Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Casey Taliancich-Klinger

15 Leadership Authenticity and Burnout: A Literature Review

Authors: Casey Gibson, Perry Haan


A primary driver to the increase of voluntary turnover is occupational burnout. The “Great Resignation” is causing employers to rethink their approach to reducing voluntary turnover, and subsequently reduce risks of burnout. A literature review was conducted to determine a correlation between the trust between untrusted leaders and an increase in burnout. It was found that authentic leadership greatly reduces the likelihood of burnout, and thus voluntary turnover. Further, it was found that distrust between an employee and his or her leader can amplify feelings of occupational burnout.

Keywords: burnout, leadership, authenticity, stress, turnover

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14 Cannabis for the Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy in Children

Authors: Sarah E. Casey


Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in children and approximately one-third of children with epilepsy have seizures that are uncontrolled on anticonvulsants alone. Cannabidiol is shown to be an effective treatment at reducing the amount of breakthrough seizures experienced by children with drug resistant epilepsy. Improvements in quality of life and overall condition were noted during cannabidiol treatment. Adverse side effects were experienced and were generally mild to moderate in nature. Additional double-blind, controlled studies with a more diverse sample population and standardized dosing are needed to ensure the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol use in children with drug resistant epilepsy.

Keywords: cannabis, drug resistant epilepsy, children, epilepsy

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13 Preschool Story Retelling: Actions and Verb Use

Authors: Eva Nwokah, Casey Taliancich-Klinger, Lauren Luna, Sarah Rodriguez


Story-retelling is a technique frequently used to assess children’s language skills and support their development of narratives. Fourteen preschool children listened to one of two stories from the wordless, illustrated Frog book series and then retold the story using the pictures. A comparison of three verb types (action, mental and other) in the original story model, and children's verb use in their retold stories revealed the salience of action events. The children's stories contained a similar proportion of verb types to the original story. However, the action verbs they used were rarely those they had heard in the original. The implications for the process of lexical encoding and narrative recall are discussed, as well as suggestions for the use of wordless picture books and the language teaching of new verbs.

Keywords: story re-telling, verb use, preschool language, wordless picture books

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12 Design and Māori Values: A Rebrand Project for the Social Enterprise Sector

Authors: M. Kiarna, S. Junjira, S. Casey, M. Nolwazi, M. S. Marcos, A. T. Tatiana, L. Cassandra


This paper details a rebrand design project developed for a non-profitable organization called Te Roopu Waiora (TRW), which is currently located in Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. This social enterprise is dedicated to supporting the Māori community living with sensorial, physical and intellectual disabilities (whānau hauā). As part of a year three bachelor design brief, the rebrand project enabled students to reflect on Kaupapa Māori principles and appropriately address the values of the organisation. As such, the methodology used a pragmatic paradigm approach and mixed methods design practices involving a human-centred design to problem solving. As result, the student project culminated in the development in a range of cohesive design artefacts, aiming to improve the rentability and perception of the brand with the audience and stakeholders.

Keywords: design in Aotearoa New Zealand, Kaupapa Māori, branding, design education, human-centered design

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11 The Optimisation of Salt Impregnated Matrices as Potential Thermochemical Storage Materials

Authors: Robert J. Sutton, Jon Elvins, Sean Casey, Eifion Jewell, Justin R. Searle


Thermochemical storage utilises chemical salts which store and release energy a fully reversible endo/exothermic chemical reaction. Highly porous vermiculite impregnated with CaCl2, LiNO3 and MgSO4 (SIMs – Salt In Matrices) are proposed as potential materials for long-term thermochemical storage. The behavior of these materials during typical hydration and dehydration cycles is investigated. A simple moisture experiment represents the hydration, whilst thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) represents the dehydration. Further experiments to approximate the energy density and to determine the peak output temperatures of the SIMs are conducted. The CaCl2 SIM is deemed the best performing SIM across most experiments, whilst the results of MgSO4 SIM indicate difficulty associated with energy recovery.

