Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2225

Search results for: pregnant women

2225 Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Waseem

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is ubiquitously distributed viral agent responsible for different clinical manifestations that may vary according to the immunologic status of the patient. CMV can cause morbidity and mortality among fetuses and patients with compromised immune system. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Islamabad to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with CMV infection among pregnant women. Blood samples of 172 pregnant women visiting Mother and Child Healthcare, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad were taken. In present study, serum samples of the women were checked for CMV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical, obstetrical and socio-demographical characteristics of the women were collected by using structured questionnaires. Out of 172 pregnant women included in the study, 171 (99.4%) were CMV specific IgG positive and 30 (17.4%) were found positive for CMV-IgM antibodies. The CMV has taken an endemic form in Pakistan so, routine screening of CMV among pregnant women is recommended.

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, blood transfusion, ELISA, seroprevalence

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2224 Dietary Nutrient Consumption Patterns by the Pregnant Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasmia Tasnim

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Introduction: Pregnancy is a condition of higher nutrient requirement but in developing countries like Bangladesh most of the pregnant women can not meet their nutrient requirement and sometimes they are neglected in the family. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary nutrient intake by the pregnant women, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: The study population comprised of pregnant women from urban or semi-urban, aged between 18 to 35 and free of pregnancy related complication and other diseases. Under a cross-sectional design, 30 healthy non-pregnant as well as 130 pregnant women, at 3 different trimesters of pregnancy were assessed. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric, drug and medical history. Three day consecutive 24-hour food recalls were used to assess food intake and then converted to nutrient intake. Results: The average BMI of the nonpregnant women was 22.89 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and that of pregnant women was 23.52 ± 3.71 kg/m2. The mean dietary nutrient intake of dietary fiber, calorie, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate, vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 of the pregnant mothers were 4.38 g, 1619 kcal, 60.05 g, 30.38 g, 268.79 g, 537.21 mg, 21.53 mg, 1.15 mg, 0.94 mg, 97.36 mg, 647.6 µg, 153.93 µg, 1.41 mg and 4.09 µg respectively. Most of pregnant women (more than 90%) can not meet their energy, calcium and folate requirements. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant mother in Bangladesh can not meet their dietary requirements during pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, dietary nutrient, nutritional status, BMI

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2223 Social Support in the Tradition for Pregnant Mother Care In East Nusa Tenggara

Authors: Sri Widati, Ira Nurmala

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The Se’i Tradition was considered to contribute highly to the high maternal mortality rate in South Amanuban, East Nusa Tenggara. This tradition is still preserved due to the social support that has influenced the decision to carry out the Se’i to pregnant women and post-partum women. The purpose of this study is to analyze this social support towards the Se’i Tradition on pregnant women in East Nusa Tenggara. This research was an explorative study with in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions (FGD) in collecting the data. This study showed that emotional support towards Se’i was commonly given by families, specifically by the mother-in laws. Instrumental support was shown by the husbands and the traditional midwives who helped delivered the babies. Informational support was found on the pregnant women and their mother-in laws. Appraisal support was given by all the neighbors and relatives of the pregnant women by telling how comfortable it was to go through this tradition which eventually affected those women to carry it out themselves. The Se’i Tradition is still carried out and mostly supported by the relatives of the pregnant women. The first recommendation of this study is to suggest people to only follow the suggestions from the local health staff to give birth in the local health centers and not to do the tradition anymore. The second recommendation is to urge the government to give support in the form of transportation facilities for pregnant women to reach the local health staff.

Keywords: the Se’i tradition, social support, pregnant women, maternal mortality, post-partum women

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2222 Factors Related to Protective Behavior on Indoor Pollution among Pregnant Women in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand

Authors: Yuri Teraoka, Cheerawit Rattanapan, Aroonsri Mongkolchati

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This cross sectional analytic study was carried out to determine factors related to protective behavior on indoor pollution among pregnant women in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand. A total of 319 pregnant women were enrolled at three antenatal care clinics in community hospital. Data were collected using simple random sampling from April 2015 to May 2015 using a structured self-administration questionnaire by well-trained research assistants. The result showed that around 73% pregnant women showed low level of low protective behavior on indoor pollution. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used to examine the factors and protective behavior on indoor pollution. After adjusting for confounding factors, this study found that tobacco smoking before pregnancy (AOR=2.15, 95% CI: 0.78-5.95) and low environmental health hazard (AOR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.09-3.49) were significant factors related to protective behavior on indoor pollution among pregnant women (p-value < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggested that environmental health education campaign and environmental implementation program among pregnant woman are needed.

