keywords: obese, overweight, physical inactivity, mobile fitness application, usability factors

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1303 System of Innovation: Comparing Savings of Brazil and South Africa

Authors: Glessiane de O. Almeida, Sérgio Murilo C. Messias, Iracema Machado de Aragão Gomes

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This article discusses issues related to the System of Innovation: Comparing economies of Brazil and South Africa. Having as this study aimed at comparing the Innovation System of the countries mentioned. Then briefly describe the process of Venture Capital/Risk Capital and present the industry innovation in Brazil and South Africa. The methodological approach described in this article is descriptive and the approach is qualitative, taking as a basis secondary data relating to research articles. The main results are related to the different forms of financing of Venture Capital used by countries compared, in addition to the training and economic policy. And finally, it was highlighted the importance of implementation of policy reforms for the Brazil and Africa in the innovation process.

Keywords: innovation, Venture Capital, Economy, National Innovation System (NIS), BRICS

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1302 Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Local Large Firms in the Developing Economies: The Case of the East Africa Region

Authors: Lilian Kishimbo

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This study aims to examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of local large firms of East Africa region. In this study CSR is defined as all actions that go beyond obeying minimum legal requirements as espoused by other authors. Despite the increase of CSR literature empirical evidence clearly demonstrate an imbalance of CSR studies in the developing countries . Moreover, it is evident that most of the research on CSR in developing economies emerges from large fast-growing economies or BRICS members (i.e. Brazil, India, China and South Africa), and Indonesia and Malaysia and a further call for more research in Africa is particularly advocated. Taking Africa as an example, there are scanty researches on CSR practices, and the few available studies are mainly from Nigeria and South Africa leaving other parts of Africa for example East Africa underrepresented. Furthermore, in the face of globalization, experience shows that literature has focused mostly on multinational companies (MNCs) operating in either North-North or North-South and less on South-South indigenous local firms. Thus the existing literature in Africa shows more studies of MNCs and little is known about CSR of local indigenous firms operating in the South particularly in the East Africa region. Accordingly, this paper explores CSR practices of indigenous local large firms of East Africa region particularly Kenya and Tanzania with the aim of testing the hypothesis that do local firms of East Africa region engage in similar CSR practices as firms in other parts of the world?. To answer this question only listed local large firms were considered based on the assumption that they are large enough to engage. Newspapers were the main source of data and information collected was supplemented by business Annual Reports for the period 2010-2012. The research finding revealed that local firms of East Africa engage in CSR practices. However, there are some differences in the set of activities these firms prefers to engage in compared to findings from previous studies. As such some CSR that were given priority by firms in East Africa were less prioritized in the other part of the world including Indonesia. This paper will add knowledge to the body of CSR and experience of CSR practices of South-South indigenous firms where is evidenced to have a relative dearth of literature on CSR. Finally, the paper concludes that local firms of East Africa region engage in similar activities like other firms globally. But firms give more priority to some activities such education and health related activities. Finally, the study intends to assist policy makers at firm’s levels to plan for long lasting projects related to CSR for their stakeholders.

Keywords: Africa, corporate social responsibility, developing countries, indigenous firms, Kenya, Tanzania

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1301 Islamic Financial Services in Africa: Development and Operations of the Big Emerging Markets

Authors: Shamsuddeen Muhammad Ahmad

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The emergence and operations of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) are being regarded as the new economic and financial pride at the global stage today. Admittedly, therefore, the IFIs has continued to impact positively on the economies of its host countries, especially the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region, Asian and Western countries as well as making a steady in-road into the sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the number of countries that adopted Islamic financial system in Africa has continued to increase. As a matter of fact, this paper examines the role and contributions of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) to the economic growth and financial development of the big emerging markets in the African continent i.e. South Africa, Nigeria, and Egypt. The methods adopted for this study are descriptive, comparative and analytical in nature. Essentially, the findings from this study reveal that the three sampled countries are benefitting from the presence of IFIs in their economies in terms of contributions to economic growth and real sector participation, particularly for Egypt and South Africa. Similarly, they reap from foreign direct investments and economic diversification among others. However, this study recommends that African countries should integrate IFIs as part and parcel of their economic and financial systems, in order to benefit optimally from this new economic phenomenon.