Keywords: hydrated states, inter-seasonal heat storage, moisture sorption, salt in matrix

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10 Experiences during the First Year of Practice among New Nurses

Authors: Chanya Thanomlikhit, Pataraporn Kheawwan


Transition from student to staff nurse can be difficult for nurses beginning their nursing profession. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experiences during the first year of practice among new nurses in Thailand. Methods: A descriptive design using a survey questionnaire was used. One hundred seventy-eight new graduate nurses from one tertiary hospital in Thailand participated in this study. Data were collected using paper-and-pencil format of the Revised Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey. Results: Participants reported three types of difficulties they were experiencing during the first year of practice including role expectation, lack of confidence, and workload. New nurses reported uncomfortable to perform high risk skills such as code/emergency, ventilator care, EKG, and chest tube care. Organizing, prioritizing and communication were rated as difficult tasks during 12-month transition period. New nurses satisfied the benefit package they received from the institution, however, salary was lowest satisfied. Conclusion: Results inform transition program development for new nurses. Initiative of systems that support for the graduate nurse during the first year of practice is suggested.

Keywords: new graduate nurse, transition, nurse residency program, clinical education

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9 Liposomal Encapsulation of Silver Nanoparticle for Improved Delivery and Enhanced Anticancer Properties

Authors: Azeez Yusuf, Alan Casey


Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are one of the most widely investigated metallic nanoparticles due to their promising antibacterial activities. In recent years, AgNP research has shifted beyond antimicrobial use to potential applications in the medical arena. This shift coupled with the extensive commercial applications of AgNP will further increase human exposure, and the subsequent risk of adverse effects that may result from repeated exposures and inefficient delivery meaning research into improved AgNP delivery is of paramount importance. In this study, AgNP were encapsulated in a natural bio-surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatyidyl choline (DPPC), in an attempt to enhance the intracellular delivery and simultaneously mediate the associated cytotoxicity of the AgNP. It was noted that as a result of the encapsulation, liposomal-AgNP (Lipo-AgNP) at 0.625 μg/ml induced significant cell death in THP1 cell lines a notably lower dose than that of the uncoated AgNP induced cytotoxicity. The induced cytotoxicity was shown to result in an increased level of DNA fragmentation resulting in a cell cycle interruption at the S phase of the cell cycle. It was shown that the predominate form of cell death upon exposure to both uncoated and Lipo-AgNP was apoptosis, however, a ROS-independent activation of the executioner caspases 3/7 occurred when exposed to the Lipo-AgNP. These findings showed that encapsulation of AgNP enhances AgNP cytotoxicity and mediates an ROS-independent induction of apoptosis.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, AgNP, cytotoxicity, encapsulation, liposome

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8 TAXAPRO, A Streamlined Pipeline to Analyze Shotgun Metagenomes

Authors: Sofia Sehli, Zainab El Ouafi, Casey Eddington, Soumaya Jbara, Kasambula Arthur Shem, Islam El Jaddaoui, Ayorinde Afolayan, Olaitan I. Awe, Allissa Dillman, Hassan Ghazal


The ability to promptly sequence whole genomes at a relatively low cost has revolutionized the way we study the microbiome. Microbiologists are no longer limited to studying what can be grown in a laboratory and instead are given the opportunity to rapidly identify the makeup of microbial communities in a wide variety of environments. Analyzing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data is a complex process that involves multiple moving parts and might be rather unintuitive for scientists that don’t typically work with this type of data. Thus, to help lower the barrier for less-computationally inclined individuals, TAXAPRO was developed at the first Omics Codeathon held virtually by the African Society for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (ASBCB) in June 2021. TAXAPRO is an advanced metagenomics pipeline that accurately assembles organelle genomes from whole-genome sequencing data. TAXAPRO seamlessly combines WGS analysis tools to create a pipeline that automatically processes raw WGS data and presents organism abundance information in both a tabular and graphical format. TAXAPRO was evaluated using COVID-19 patient gut microbiome data. Analysis performed by TAXAPRO demonstrated a high abundance of Clostridia and Bacteroidia genera and a low abundance of Proteobacteria genera relative to others in the gut microbiome of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, consistent with the original findings derived using a different analysis methodology. This provides crucial evidence that the TAXAPRO workflow dispenses reliable organism abundance information overnight without the hassle of performing the analysis manually.