Keywords: Thailand, environmental health, protective behavior, pregnant women

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2221 Mindfulness and Motivational Based Intervention for Pregnant Women with Tobacco Dependency: Pilot Study

Authors: Ilona Krone

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Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of perinatal/postnatal negative health outcomes; however, only 1 in 5 pregnant smokers quit smoking. That is a clinical and public health problem. Pregnant smokers have negative paternal support, and higher levels of perceived stress than non-smokers and quitters return to smoking in a stressful situation. A crisis like the COVID-19 outbreak causes significant uncertainty and stress. For pregnant women, additional stress may increase due to concerns for their fetus. Strategies targeting maternal stress and isolation may be particularly useful to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses. Within the post-doctoral study, cooperating with leading specialists, an innovative program for pregnant smokers will be developed. Feasibility for reducing craving, distress intolerance, Covid 19 related stress, and fear in pregnant women in Latvia will be assessed.

Keywords: COVID 19, mindfulness, motivation, pregnancy, smoking cessation

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2220 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pregnant Women toward Antenatal Care at Public Hospitals in Sana'a City-Yemen

Authors: Abdulfatah Al-Jaradi, Marzoq Ali Odhah, Abdulnasser A. Haza’a

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Background: Antenatal care can be defined as the care provided by skilled healthcare professionals to pregnant women and adolescent girls to ensure the best health conditions for both mother and baby during pregnancy. The components of ANC include risk identification; prevention and management of pregnancy-related or concurrent diseases; and health education and health promotion. The aim of this study: to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women regarding antenatal care. Methodology: A descriptive KAP study was conducting in public hospitals in Sana'a City-Yemen. The study population was included all pregnant women that intended to the prenatal department and clinical outpatient department, the final sample size was 371 pregnant women, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, statistical package for social sciences SPSS was used to data analysis. The results: Most (79%) of pregnant women were had correct answers in total knowledge regarding antenatal care, and about two-thirds (67%) of pregnant women were had performance practice regarding antenatal care and two-third (68%) of pregnant women were had a positive attitude. Conclusions & Recommendations: We concluded that a significant association between overall knowledge and practice level toward antenatal care and demographic characteristics of pregnant women, women (residence place, level of education, did your husband support you in attending antenatal care and place of delivery of the last baby), at (P-value ≤ 0.05). We recommended more education and training courses, lecturers and education sessions in clinical facilitators focused ANC, which relies on evidence-based interventions provided to women during pregnancy by skilled healthcare providers such as midwives, doctors, and nurses.

Keywords: antenatal care, knowledge, practice, attitude, pregnant women

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2219 Assessment of Dietary Intake of Pregnant Women

Authors: Tuleshova Gulnara, Abduldayeva Aigul

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The goal is based on the studying the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among children and women of reproductive age to develop evidence-based recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of programs to prevent micronutrient deficiency. Subject: In our study we used a representative, random sample, carried out with the cluster method in the precinct of the principle areas of medical care for children 5 years of old. If the site has at least 60 children under 5 years of old, each second child was sampled, and if more than 60 children - each third child (first child selected by random sampling). The total number of investigated persons was within 80-86 women of reproductive age and children - within 80-92 people. Results: The studies found that the average prevalence of anemia among children aged 6-59 months was 35.2%, with the most susceptible to iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 6-23 months (53.3%). The prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women was 39.0% among pregnant women - 43.8%. In children, the prevalence of folate deficiency was the highest (27.6%). Among non-pregnant women, frequent prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 37.0%. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was higher among children living in Astana (37.4%) compared with the medium-republican level (23.2%).

Keywords: nutrition, pregnant women, micronutrients, macronutrients

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2218 Pregnancy through the Lens of Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative

Authors: Zahra BehboodiI-Moghadam, Zohre Khalajinia, Ali Reza Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Minoo Mohraz

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The purpose of our study was to explore and describe the experiences of pregnant women with HIV in Iran. A qualitative exploratory study with conventional content analysis was used. Twelve pregnant women with HIV who referred to perinatal care at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Behavioral Diseases Consultation: Center in Tehran were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews. The average age of the participants was 32.5 years. Four main themes were extracted from the data: “fear and hope, “stigma and discrimination, “marital life stability” and “trust”. The findings reveal the pregnant women living with HIV are vulnerable and need professional support. Improving the knowledge of healthcare professionals especially midwifes on pregnancy complications for women with HIV is crucial in order to provide high-quality care to pregnant women with HIV-positive.

Keywords: HIV, pregnancy, content analysis, experiences, Iran, qualitative research

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2217 Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Nariman Sepehrvand, Khalkhali-Zahra Shirmohamadi

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Background: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy-associated deaths in southern Asia. Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro). Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years). Only five cases (3.6%) among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), income level (P=0.19) of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.

