Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 627

Search results for: weather

627 The Position of Space weather in Africa-Education and Outreach

Authors: Babagana Abubakar, Alhaji Kuya


Although the field of Space weather science is a young field among the space sciences, but yet history has it that activities related to this science began since the year 1859 when the great solar storm happened which resulted in the disruptions of telegraphs operations around the World at that particular time subsequently making it possible for the scientist Richard Carrington to be able to connect the Solar flare observed a day earlier before the great storm and the great deflection of the Earth’s Magnetic field (geometric storm) simultaneous with the telegraph disruption. However years later as at today with the advent of and the coming into existence of the Explorer 1, the Luna 1 and the establishments of the United States International Space Weather Program, International Geophysical Year (IGY) as well as the International Center for Space Weather Sciences and Education (ICSWSE) have made us understand the Space weather better and enable us well define the field of Space weather science. Despite the successes recorded in the development of Space sciences as a whole over the last century and the coming onboard of specialized bodies/programs on space weather like the International Space Weather Program and the ICSWSE, the majority of Africans including institutions, research organizations and even some governments are still ignorant about the existence of theSpace weather science,because apart from some very few countries like South Africa, Nigeria and Egypt among some few others the majority of the African nations and their academic institutions have no knowledge or idea about the existence of this field of Space science (Space weather).

Keywords: Africa, space, weather, education, science

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626 Forecasting the Temperature at a Weather Station Using Deep Neural Networks

Authors: Debneil Saha Roy


Weather forecasting is a complex topic and is well suited for analysis by deep learning approaches. With the wide availability of weather observation data nowadays, these approaches can be utilized to identify immediate comparisons between historical weather forecasts and current observations. This work explores the application of deep learning techniques to weather forecasting in order to accurately predict the weather over a given forecast hori­zon. Three deep neural networks are used in this study, namely, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Long Short Tunn Memory Network (LSTM) and a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and LSTM. The predictive performance of these models is compared using two evaluation metrics. The results show that forecasting accuracy increases with an increase in the complexity of deep neural networks.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, deep learning, long short term memory, multi-layer perceptron

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625 Pricing the Risk Associated to Weather of Variable Renewable Energy Generation

Authors: Jorge M. Uribe


We propose a methodology for setting the price of an insurance contract targeted to manage the risk associated with weather conditions that affect variable renewable energy generation. The methodology relies on conditional quantile regressions to estimate the weather risk of a solar panel. It is illustrated using real daily radiation and weather data for three cities in Spain (Valencia, Barcelona and Madrid) from February 2/2004 to January 22/2019. We also adapt the concepts of value at risk and expected short fall from finance to this context, to provide a complete panorama of what we label as weather risk. The methodology is easy to implement and can be used by insurance companies to price a contract with the aforementioned characteristics when data about similar projects and accurate cash flow projections are lacking. Our methodology assigns a higher price to an insurance product with the stated characteristics in Madrid, compared to Valencia and Barcelona. This is consistent with Madrid showing the largest interquartile range of operational deficits and it is unrelated to the average value deficit, which illustrates the importance of our proposal.

Keywords: insurance, weather, vre, risk

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624 Comparison of Power Generation Status of Photovoltaic Systems under Different Weather Conditions

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Qinqin Cui, Xingwan Ren


Based on multivariate statistical analysis theory, this paper uses the principal component analysis method, Mahalanobis distance analysis method and fitting method to establish the photovoltaic health model to evaluate the health of photovoltaic panels. First of all, according to weather conditions, the photovoltaic panel variable data are classified into five categories: sunny, cloudy, rainy, foggy, overcast. The health of photovoltaic panels in these five types of weather is studied. Secondly, a scatterplot of the relationship between the amount of electricity produced by each kind of weather and other variables was plotted. It was found that the amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels has a significant nonlinear relationship with time. The fitting method was used to fit the relationship between the amount of weather generated and the time, and the nonlinear equation was obtained. Then, using the principal component analysis method to analyze the independent variables under five kinds of weather conditions, according to the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, it was found that three types of weather such as overcast, foggy, and sunny meet the conditions for factor analysis, while cloudy and rainy weather do not satisfy the conditions for factor analysis. Therefore, through the principal component analysis method, the main components of overcast weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. The main component of foggy weather is temperature, and the main components of sunny weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. Cloudy and rainy weather require analysis of all of their variables, namely temperature, AQI, pm2.5, solar radiation intensity and time. Finally, taking the variable values in sunny weather as observed values, taking the main components of cloudy, foggy, overcast and rainy weather as sample data, the Mahalanobis distances between observed value and these sample values are obtained. A comparative analysis was carried out to compare the degree of deviation of the Mahalanobis distance to determine the health of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions. It was found that the weather conditions in which the Mahalanobis distance fluctuations ranged from small to large were: foggy, cloudy, overcast and rainy.