Keywords: metagenomics, shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis, COVID-19, pipeline, bioinformatics

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7 Determinants of Hospital Obstetric Unit Closures in the United States 2002-2013: Loss of Hospital Obstetric Care 2002-2013

Authors: Peiyin Hung, Katy Kozhimannil, Michelle Casey, Ira Moscovice


Background/Objective: The loss of obstetric services has been a pressing concern in urban and rural areas nationwide. This study aims to determine factors that contribute to the loss of obstetric care through closures of a hospital or obstetric unit. Methods: Data from 2002-2013 American Hospital Association annual surveys were used to identify hospitals providing obstetric services. We linked these data to Medicare Healthcare Cost Report Information for hospital financial indicators, the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey for zip-code level characteristics, and Area Health Resource files for county- level clinician supply measures. A discrete-time multinomial logit model was used to determine contributing factors to obstetric unit or hospital closures. Results: Of 3,551 hospitals providing obstetrics services during 2002-2013, 82% kept units open, 12% stopped providing obstetrics services, and 6% closed down completely. State-level variations existed. Factors that significantly increased hospitals’ probability of obstetric unit closures included lower than 250 annual birth volume (adjusted marginal effects [95% confidence interval]=34.1% [28%, 40%]), closer proximity to another hospital with obstetric services (per 10 miles: -1.5% [-2.4, -0.5%]), being in a county with lower family physician supply (-7.8% [-15.0%, -0.6%), being in a zip code with higher percentage of non-white females (per 10%: 10.2% [2.1%, 18.3%]), and with lower income (per $1,000 income: -0.14% [-0.28%, -0.01%]). Conclusions: Over the past 12 years, loss of obstetric services has disproportionately affected areas served by low-volume urban and rural hospitals, non-white and low-income communities, and counties with fewer family physicians, signaling a need to address maternity care access in these communities.

Keywords: access to care, obstetric care, service line discontinuation, hospital, obstetric unit closures

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6 On-Farm Evaluation of Fast and Slow Growing Genotypes for Organic and Pasture Poultry Production Systems

Authors: Komala Arsi, Terrel Spencer, Casey M. Owens, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue


Organic poultry production is becoming increasingly popular in the United States with approximately 17% increase in the sales of organic meat and poultry in 2016. As per the National Organic Program (NOP), organic poultry production system should operate according to specific standards, including access to outdoors. In the United States, organic poultry farmers are raising both fast growing and slow growing genotypes for alternative productive systems. Even though heritage breed birds grow much slower compared to commercial breeds, many free range producers believe that they are better suited for outdoor production systems. We conducted an on-farm trial on a working pasture poultry farm to compare the performance and meat quality characteristics of a slow-growing heritage breed (Freedom Rangers, FR), and two commonly used fast growing types of chickens (Cornish cross, CC and Naked Neck, NN), raised on pasture, in side by side pens segregated by breed (n=70/breed). CC and NN group birds were reared for eight weeks whereas FR group birds were reared for 10 weeks and all the birds were commercially processed. By the end of the rearing period, the final body weight of FR group birds was significantly lower than both the fast growing genotypes (CC and NN). Both CC and NN birds showed significantly higher live weight, carcass weight as well as fillet, tender and leg yield (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the wing and rack yield among the different groups. Color of the meat was measured using CEILAB method and expressed as lightness (L), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The breast meat from FR birds was much redder (higher a* values) and less yellow (lesser b* values) compared to both the fast growing type of chickens (P < 0.05). Overall, fast growing genotypes produced higher carcass weight and meat yield compared to slow growing genotypes and appear to be an economical option for alternative production systems.

Keywords: fast growing chickens, meat quality, pasture, slow growing chickens

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5 Preoperative Smoking Cessation Audit: A Single Centre Experience from Metropolitan Melbourne