Keywords: pregnancy, hepatitis E, women, ELISA

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2216 Maternal-Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Garba Iliyasu, Lamaran Dattijo

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Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. The most widespread epidemic of EVD in history occurred recently in several West African countries. The burden and outcome of EVD in pregnant women remains uncertain. There are very few studies to date reporting on maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with EVD, hence the justification for this comprehensive review of these published studies. Methods: Published studies in English that reported on maternal and or fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD up to May 2016 were searched in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, PubMed, AJOL, and Scopus). Studies that did not satisfy the inclusion criteria were excluded. We extracted the following variables from each study: geographical location, year of the study, settings of the study, participants, maternal and fetal outcome.Result: There were 12 studies that reported on 108 pregnant women and 110 fetal outcomes. Six of the studies were case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 was a technical report. There were 91(84.3%) deaths out of the 108 pregnant women, while only 1(0.9%) fetal survival was reported out of 110. Survival rate among the 15 patients that had spontaneous abortion/stillbirth or induced delivery was 100%. Conclusion: There was a poor maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD, and fetal evacuation significantly improves maternal survival.

Keywords: Africa, ebola, maternofetal, outcome

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2215 Perceived Effect of Physical Exercise on Healthy Well-Being of Pregnant Women in Imo State

Authors: Roseline Chizoba Onuoha, Rose Ngozi Uzoka

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This study aimed at investigating perceived effect of physical exercise on healthy well-being of pregnant mothers in Imo state. The study was guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study was a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design involving pre and post tests. A sample of 92 pregnant women drawn from a total population of 922 registered pregnant women in ten randomly selected health centers in Imo State through multistage sampling technique was used. A 41 item structured instrument titled Physical Exercise Pregnancy Test (PEPT) was used for the study. The PEPT was validated by three experts from measurement and evaluation, educational psychology and health education. Crombach Alpha method was used to determine the reliability of Physical Exercise Pregnancy Test (PEPT) and reliability index of 0.82 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions; while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used in analyzing the hypotheses. Findings of the study revealed that physical exercise affects physical, social and emotional wellbeing scores of pregnant women. The study also indicated that intervention using physical exercise significantly enhanced healthy well-being scores of pregnant mothers who were exposed to physical exercise than those who received conventional health talks; Location has no significant interaction effect on the mean well-being scores of pregnant women via PEPT. Among recommendations made were that pregnant women should participate in physical exercise.

Keywords: educational psychology, Imo state, Physical exercise, pregnant women

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2214 Prevalence and Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnant Xhosa Women

Authors: A. Abiodun, G. George, B. Longo-Mbenza, E. Blanco-Blanco

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnant Xhosa women practising geophagia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant Xhosa women from rural areas of Mthatha, South Africa, according to socio-demographic, geophagia, haematologic and iron metabolism profiles using univariate and multivariate analyses. Anaemia was defined by haemoglobin <11 g/dL and iron deficiency was defined by serum ferritin < 12 ug/L. Results: Out of 210 pregnant women (mean age =23±5.3 for geophagic and 25.6±5.3 for non-geophagic), 51.4% (n = 108) had iron deficiency anaemia (50.9% geophagic and 49.1% non-geophagic). After adjusting for confounders, only geophagia (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2; P=0.029) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration categories (< 30.5 g/dL with OR=16.6 95% CI 6.8-40.2; P < 0.0001; 30.5-31.5 g/dL with OR=2.9 95% CI 1.4-6.1; P=0.006; and ≥ 31.5 g/dL with OR=1) were identified as the most important significant and independent determinants of iron deficiency anaemia. Conclusion: The study results point to the potential harm geophagia can cause in pregnant women. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia is unacceptably high. Geophagic behaviour, low MCHC presented as particular risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia in this study. Education and counselling about appropriate diet during pregnancy and prevention of geophagic behaviour (and health consequences) are needed among pregnant Xhosa women.

Keywords: geophagia, pregnancy, iron deficiency anaemia, Xhosa

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2213 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors

Authors: Nuran Nur Aypar, Merlinda Alus Tokat

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The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.

Keywords: affecting factors, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), knowledge level, nursing, pregnancy

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2212 Air Pollutants Exposure and Blood High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Healthy Pregnant Women