Keywords: fitting, principal component analysis, Mahalanobis distance, SPSS, MATLAB

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623 Performance of Photovoltaic Thermal Greenhouse Dryer in Composite Climate of India

Authors: G. N. Tiwari, Shyam


Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) roof type greenhouse dryer installed above the wind tower of SODHA BERS COMPLEX, Varanasi has been analyzed for all types of weather conditions. The product to be dried has been kept at three different trays. The upper tray receives energy from the PV cover while the bottom tray receives thermal energy from the hot air of the wind tower. The annual energy estimation has been done for the all types of weather condition of composite climate of northern India. It has been found that maximum energy saving is observed for c type of weather condition whereas minimum energy saving is observed for a type of weather condition. The energy saving on overall thermal energy basis and exergy basis are 1206.8 kWh and 360 kWh respectively for c type of weather condition. The energy saving from all types of weather condition are found to be 3175.3 kWh and 957.6 kWh on overall thermal energy and overall exergy basis respectively.

Keywords: exergy, greenhouse, photovoltaic thermal, solar dryer

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622 Validation of Visibility Data from Road Weather Information Systems by Comparing Three Data Resources: Case Study in Ohio

Authors: Fan Ye


Adverse weather conditions, particularly those with low visibility, are critical to the driving tasks. However, the direct relationship between visibility distances and traffic flow/roadway safety is uncertain due to the limitation of visibility data availability. The recent growth of deployment of Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) makes segment-specific visibility information available which can be integrated with other Intelligent Transportation System, such as automated warning system and variable speed limit, to improve mobility and safety. Before applying the RWIS visibility measurements in traffic study and operations, it is critical to validate the data. Therefore, an attempt was made in the paper to examine the validity and viability of RWIS visibility data by comparing visibility measurements among RWIS, airport weather stations, and weather information recorded by police in crash reports, based on Ohio data. The results indicated that RWIS visibility measurements were significantly different from airport visibility data in Ohio, but no conclusion regarding the reliability of RWIS visibility could be drawn in the consideration of no verified ground truth in the comparisons. It was suggested that more objective methods are needed to validate the RWIS visibility measurements, such as continuous in-field measurements associated with various weather events using calibrated visibility sensors.

Keywords: RWIS, visibility distance, low visibility, adverse weather

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621 Explicit Numerical Approximations for a Pricing Weather Derivatives Model

Authors: Clarinda V. Nhangumbe, Ercília Sousa


Weather Derivatives are financial instruments used to cover non-catastrophic weather events and can be expressed in the form of standard or plain vanilla products, structured or exotics products. The underlying asset, in this case, is the weather index, such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind, and snowfall. The complexity of the Weather Derivatives structure shows the weakness of the Black Scholes framework. Therefore, under the risk-neutral probability measure, the option price of a weather contract can be given as a unique solution of a two-dimensional partial differential equation (parabolic in one direction and hyperbolic in other directions), with an initial condition and subjected to adequate boundary conditions. To calculate the price of the option, one can use numerical methods such as the Monte Carlo simulations and implicit finite difference schemes conjugated with Semi-Lagrangian methods. This paper is proposed two explicit methods, namely, first-order upwind in the hyperbolic direction combined with Lax-Wendroff in the parabolic direction and first-order upwind in the hyperbolic direction combined with second-order upwind in the parabolic direction. One of the advantages of these methods is the fact that they take into consideration the boundary conditions obtained from the financial interpretation and deal efficiently with the different choices of the convection coefficients.