Authors: Ya-Chu May Tsai, Ibrahim Yacoub, Eoin Casey


The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) advises that smoking should not be permitted within 12 hours of surgery. There is little information in the medical literature regarding patients awareness of perioperative smoking cessation recommendations nor their appreciation of how smoking might negatively impact their perioperative course. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of current smokers presenting to Werribee Mercy Hospital (WMH) and to evaluate if pre-operative provision of both written and verbal pre-operative advice was, 1: Effective in improving patient awareness of the benefits of pre-operative smoking cessation, 2: Associated with an increase in the number of elective surgical patients who stop smoking at least 12 hours pre-operatively. Methods: The initial survey included all patients who presented to WMH for elective surgical procedures from 19 – 30 September 2016 using a standardized questionnaire focused on patients’ smoking history and their awareness of smoking cessation preoperatively. The intervention consisted of a standard pre-operative phone call to all patients advising them of the increased perioperative risks associated with smoking, and advised patients to cease 12 hours prior. In addition, written information on smoking cessation strategies were sent out in mail at least 1 week prior to planned procedure date to all patients. Questionnaire-based study after the intervention was conducted on day of elective procedure from 10 – 21 October 2016 inclusive. Primary outcomes measured were patient’s awareness of smoking cessation and proportion of smokers who quit >12 hours, considered a clinically meaning duration to reduce anaesthetics complications. Comparison of pre and post intervention results were made using SPSS 21.0. Results: In the pre-intervention group (n=156), 36 (22.4%) patients were current smokers, 46 were ex-smokers (29.5%) and 74 were non-smokers (48.1%). Of the smokers, 12 (33%) reported having been informed of smoking cessation prior to operation and 8 (22%) were aware of increased intra- and perioperative adverse events associated with smoking. In the post-intervention group n= 177, 38 (21.5%) patients were current smokers, 39 were ex-smokers (22.0%) and 100 were non-smokers (56.5%). Of the smokers, 32 (88.9%) reported having been informed of smoking cessation prior to operation and 35 (97.2%) reported being aware of increased intra- and perioperative adverse events associated with smoking. The median time since last smoke in the pre-intervention group was 5.5 hours (Q1-Q3 = 2-14) compared with 13 hours (Q1-Q3 = 5-24) in post intervention group. Amongst the smokers, smoking cessation at least 12 hours prior to surgery significantly increased from 27.8% pre-intervention to 52.6% post intervention (P=0.03). Conclusion: A standard preoperative phone call and written instruction on smoking cessation guidelines at time of waitlist placement increase preoperative smoking cessation rates by almost 2-fold.

Keywords: anaesthesia, audit, perioperative medicine, smoking cessation

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4 Post-Harvest Biopreservation of Fruit and Vegetables with Application of Lactobacillus Strains

Authors: Judit Perjessy, Zsolt Zalan, Ferenc Hegyi, Eniko Horvath-Szanics, Krisztina Takacs, Andras Nagy, Adel Klupacs, Erika Koppany-Szabo, Zhirong Wang, Kaituo Wang, Muying Du, Jianquan Kan


The post-harvest diseases cause great economic losses in the fruit and vegetables; the prevention of these deterioration has great importance. Against the fungi, which cause most of the diseases, are extensively used the fungicides. However, there are increasing consumer concerns over the presence of pesticide residues in food. An alternative and in recent years, increasingly studied method for the prevention of the diseases is biocontrol, where antagonistic microorganisms are used for the control of fungi. The genera of Lactobacillus is well known and extensively studied, but its applicability as biocontrol agents in post-harvest preservation of fruit and vegetables is poorly investigated. However these bacteria can be found on the surface of the plants and have great antimicrobial activity. In our study we have investigated the chitinase activity, the antifungal effect and the applicability of several Lactobacillus strains to select potential biocontrol agents. We investigated the determination of the environmental parameters of a gene (encoding chitinase) expression and we also investigated the relationship between actual antifungal activity and potential chitinase activity. Mixed cultures were also developed to enhance the antifungal activity and determined the optimal mold spore and bacteria concentration ratio for the appropriate efficacy. Five Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus N2, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397, L. sp. 2231, L. sake subsp. sake 2471, L. buchneri 1145) possess chitinase-coding gene from the 43 investigated Lactobacillus strains. Proteins with similar molecular weight and separation properties like bacterial chitinases were detected from these strains, which also possess chitin-binding property. Nevertheless, they were inactive, lacks the chitinolytic activity. In point of the cumulative activity of inhibition, our results showed that certain strains were statistically significant in a positive direction compared to other strains, e.g., L. rhamnosus VT1 and L. Casey 154 have shown great general antifungal effect against 11 molds from the genera Penicillium and Botrytis and isolated from spoiled fruit and vegetables. Also, some mixed cultures (L. rhamnosus VT1 - L. Plantarum 299v) showed significant antifungal effects against the indigenous molds on the surface of apple fruit during the industrial storage experiment. Thus, they could be promising for post-harvest biopreservation.