Authors: Gwo-Hwa Wan, Tai-Ho Hung, Fen-Fang Chung, Wan-Ying Lee, Hui-Ching Yang

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Air pollutant exposure results in elevated concentrations of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in general populations. Increased concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in pregnant women would be associated with preterm labor and low birth weight. To our best knowledge, the associations between air pollutants exposure and inflammation in pregnant women and fetuses are unknown, as well as their effects on fetal growth. This study aimed to evaluate the influences of outdoor air pollutants in northern Taiwan areas on the inflammatory biomarker (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) concentration in the blood of healthy pregnant women and how the biomarker impacts fetal growth. In this study, 38 healthy pregnant women who are in their first trimester and live in northern Taiwan area were recruited from the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Personal characteristics and prenatal examination data (e.g., blood pressure) were obtained from recruited subjects. The concentrations of inflammatory mediators, hs-CRP, in the blood of healthy pregnant women were analyzed. Additionally, hourly data of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO) concentrations were obtained from air quality monitoring stations in Taipei area, established by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The definition of lag 0 and lag 01 are the exposure to air pollutants on the day of blood withdrawal, and the average exposure to air pollutants one day before and on the day of blood withdrawal, respectively. The statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS software version 22.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). This analytical result indicates that the healthy pregnant women aged between 28 and 42 years old. The body mass index before pregnancy averaged 21.51 (sd = 2.51) kg/m2. Around 90% of the pregnant women had never smoking habit, and 28.95% of them had allergic diseases. Approximately around 84% and 5.26% of the pregnant women worked at indoor and outdoor environments, respectively. The mean hematocrit level of the pregnant women was 37.10%, and the hemoglobin levels were ranged between 10.1 and 14.7 g/dL with 12.47 g/dL of mean value. The blood hs-CRP concentrations of healthy pregnant women in the first trimester ranged between 0.32 and 32.5 mg/L with 2.83 (sd = 5.69) mg/L of mean value. The blood hs-CRP concentrations were positively associated with ozone concentrations at lag 0-14 (r = 0.481, p = 0.017) in healthy pregnant women. Significant lag effects were identified in ozone at lag 0-14 with a positive excess concentration of blood hs-CRP.

Keywords: air pollutant, hs-CRP, pregnant woman, ozone, first trimester

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2211 Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Its Impact on Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women

Authors: Nuzhat Sultana

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Iron deficiency (IDA) is the commonest nutritional anemia present in Indian pregnant women. The overall development of a fetus is determined to a great extent by the type of nourishment mother receives right from its conception. To study the risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, two hundred rural pregnant women in the age of 15-35 years in the second trimester of pregnancy from the countryside of Beed district was selected. These samples were divided into groups 'A' (experimental samples) and 'C' (control samples). Experimental samples were received oral supplementation of iron and folic acid for ninety days, but control samples did not receive any supplementation. All the samples were observed anthropometrically, biochemically and clinically before and after supplementation. The study result shows that maximum numbers of i.e. 75% pregnant women had low levels of weight and hemoglobin as compared to standard weight and HB level. However, after supplementation only in experimental group weight and HB level was increased. It was observed that prevalence of risk factors associated with anemia was higher in rural pregnant women. Poverty, illiteracy, faulty food habits, and poor intake of iron during pregnancy are the main causative factors for iron deficiency anemia in rural pregnant women.

Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, risk factors, pregnancy

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2210 Seroprevalence and Determinants of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christiana Frimpong, Mpundu Makasa, Lungowe Sitali, Charles Michelo

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Background: Toxoplasmosis is a neglected zoonotic disease which is prevalent among pregnant women especially in Africa. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of the disease among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH). Method: A cross-sectional study was employed where 411 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at UTH were interviewed using closed-ended questionnaires. Their blood was also tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid Test cassettes by CTK Biotech, Inc, USA. Result: The overall seroprevalence of the infection (IgG) was 5.87%. There was no seropositive IgM result. Contact with cats showed 7.81 times the risk of contracting the infection in the pregnant women and being a farmer/being involved in construction work showed 15.5 times likelihood of contracting the infection. Socio-economic status of the pregnant women also presented an inverse relationship (showed association) with the infection graphically. However, though there were indications of the association between contact with cats, employment type as well as the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women with the infection, there was not enough evidence to suggest these factors as significant determining factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in our study population. Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Screening for the infection among pregnant women can be done once or twice during pregnancy to help protect both mother and child from the disease. Health promotion among women of child bearing age on the subject is of immense importance in order to help curb the situation. Further studies especially that of case-control and cohort studies should be carried out in the country in order to better ascertain the extent of the condition nationwide.