Keywords: incomplete markets, numerical methods, partial differential equations, stochastic process, weather derivatives

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620 Application of Bayesian Model Averaging and Geostatistical Output Perturbation to Generate Calibrated Ensemble Weather Forecast

Authors: Muhammad Luthfi, Sutikno Sutikno, Purhadi Purhadi


Weather forecast has necessarily been improved to provide the communities an accurate and objective prediction as well. To overcome such issue, the numerical-based weather forecast was extensively developed to reduce the subjectivity of forecast. Yet the Numerical Weather Predictions (NWPs) outputs are unfortunately issued without taking dynamical weather behavior and local terrain features into account. Thus, NWPs outputs are not able to accurately forecast the weather quantities, particularly for medium and long range forecast. The aim of this research is to aid and extend the development of ensemble forecast for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency of Indonesia. Ensemble method is an approach combining various deterministic forecast to produce more reliable one. However, such forecast is biased and uncalibrated due to its underdispersive or overdispersive nature. As one of the parametric methods, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) generates the calibrated ensemble forecast and constructs predictive PDF for specified period. Such method is able to utilize ensemble of any size but does not take spatial correlation into account. Whereas space dependencies involve the site of interest and nearby site, influenced by dynamic weather behavior. Meanwhile, Geostatistical Output Perturbation (GOP) reckons the spatial correlation to generate future weather quantities, though merely built by a single deterministic forecast, and is able to generate an ensemble of any size as well. This research conducts both BMA and GOP to generate the calibrated ensemble forecast for the daily temperature at few meteorological sites nearby Indonesia international airport.

Keywords: Bayesian Model Averaging, ensemble forecast, geostatistical output perturbation, numerical weather prediction, temperature

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619 Impact of Weather Conditions on Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing over Gamma Gamma Channel

Authors: Muhammad Sameer Ahmed, Piotr Remlein, Tansal Gucluoglu


The technique called as Generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) used in the free space optical channel can be a good option for implementation free space optical communication systems. This technique has several strengths e.g. good spectral efficiency, low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), adaptability and low co-channel interference. In this paper, the impact of weather conditions such as haze, rain and fog on GFDM over the gamma-gamma channel model is discussed. A Trade off between link distance and system performance under intense weather conditions is also analysed. The symbol error probability (SEP) of GFDM over the gamma-gamma turbulence channel is derived and verified with the computer simulations.

Keywords: free space optics, generalized frequency division multiplexing, weather conditions, gamma gamma distribution

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618 The Role of Temporary Migration as Coping Mechanism of Weather Shock: Evidence from Selected Semi-Arid Tropic Villages in India

Authors: Kalandi Charan Pradhan


In this study, we investigate does weather variation determine temporary labour migration using 210 sample households from six Semi-Arid Tropic (SAT) villages for the period of 2005-2014 in India. The study has made an attempt to examine how households use temporary labour migration as a coping mechanism to minimise the risk rather than maximize the utility of the households. The study employs panel Logit regression model to predict the probability of household having at least one temporary labour migrant. As per as econometrics result, it is found that along with demographic and socioeconomic factors; weather variation plays an important role to determine the decision of migration at household level. In order to capture the weather variation, the study uses mean crop yield deviation over the study periods. Based on the random effect logit regression result, the study found that there is a concave relationship between weather variation and decision of temporary labour migration. This argument supports the theory of New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM), which highlights the decision of labour migration not only maximise the households’ utility but it helps to minimise the risks.

Keywords: temporary migration, socioeconomic factors, weather variation, crop yield, logit estimation

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617 Solar Radiation Calculations Using the Territorial Climatological Measurements in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province for Solar Energy Potential

Authors: Clement Matasane, John O. Odiyo


Determining the solar radiation for the use of energy generation involves number of procedures and calculations using the climatological weather data measurements. The study was conducted within the Vhembe District area through 9 installed Weather Stations (WS) by the South African Weather Bureau Stations (SAWS). The paper contributes to the overall main project on renewable (i.e. solar, wind, biomass/biogas and hydro) energy assessment for their potentials in electricity generating at small micro scale in the district. The weather data was obtained from January to December 2015. The report determines the minimum and maximum solar radiation equations associated with the local temperature range in accommodating the theoretical bases and its time period changes. These equations are the most important parameters in calculating the solar energy radiation to the area in determining its direct extraterrestrial solar radiation per day/ weekly/ monthly and annual periods. The solar radiations measurements are demonstrated with the use of web-based RETScreen and SOLPOS software analysis in specified area. This provided calculations in which territorial solar energy were determined through climatic conditions and analysis found to be usable.