Keywords: Islamic financial services, Africa, emerging markets, development, operation

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1300 Efficient Sources and Methods of Extracting Water for Irrigation

Authors: Anthony Iyenjamu, Josiah Adeyemo

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Due to the increasing water scarcity in South Africa, the prime focus of irrigation in South Africa shifts to creating feasible water sources and the efficient use of these sources. These irrigation systems in South Africa are implemented because of low and erratic rainfall and high evaporative demand. Irrigation contributes significantly to crop production in South Africa, as the mean annual precipitation for the country is usually less than 500mm. This is considered to be the minimum required for rain fed cropping. Even though the rainfall is low, a lot of the water in various areas in South Africa is lost due to runoff into storm water systems that run to the rivers and eventually into the sea. This study reviews the irrigation systems in South Africa which can be vastly improved by creating irrigation dams. A method of which may seem costly at first but rewarding with time. The study investigates the process of creating dam capacity capable of sustaining a suitable area size of land to be irrigated and thus diverting all runoff into these dams. This type of infrastructure method vastly improves various sectors in our irrigation systems. Extensive research is carried out in the surrounding area in which the dam should be constructed. Rainfall patterns and rainfall data is used for calculations of which period the dam will be at its optimum using rainfall. The size of the area irrigated was used to calculate the size of the irrigation dam to be constructed. The location of the dam must be situated as close to the river as possible to minimize the excessive use of pipelines to the dam. This study also investigated all existing resources to alleviate the cost. It was found that irrigation dams could solve the erratic distribution of rainfall in South Africa for irrigation purposes.

Keywords: irrigation, rainfed, rain harvesting, reservoir

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1299 Interrogating the Theoretical Basis of the Freedom Charter in South Africa

Authors: Sibonginkosi Mazibuko

Abstract:

The “adoption” of the Freedom Charter in 1955 at Kliptown south of Johannesburg, South Africa represented a desire to create a society that is based on common citizenship, and democracy. The architects of the Charter had a vision of a society that lived in peace with itself. Today, the Charter is still promoted as the best thing that ever happened to a society ravaged by racism, dispossession, oppression and exploitation – a society divided in all aspects of its life. This paper moves from the understanding that land is fundamental to all life. It interrogates the Charter’s claim on land. At a time when the colonised world sought to free themselves from the chains of colonialism and Africans throughout the continent demanded Africa for the Africans, the Freedom Charter claimed South Africa for all who lived in it. To the extent that this paper problematizes the philosophical underpinnings of the Charter, it uses the methodology of dialectic materialism to understand the theoretical basis of the Freedom Charter. The paper argues that the understanding, desire and the vision of the Freedom Charter were, as they are today, irreconcilable. To that effect and in pursuit of narrow class interests, the Charter justified land dispossession and unsustainable living conditions for the dispossessed majority. The paper then concludes that, by misrepresenting the critically fundamental land question, the Charter tried to reconcile the dispossessed with their dispossession and thus reflected coloniality and whiteness long before colonialism and settler-colonialism came to an end in South Africa.

Keywords: colonialism, contradictions, freedom charter, South Africa

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1298 A Legal Opinion on Mitigation and Adaptation on Air Pollution Strategies for Local Governments in South Africa

Authors: Marjone Van Der Bank, C. M. Van Der Bank

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the foundation and evolution of environmental related problems in local governments with specific reference on air pollution in South Africa. Local government has a direct mandate in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereafter, the Constitution). This mandate to protect, fulfil, respect and promote the Bill of Rights by local governments in respect of the powers and functions creates confusion around the role of where a local government fits in, in addressing the problem of climate change in South Africa. A reflection of the evolving legislations, developments, and processes regarding climate change that shaped local government dispensation in South Africa is addressed by the notion of developmental local governments. This paper seeks to examine the advances for mitigation and adaptation regulation of air pollution and application in South Africa. This study involves a qualitative approach that will involve South African national legislation as well as an interpretation of international strategies. A literature review study was conducted to undertake the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands, as well as the relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act. It then proceeds to outline the responsibilities of local governments in South Africa to mitigate and adapt to air pollution strategies.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, disaster, local governments and mitigation

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1297 Major Factors That Enhance Economic Growth in South Africa: A Re-Examination Using a Vector Error Correction Mechanism

Authors: Temitope L. A. Leshoro

Abstract:

This study explored several variables that enhance economic growth in South Africa, based on different growth theories while using the vector error correction model (VECM) technique. The impacts and contributions of each of these variables on GDP in South Africa were investigated. The motivation for this study was as a result of the weak economic growth that the country has been experiencing lately, as well as the continuous increase in unemployment rate and deteriorating health care system. Annual data spanning over the period 1974 to 2013 was employed. The results showed that the major determinants of GDP are trade openness, government spending, and health indicator; as these variables are not only economically significant but also statistically significant in explaining the changes in GDP in South Africa. Policy recommendations for economic growth enhancement are suggested based on the findings of this study.

Keywords: economic growth, GDP, investment, health indicator, VECM

Procedia PDF Downloads 162