Keywords: determinants, pregnant women, seroprevalence, toxoplasmosis, University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Zambia

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2209 Prevalence of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Women of Childbearing Age in the North-West of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila, Basma Nuri Kajruba, Hanan Elhadi, Rehab Ramadan Wali

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Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by a decrease of Hb (hemoglobin), serum iron, ferritin, and RBC (red blood cells) (shape and size). Also, it is characterized by an increase in total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Red blood cells become microctytic and hypochromic due to a decrease in iron content. This study was conducted in the north west of Libya and included 210 women in childbearing age (18-45 years) who were visiting women clinic. After filling the questionnaire, blood samples were taken and analyzed for hematological and biochemical profiles. Biochemical tests included measurement of serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Among the total sample (210 women), there were 87 (41.42%) pregnant and 123 (58.57%) non-pregnant women (includes married and single). Pregnant women (87) were classified according to the gestational age into first, second, and third trimesters. The means of biochemical and hematological parameters in the studied samples were: Hb = 10.37± 2.02 g/dl, RBC = 3.78± 1.037 m/m3, serum iron 61.86± 40.28 µg/dl, and TIBC = 386.01 ± 94.91 µg/dl. In this study, we considered that any women have hemoglobin below 11.5 g/dl is anemic. 89.1%, 69.5%, and 47.8% of pregnant women who belong to third trimester had low (below normal value) Hb, serum iron, and ferritin, i.e. iron deficiency anemia was more common in third trimester among the first and the second trimesters. Third trimester pregnant women also had high TIBC more than first and second trimesters.

Keywords: red blood cells, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, ferritin

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2208 Factors Associated with Uptake of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination in Pregnant Women

Authors: Hassen Mohammed, Michelle Clarke, Helen Marshall

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Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to protect pregnant women and their offspring from vaccine-preventable diseases. Despite the recommendation of maternal influenza and more recently pertussis immunization in Australia, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal. Monitoring the impact of the current funded vaccine programs for pregnant women is limited. The study aimed to assess the impact of the funded program and determine factors associated with vaccine uptake in pregnant women. This observational prospective study was undertaken between November 2014 and July 2016 at the Women’s and Children’s Hospital in South Australia (WCH). Demographic details and vaccination history from South Australian pregnant women who attended the WCH were reviewed. A standardized self-reported survey was conducted in antenatal care with a follow up telephone interview at 8-10 weeks post-delivery. A midwife delivered immunization program for pregnant women in antenatal clinic commenced in April 2015. Of the 180 pregnant women who completed the survey questionnaire, 75.5% and 80.5 % received maternal influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. First-time mothers had twice the odds of having received influenza vaccine during pregnancy than multiparous women (OR 2.4; CI 1.14 - 4.94; p= 0.021). The proportion of women who received pertussis vaccine during pregnancy, following the introduction of the midwife delivered pertussis vaccination program (140/155, 90.3%) was significantly higher compared with women who received maternal pertussis vaccination prior to the introduction of the program (5/22, 23.7%, p < 0.001). The odds of women receiving maternal pertussis vaccine following the implementation of the midwife delivered program were 31 times higher than women who delivered babies prior to the program (OR 31.7, CI 10.24- 98.27; p < 0.001). High uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy can be attained with health care provider recommendation and inclusion of maternal immunization as part of standard antenatal care.

Keywords: influenza, maternal immunization, pertussis, provider recommendation

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2207 A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Maternal Food Insecurity in Urban Settings

Authors: Theresia F. Mrema, Innocent Semali

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Food insecurity to pregnant women seriously impedes efforts to reduce maternal mortality in resource poor countries. This study was carried out to assess determinants food insecurity among pregnant women in urban areas. A cross sectional study design was used to collect data for the period of two weeks. A structured questionnaire with both closed and open ended questions was used to interview a total of 225 randomly selected pregnant women who attend the three randomly selected antenatal care clinics in Temeke Municipal council. The food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the USDA’s core food security module which consists of 15questions. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain strength of association between dependent and independent variables. Among 225 pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) interviewed 55.1% were food insecure. Food insecurity declined with increasing household wealth, it was also significantly low among those with less than three children compared with having more. Low level of food insecurity was associated with having Secondary education (Adjusted OR=0.24; 95%CI, 0.12–0.48), College Education (OR=0.156; 95%CI, 0.05-0.46), paid employment (OR=0.322; 95%CI, 0.11-0.96) and high income (OR=0.031; 95%CI, 0.01–0.07). Also, having head of the household with secondary education (OR=0.51; 95%CI, 0.07-0.32) college education (OR=0.04; 95%CI, 0.01-0.13) and paid employment (OR=0.225; 95%CI, 0.12-0.42). Food insecurity is a significant problem among pregnant women in Temeke Municipal which might significantly affect health of the pregnant woman and foetus due to higher maternal malnutrition which increases risk of miscarriage, maternal and infant mortality, and poor pregnancy outcomes. The study suggests a multi-sectoral approach in order to address this problem.