Keywords: solar energy radiation, climatological weather data measurement, extraterrestrial radiation, territorial solar energy and sunshine duration

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616 Environmental Effects on Energy Consumption of Smart Grid Consumers

Authors: S. M. Ali, A. Salam Khan, A. U. Khan, M. Tariq, M. S. Hussain, B. A. Abbasi, I. Hussain, U. Farid


Environment and surrounding plays a pivotal rule in structuring life-style of the consumers. Living standards intern effect the energy consumption of the consumers. In smart grid paradigm, climate drifts, weather parameter and green environmental directly relates to the energy profiles of the various consumers, such as residential, commercial and industrial. Considering above factors helps policy in shaping utility load curves and optimal management of demand and supply. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop correlation models of load and weather parameters and critical analysis of the factors effecting energy profiles of smart grid consumers. In this paper, we elaborated various environment and weather parameter factors effecting demand of consumers. Moreover, we developed correlation models, such as Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, an inter-relation between dependent (load) parameter and independent (weather) parameters. Furthermore, we validated our discussion with real-time data of Texas State. The numerical simulations proved the effective relation of climatic drifts with energy consumption of smart grid consumers.

Keywords: climatic drifts, correlation analysis, energy consumption, smart grid, weather parameter

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615 Development of a Wind Resource Assessment Framework Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Python Scripting and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Jerome T. Tolentino, Ma. Victoria Rejuso, Jara Kaye Villanueva, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang


Wind energy is rapidly emerging as the primary source of electricity in the Philippines, although developing an accurate wind resource model is difficult. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, an open source mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, was used to produce a 1-year atmospheric simulation with 4 km resolution on the Ilocos Region of the Philippines. The WRF output (netCDF) extracts the annual mean wind speed data using a Python-based Graphical User Interface. Lastly, wind resource assessment was produced using a GIS software. Results of the study showed that it is more flexible to use Python scripts than using other post-processing tools in dealing with netCDF files. Using WRF Model, Python, and Geographic Information Systems, a reliable wind resource map is produced.

Keywords: wind resource assessment, weather research and forecasting (WRF) model, python, GIS software

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614 Desert Houses of the Past: Green Buildings of Today

Authors: Baharak Shakeri, Seyed Hashem Hosseini


The weather in deserts is hot and dry in summers, and cold and dry in winters, and difference of temperature of nights and days sometimes reaches to 28°C. People of deserts have reached some solutions to cope with this climatic condition and to decrease its annoying features. Among these solutions are: constructing houses adjacent to each other, making tall walls, using mud brick and thatch cover, constructing domical arches, cellar, and wind catcher, which are together the devices to control the adversity of hot weather in summers and cold weather in winters. Using these solutions, the people of deserts have succeeded to make the best use with the least energy consumption, and to minimize the damage on the nature and environment, and in short, they are friends of the nature, which is a step toward the objectives of green buildings.

Keywords: desert house, green building, Iran, nature

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613 Producing Outdoor Design Conditions based on the Dependency between Meteorological Elements: Copula Approach

Authors: Zhichao Jiao, Craig Farnham, Jihui Yuan, Kazuo Emura


It is common to use the outdoor design weather data to select the air-conditioning capacity in the building design stage. The outdoor design weather data are usually comprised of multiple meteorological elements for a 24-hour period separately, but the dependency between the elements is not well considered, which may cause an overestimation of selecting air-conditioning capacity. Considering the dependency between the air temperature and global solar radiation, we used the copula approach to model the joint distributions of those two weather elements and suggest a new method of selecting more credible outdoor design conditions based on the specific simultaneous occurrence probability of air temperature and global solar radiation. In this paper, the 10-year period hourly weather data from 2001 to 2010 in Osaka, Japan, was used to analyze the dependency structure and joint distribution, the result shows that the Joe-Frank copula fit for almost all hourly data. According to calculating the simultaneous occurrence probability and the common exceeding probability of air temperature and global solar radiation, the results have shown that the maximum difference in design air temperature and global solar radiation of the day is about 2 degrees Celsius and 30W/m2, respectively.