Keywords: biocontrol, chitinase, Lactobacillus, post-harvest

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3 DTI Connectome Changes in the Acute Phase of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Improve Outcome Classification

Authors: Sarah E. Nelson, Casey Weiner, Alexander Sigmon, Jun Hua, Haris I. Sair, Jose I. Suarez, Robert D. Stevens


Graph-theoretical information from structural connectomes indicated significant connectivity changes and improved acute prognostication in a Random Forest (RF) model in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality and has traditionally been fraught by poor methods to predict outcome. This study’s hypothesis was that structural connectivity changes occur in canonical brain networks of acute aSAH patients, and that these changes are associated with functional outcome at six months. In a prospective cohort of patients admitted to a single institution for management of acute aSAH, patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as part of a multimodal MRI scan. A weighted undirected structural connectome was created of each patient’s images using Constant Solid Angle (CSA) tractography, with 176 regions of interest (ROIs) defined by the Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. ROIs were sorted into four networks: Default Mode Network, Executive Control Network, Salience Network, and Whole Brain. The resulting nodes and edges were characterized using graph-theoretic features, including Node Strength (NS), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Network Degree (ND), and Connectedness (C). Clinical (including demographics and World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons scale) and graph features were used separately and in combination to train RF and Logistic Regression classifiers to predict two outcomes: dichotomized modified Rankin Score (mRS) at discharge and at six months after discharge (favorable outcome mRS 0-2, unfavorable outcome mRS 3-6). A total of 56 aSAH patients underwent DTI a median (IQR) of 7 (IQR=8.5) days after admission. The best performing model (RF) combining clinical and DTI graph features had a mean Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (AUROC) of 0.88 ± 0.00 and Area Under the Precision Recall Curve (AUPRC) of 0.95 ± 0.00 over 500 trials. The combined model performed better than the clinical model alone (AUROC 0.81 ± 0.01, AUPRC 0.91 ± 0.00). The highest-ranked graph features for prediction were NS, BC, and ND. These results indicate reorganization of the connectome early after aSAH. The performance of clinical prognostic models was increased significantly by the inclusion of DTI-derived graph connectivity metrics. This methodology could significantly improve prognostication of aSAH.

Keywords: connectomics, diffusion tensor imaging, graph theory, machine learning, subarachnoid hemorrhage

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2 Delegation or Assignment: Registered Nurses’ Ambiguity in Interpreting Their Scope of Practice in Long Term Care Settings

Authors: D. Mulligan, D. Casey


Introductory Statement: Delegation is when a registered nurse (RN) transfers a task or activity that is normally within their scope of practice to another person (delegatee). RN delegation is common practice with unregistered staff, e.g., student nurses and health care assistants (HCAs). As the role of the HCA is increasingly embedded as a direct care and support role, especially in long-term residential care for older adults, there is RN uncertainty as to their role as a delegator. The assignment is when a task is transferred to a person that is within the role specification of the delegatee. RNs in long-term care (LTC) for older people are increasingly working in teams where there are less RNs and more HCAs providing direct care to the residents. The RN is responsible and accountable for their decision to delegate and assign tasks to HCAs. In an interpretive, multiple case studies to explore how delegation of tasks by RNs to HCAs occurred in long-term care settings in Ireland the importance of the RN understanding their scope of practice emerged. Methodology: Focus group interviews and individual interviews were undertaken as part of a multiple case study. Both cases, anonymized as Case A and Case B, were within the public health service in Ireland. The case study sites were long-term care settings for older adults located in different social care divisions, and in different geographical areas. Four focus group interviews with staff nurses and three individual interviews with CNMs were undertaken. The interactive data analysis approach was the analytical framework used, with within-case and cross-case analysis. The theoretical lens of organizational role theory, applying the role episode model (REM), was used to understand, interpret, and explain the findings. Study Findings: RNs and CNMs understood the role of the nurse regulator and the scope of practice. RNs understood that the RN was accountable for the care and support provided to residents. However, RNs and CNM2s could not describe delegation in the context of their scope of practice. In both cases, the RNs did not have a standardized process for assessing HCA competence to undertake nursing tasks or interventions. RNs did not routinely supervise HCAs. Tasks were assigned and not delegated. There were differences between the cases in relation to understanding which nursing tasks required delegation. HCAs in Case A undertook clinical vital sign assessments and documentation. HCAs in Case B did not routinely undertake these activities. Delegation and assignment were influenced by the organizational factors, e.g., model of care, absence of delegation policies, inadequate RN education on delegation, and a lack of RN and HCA role clarity. Concluding Statement: Nurse staffing levels and skill mix in long-term care settings continue to change with more HCAs providing more direct care and support. With decreasing RN staffing levels RNs will be required to delegate and assign more direct care to HCAs. There is a requirement to distinguish between RN assignment and delegation at policy, regulation, and organizational levels.