Keywords: food security, nutrition, pregnant women, urban settings

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2206 Nutritional Evaluation of Pregnant Women in Nairobi, Kenya for Implementation of a Probiotic Yogurt Program

Authors: Sharareh Hekmat, Michelle Lane

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Pregnancy during adolescence affects both the growth and development of mother and baby, particularly in low socioeconomic and food insecure areas. This mixed methods study is aimed at discovering a need for a community-based probiotic yogurt program to assist pregnant women in the Mukuru slum Nairobi, Kenya. Surveys were conducted with pregnant women (14-25 years old, n=43), which included questionnaires on dietary intake, food access, and health/quality of life perception. The frequency and means procedure was used to analyze maternal characteristics, Women’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) and Household Hunger Scale. 24-hour recalls were analyzed via ESHA Food Processor, and median nutrient intakes were reported as a percent of recommendations. An environmental scan was conducted to assess food availability, accessibility, and quality. WDDS reflected a low-moderate diet variation (3.86 food groups out of 9, SD ± 1.3) among the women. The 24-hour recall suggested an inadequate intake of many nutrients, most significantly B12, potassium and calcium. 86% of women reported little to no household hunger. However, the environmental scan revealed low quality and poor sanitation of food. This study provides evidence that a probiotic program would be desirable, and contribute to the nutritional status of women in the Mukuru community.

Keywords: dietary diversity, pregnant women, probiotics, urban slum, Kenya

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2205 Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancy amongst Currently Married Pregnant Women in Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Asaolu, A. Bolorunduro

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Background: Unwanted, mistimed and unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue and the most common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy is a potential hazard for every sexually active woman as it most times ends in unsafe abortion. The study aimed at assessing the pre-conception contraceptive use, prevalence of unintended pregnancies and the non-contraceptive factors associated with unintended pregnancy amongst currently married women in Osun state. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study among randomly selected 341 currently married pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ilesa town of Osun state was conducted in 5 health facilities. A random selection of 5 of the 22 health facilities in the state was done. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire and all completed questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS. Result: About two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (40%) who has never used an FP method reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first sex, substance use, total children ever born of children, religion, and extramarital affairs were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women who have higher parity are more likely to experience unintended pregnancy compared to women with lower parity (odds ratio, 0.25). Furthermore, those women who don’t engage in extra marital affairs were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.3) compared to those who do not. Contribution to knowledge: The predicted probability, using logistic regression, has shown that women who engage in extramarital affairs and women with high parity are more likely to have unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Behaviour change programs should aim to reduce unintended pregnancy by focusing mostly on identified factors so that the need for abortion is decreased and the overall well-being of the family is maintained and enhanced.

Keywords: unintended pregnancy, factors, pregnant women, Nigeria

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2204 Exploring Factors Associated with Substance Use among Pregnant Women in a Cape Town Community

Authors: Mutshinye Manguvhewa, Maria Florence, Mansoo Yu, Elize Koch, Kamal Kamaloodien

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Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential factors are associated with substance use among women of childbearing age. The study explored factors associated with substance use among pregnant women using a qualitative research design and the bio-ecological theoretical framework to explore and guide the researcher throughout the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Only participants accessed from the Department of Social Development meeting the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Immediate referral for psychological intervention during the interview was available for participants who needed it. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were utilised to analyse the data. The study adheres to ethical guidelines for the participants' protection. Participants were informed about the study before the initiation of the interviews and the details of their voluntary participation were explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that socio-cultural factors, personal factors, emotional response and intimate relationships are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant women in this sample. The results outline the preventative measures that pregnant women implement. Lastly, the study reveals the positive and negative perceptions of substance use programmes that participants share. Some of the study findings are similar to the existing literature and some of the findings differed. Recommendations emanating from the study include that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centres, Department of Health and future researchers should act proactively against substance use during pregnancy.

Keywords: substance addiction, antenatal care, pregnancy, substance use

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2203 Health Portals for Specific Populations: A Design for Pregnant Women

Authors: Janine Sommer, Mariana Daus, Mariana Simon, Maria Smith, Daniel Luna

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The technologies and communication advances contributed to new tools development which allows patients to have an active role in their own health. In the light of information needs and paradigms changes about health, the patient self-manages their care. This line of care focuses on patients; specific portals come up to people with particular requirements like pregnant women. Thinking of a portal design to this sector of the population, in September 2016 a survey was made to users with the objective to knowing and understanding information’s needs at the moment to use an application for pregnant. Also, prototypes of the portal´s features were designed to try and validate with users, using the methodology of human-centered design. Investigations have made possible the identification of needs of this population and develop a tool who try to satisfy, providing timely information for each part of pregnancy and allowing the patients to make a physical check and the follow up of pregnancy seeking advice from our obstetricians.