Keywords: energy conservation, design weather database, HVAC, copula approach

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612 Statistical Scientific Investigation of Popular Cultural Heritage in the Relationship between Astronomy and Weather Conditions in the State of Kuwait

Authors: Ahmed M. AlHasem


The Kuwaiti society has long been aware of climatic changes and their annual dates and trying to link them to astronomy in an attempt to forecast the future weather conditions. The reason for this concern is that many of the economic, social and living activities of the society depend deeply on the nature of the weather conditions directly and indirectly. In other words, Kuwaiti society, like the case of many human societies, has in the past tried to predict climatic conditions by linking them to astronomy or popular statements to indicate the timing of climate changes. Accordingly, this study was devoted to scientific investigation based on the statistical analysis of climatic data to show the accuracy and compatibility of some of the most important elements of the cultural heritage in relation to climate change and to relate it scientifically to precise climatic measurements for decades. The research has been divided into 10 topics, each topic has been focused on one legacy, whether by linking climate changes to the appearance/disappearance of star or a popular statement inherited through generations, through explain the nature and timing and thereby statistical analysis to indicate the proportion of accuracy based on official climatic data since 1962. The study's conclusion is that the relationship is weak and, in some cases, non-existent between the popular heritage and the actual climatic data. Therefore, it does not have a dependable relationship and a reliable scientific prediction between both the popular heritage and the forecast of weather conditions.

Keywords: astronomy, cultural heritage, statistical analysis, weather prediction

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611 Assessing Missouri State Park Employee Perceptions of Vulnerability and Resilience to Extreme Weather Events

Authors: Ojetunde Ojewola, Mark Morgan, Sonja Wilhelm-Stanis


State parks and historic sites are vulnerable to extreme weather events which can affect visitor experiences, management priorities, and legislative requests for disaster relief funds. Recently, global attention has been focused on the perceptions of global warming and how the presence of extreme weather events might impact protected areas, both now and in the future. The effects of climate change are not equally distributed across the United States, leading to varied perceptions based on personal experience with extreme weather events. This study describes employee perceptions of vulnerability and resilience in Missouri State Parks & Historic Sites due to extreme weather events that occur across the state but grouped according to physiographic provinces. Using a four-point rating scale, perceptions of vulnerability and resilience were divided into high and low sub-groups, thus allowing researchers to construct a two by two typology of employee responses. Subsequently, this data was used to develop a three-point continuum of environmental concern (higher scores meant more concern). Employee scores were then compared against a statewide assessment which combined social, economic, infrastructural and environmental indicators of vulnerability and resilience. State park employees thought the system was less vulnerable and more resilient to climate change than data found in statewide assessment This result was also consistent in three out of five physiographic regions across Missouri. Implications suggest that Missouri state park should develop a climate change adaptation strategy for emergency preparedness.

Keywords: extreme weather events, resilience, state parks, vulnerability

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610 Development of Typical Meteorological Year for Passive Cooling Applications Using World Weather Data

Authors: Nasser A. Al-Azri


The effectiveness of passive cooling techniques is assessed based on bioclimatic charts that require the typical meteorological year (TMY) for a specified location for their development. However, TMYs are not always available; mainly due to the scarcity of records of solar radiation which is an essential component used in developing common TMYs intended for general uses. Since solar radiation is not required in the development of the bioclimatic chart, this work suggests developing TMYs based solely on the relevant parameters. This approach improves the accuracy of the developed TMY since only the relevant parameters are considered and it also makes the development of the TMY more accessible since solar radiation data are not used. The presented paper will also discuss the development of the TMY from the raw data available at the NOAA-NCDC archive of world weather data and the construction of the bioclimatic charts for some randomly selected locations around the world.