Keywords: assignment, delegation, registered nurse, scope of practice

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1 The Development, Composition, and Implementation of Vocalises as a Method of Technical Training for the Adult Musical Theatre Singer

Authors: Casey Keenan Joiner, Shayna Tayloe


Classical voice training for the novice singer has long relied on the guidance and instruction of vocalise collections, such as those written and compiled by Marchesi, Lütgen, Vaccai, and Lamperti. These vocalise collections purport to encourage healthy vocal habits and instill technical longevity in both aspiring and established singers, though their scope has long been somewhat confined to the classical idiom. For pedagogues and students specializing in other vocal genres, such as musical theatre and CCM (contemporary commercial music,) low-impact and pertinent vocal training aids are in short supply, and much of the suggested literature derives from classical methodology. While the tenants of healthy vocal production remain ubiquitous, specific stylistic needs and technical emphases differ from genre to genre and may require a specified extension of vocal acuity. As musical theatre continues to grow in popularity at both the professional and collegiate levels, the need for specialized training grows as well. Pedagogical literature geared specifically towards musical theatre (MT) singing and vocal production, while relatively uncommon, is readily accessible to the contemporary educator. Practitioners such as Norman Spivey, Mary Saunders Barton, Claudia Friedlander, Wendy Leborgne, and Marci Rosenberg continue to publish relevant research in the field of musical theatre voice pedagogy and have successfully identified many common MT vocal faults, their subsequent diagnoses, and their eventual corrections. Where classical methodology would suggest specific vocalises or training exercises to maintain corrected vocal posture following successful fault diagnosis, musical theatre finds itself without a relevant body of work towards which to transition. By analyzing the existing vocalise literature by means of a specialized set of parameters, including but not limited to melodic variation, rhythmic complexity, vowel utilization, and technical targeting, we have composed a set of vocalises meant specifically to address the training and conditioning of adult musical theatre voices. These vocalises target many pedagogical tenants in the musical theatre genre, including but not limited to thyroarytenoid-dominant production, twang resonance, lateral vowel formation, and “belt-mix.” By implementing these vocalises in the musical theatre voice studio, pedagogues can efficiently communicate proper musical theatre vocal posture and kinesthetic connection to their students, regardless of age or level of experience. The composition of these vocalises serves MT pedagogues on both a technical level as well as a sociological one. MT is a relative newcomer on the collegiate stage and the academization of musical theatre methodologies has been a slow and arduous process. The conflation of classical and MT techniques and training methods has long plagued the world of voice pedagogy and teachers often find themselves in positions of “cross-training,” that is, teaching students of both genres in one combined voice studio. As MT continues to establish itself on academic platforms worldwide, genre-specific literature and focused studies are both rare and invaluable. To ensure that modern students receive exacting and definitive training in their chosen fields, it becomes increasingly necessary for genres such as musical theatre to boast specified literature and a collection of musical theatre-specific vocalises only aids in this effort. This collection of musical theatre vocalises is the first of its kind and provides genre-specific studios with a basis upon which to grow healthy, balanced voices built for the harsh conditions of the modern theatre stage.

Keywords: voice pedagogy, targeted methodology, musical theatre, singing

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