Keywords: electronic health record, health personal record, mobile applications, pregnant women

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2202 Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle among Indonesian Pregnant Women with Hypertension

Authors: Yosi Maria Wijaya, Florisma Arista Riti Tegu

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension in pregnancy can be prevented by controlling the lifestyle. However, the majority of research on this topic has been conducted on lifestyle in women with normal pregnancy. Few studies of lifestyle have focused on Indonesian pregnant women with hypertension. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the association of demographic characteristics and the lifestyle of pregnant women who have hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 76 women with hypertension during pregnancy were recruited from primary health care, West Java, Indonesia. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≥ 28 weeks with the blood pressure systole ≥ 140 mmHg and diastole ≥ 90 mmHg. Data were collected using two instruments: demographic data and Health Promoting Life Style Profile (HPLP II). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistic and linear regression analysis. Results: The majority of participants were married, mean age was 27.96 years old (SD=6.77) with the mean of gestational age 33.21 (SD=3.49), most of them unemployed (94.7%) and more than a half participants have an education less than twelve years (59.2%). The total score of lifestyle was 2.44 (SD=0.34), more than a half participants experience unhealthy lifestyle (59.2%). Lifestyle was predicted by income, education years, occupation, and access to health care services, accounting for 20.8% of the total variance. Conclusion: Pregnant women with hypertension with low income, low level of education, non-occupational and hard to access health care services were related to unhealthy lifestyle. Understanding the lifestyle and associated factors contributes to health care providers ability to design effective interventions intended to improve healthy lifestyle among pregnant women with hypertension.

Keywords: demographic characteristics, hypertension, lifestyle, pregnancy

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2201 Depression among Pregnant Women with Husbands Abroad during the Pregnancy

Authors: Usama Bin Zubair, Syed Azhar Ali

Abstract:

Introduction: Depression is emerging as a major public health problem in all parts of the world. Developing countries have a unique socioeconomic structure that affects the lives of its inhabitants in several ways. Going abroad for employment is one of the common social problems which have been faced by young males in developing countries. This included both highly qualified individuals as well as the labor class. Objective: To determine the difference in the presence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women with husbands living abroad and those with husbands living with them in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: The sample population comprised of pregnant women reporting for an antenatal checkup at Amna hospital Rawalakot. Cases constituted the pregnant women with husbands living abroad while controls were the pregnant women with husbands living with them. Patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to record the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Age, gestation, parity, rural or urban origin, education, level of family income, daily contact hours on the telephone or what’s app, previous pregnancy loss or complications, number of years abroad and visits to home per year were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. Findings: The mean age of the study participants was 29.73 ±5.395 years. Sixty-six had significant depression in the case group, while 14 had in the control group (p-value<0.001). Education and rural background had a significant difference between the case and the control group. Less number of visits per year of the husband was strongly linked with the presence of depressive symptoms among the cases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with husbands abroad were found more prone to develop depressive symptoms as compared to those with husbands living with them. Special attention should be paid to the women whose husband had a lesser number of visits to the country.

Keywords: depression, pregnancy, lack of support, war zone

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2200 Diagnosing Depression during Pregnancy-Identifying Risk Factors of Prenatal Depression in Polish Women

Authors: Olga Plaza, Katarzyna Kosinska-Kaczynska, Stepan Feduniw, Dominika Pazdzior, Kinga Zebrowska, Katarzyna Kwiatkowska

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Introduction: The main causes of depression among pregnant women remain unclear. However, it is clear that pregnancy carries a higher risk of depression occurrence. Left untreated, prenatal depression can be a cause of serious both maternal and neonatal complications. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to define potential risk factors of prenatal depression and to assess the frequency of its occurrence among pregnant women. Material and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed among 346 women. The self- composed questionnaire consisting of 46 questions, was distributed via the Internet between November 2017 and March 2018. The questionnaire contained the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), in which the results of 13 and more points (out of 30) suggested possible prenatal depression. Statistical analysis was performed with Chi2 Pearson. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 37.57% (n=130) of women had a score of 13 or more points. Women with depressive symptoms (DS) reported lack of support from the partner (46.9% vs. 16.2%; p < 0.001) as well as other family members (40.8% vs. 14.4%; p < 0.001), current pregnancy being unplanned (21.5% vs. 12.5%; p=0.014) and low socio-economic status (10% vs. 0.9%; p < 0.001). Both early and advanced maternal age seemed to play a role in occurrence of DS: in women aged 17-24 40.8% declared symptoms (vs 28.7%; p < 0.01), in mothers aged ≥37 6.2% did (vs 0.5%; p < 0.001). Smoking during pregnancy was also more frequent among patients with DS (31.5% vs. 18.1%; p=0.004). Previous diagnosis of depression or other mood disorders significantly increased a chance of DS occurrence (respectively- 17.7% vs. 4.6%; p < 0.001 and 49.2% vs. 25%; p<0.001). Parental diagnosis of mood disorders and other mental disorders was also more frequent in this group of patients (respectively- 24.6% vs. 15.7%; p= 0.026 and 26.4% vs. 9.7%; p < 0.001). Only 23.8% of women with DS sought help from healthcare professionals, with 21.5% receiving pharmacological treatment. Conclusions: Pregnant women often report having DS. Evaluation of risk factors of DS and possible prenatal depression is essential in proper screening for depression among pregnant women.

Keywords: obstetrics, polish women, prenatal care, prenatal depression, risk factors

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2199 Pregnant Women in Substance Abuse: Transition of Characteristics and Mining of Association from Teds-a 2011 to 2018

Authors: Md Tareq Ferdous Khan, Shrabanti Mazumder, MB Rao

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Background: Substance use during pregnancy is a longstanding public health problem that results in severe consequences for pregnant women and fetuses. Methods: Eight (2011-2018) datasets on pregnant women’s admissions are extracted from TEDS-A. Distributions of sociodemographic, substance abuse behaviors, and clinical characteristics are constructed and compared over the years for trends by the Cochran-Armitage test. Market basket analysis is used in mining the association among polysubstance abuse. Results: Over the years, pregnant woman admissions as the percentage of total and female admissions remain stable, where total annual admissions range from 1.54 to about 2 million with the female share of 33.30% to 35.61%. Pregnant women aged 21-29, 12 or more years of education, white race, unemployed, holding independent living status are among the most vulnerable. Concerns prevail on a significant number of polysubstance users, young age at first use, frequency of daily users, and records of prior admissions (60%). Trends of abused primary substances show a significant rise in heroin (66%) and methamphetamine (46%) over the years, although the latest year shows a considerable downturn. On the other hand, significant decreasing patterns are evident for alcohol (43%), marijuana or hashish (24%), cocaine or crack (23%), other opiates or synthetics (36%), and benzodiazepines (29%). Basket analysis reveals some patterns of co-occurrence of substances consistent over the years. Conclusions: This comprehensive study can work as a reference to identify the most vulnerable groups based on their characteristics and deal with the most hazardous substances from their evidence of co-occurrence.

Keywords: basket analysis, pregnant women, substance abuse, trend analysis

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2198 Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in Women during the First Trimester of Pregnancy (Normal Pregnancy and Missed Miscarriage)

Authors: M. Yahia, N. Chaoui, A. Chaouch, Massinissa Yahia

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Our study was designed to determine the metabolic changes of some biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, Iron, uric acid, Urea and folic acid) and highlight their changes in 57 women of the region Batna, during the first trimester of pregnancy. This practical work was done with 27 women with missed miscarriage, compared with 30 control subjects of normal pregnant women. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference (P = 0.0006) between the two groups in serum iron (64.00 vs 93.54) and in the rate of folate (6.70 vs 9.22) (P <0.001) but no difference was found regarding the rate of Ca (9.69 vs 10.20), urea (0.19 vs 0.17), UA (33.96 vs 32.76), CH (1.283 vs 1.431), and TG (0.8852 vs 0.8290). The present study indicates that iron deficiency and folate are associated with missed miscarriage, but no direct pathophysiological link has been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which these deficits lead to a missed miscarriage.

Keywords: biochemical parameters, pregnant women, missed miscarriage, Algeria

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2197 Double Fortified Salt-An Effective Measure to Prevent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Indian Pregnant Women

Authors: Kejal Joshi Reddy, Sirimavo Nair

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Micronutrient malnutrition affects pregnant women and children extremely with reference to growth manifestations in gestation as well as after birth. Early fetal development affected by iodine and iron deficiency leads to poor life quality. Various researchers have found interesting interrelations between iron and iodine. A few studies on impact assessment of DFS supplementation during pregnancy have been reported in India. Aim To provide meaningful contribution by assessing the efficacy of DFS supplementation on iodine and iron status of pregnant women. Design An interventional study. Setting A semi government hospital of urban Vadodara. Subjects Pregnant women (n=150) enrolled during first trimester (< 12 weeks) and followed up till the end of gestation, n=75 were divided in experimental (DFS supplemented) and control (Non supplemented) group. Results Impact on iron and iodine status was assessed by Hb concentration and UIE respectively. Mean Hb improved significantly (p < 0.001) (+0.42 g/dl) in experimental group and reduced non significantly (-0.20 g/dl) in control group at the end, since DFS provided additional 93 mg of iron within 6 months. Median UIE improved non significantly (278.6 to 299.01µg/L) in experimental group and decreased significantly (p < 0.05) (376.59 to 288.66 µg/L) in control group. Conclusion DFS could improve iron and iodine status of experimental group compared to control group. It is an effective measure to control two essential micronutrient deficiencies together.

Keywords: DFS supplementation, anemia, pregnancy, iodine deficiency, iron

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2196 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

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Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: family planning, HIV, Malawi, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 449