Keywords: bioclimatic charts, passive cooling, TMY, weather data

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609 Hourly Solar Radiations Predictions for Anticipatory Control of Electrically Heated Floor: Use of Online Weather Conditions Forecast

Authors: Helene Thieblemont, Fariborz Haghighat


Energy storage systems play a crucial role in decreasing building energy consumption during peak periods and expand the use of renewable energies in buildings. To provide a high building thermal performance, the energy storage system has to be properly controlled to insure a good energy performance while maintaining a satisfactory thermal comfort for building’s occupant. In the case of passive discharge storages, defining in advance the required amount of energy is required to avoid overheating in the building. Consequently, anticipatory supervisory control strategies have been developed forecasting future energy demand and production to coordinate systems. Anticipatory supervisory control strategies are based on some predictions, mainly of the weather forecast. However, if the forecasted hourly outdoor temperature may be found online with a high accuracy, solar radiations predictions are most of the time not available online. To estimate them, this paper proposes an advanced approach based on the forecast of weather conditions. Several methods to correlate hourly weather conditions forecast to real hourly solar radiations are compared. Results show that using weather conditions forecast allows estimating with an acceptable accuracy solar radiations of the next day. Moreover, this technique allows obtaining hourly data that may be used for building models. As a result, this solar radiation prediction model may help to implement model-based controller as Model Predictive Control.

Keywords: anticipatory control, model predictive control, solar radiation forecast, thermal storage

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608 An ALM Matrix Completion Algorithm for Recovering Weather Monitoring Data

Authors: Yuqing Chen, Ying Xu, Renfa Li


The development of matrix completion theory provides new approaches for data gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The existing matrix completion algorithms for WSN mainly consider how to reduce the sampling number without considering the real-time performance when recovering the data matrix. In order to guarantee the recovery accuracy and reduce the recovery time consumed simultaneously, we propose a new ALM algorithm to recover the weather monitoring data. A lot of experiments have been carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed ALM algorithm by using different parameter settings, different sampling rates and sampling models. In addition, we compare the proposed ALM algorithm with some existing algorithms in the literature. Experimental results show that the ALM algorithm can obtain better overall recovery accuracy with less computing time, which demonstrate that the ALM algorithm is an effective and efficient approach for recovering the real world weather monitoring data in WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, matrix completion, singular value thresholding, augmented Lagrange multiplier

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607 The Impact of Heat Waves on Human Health: State of Art in Italy

Authors: Vito Telesca, Giuseppina A. Giorgio


The earth system is subject to a wide range of human activities that have changed the ecosystem more rapidly and extensively in the last five decades. These global changes have a large impact on human health. The relationship between extreme weather events and mortality are widely documented in different studies. In particular, a number of studies have investigated the relationship between climatological variations and the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The researchers have become interested in the evaluation of the effect of environmental variations on the occurrence of different diseases (such as infarction, ischemic heart disease, asthma, respiratory problems, etc.) and mortality. Among changes in weather conditions, the heat waves have been used for investigating the association between weather conditions and cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular, using thermal indices, which combine air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The effects of heat waves on human health are mainly found in the urban areas and they are aggravated by the presence of atmospheric pollution. The consequences of these changes for human health are of growing concern. In particular, meteorological conditions are one of the environmental aspects because cardiovascular diseases are more common among the elderly population, and such people are more sensitive to weather changes. In addition, heat waves, or extreme heat events, are predicted to increase in frequency, intensity, and duration with climate change. In this context, are very important public health and climate change connections increasingly being recognized by the medical research, because these might help in informing the public at large. Policy experts claim that a growing awareness of the relationships of public health and climate change could be a key in breaking through political logjams impeding action on mitigation and adaptation. The aims of this study are to investigate about the importance of interactions between weather variables and your effects on human health, focusing on Italy. Also highlighting the need to define strategies and practical actions of monitoring, adaptation and mitigation of the phenomenon.

Keywords: climate change, illness, Italy, temperature, weather

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606 The Effect of Annual Weather and Sowing Date on Different Genotype of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Germination and Yield

Authors: Ákos Tótin


In crop production the most modern hybrids are available for us, therefore the yield and yield stability is determined by the agro-technology. The purpose of the experiment is to adapt the modern agrotechnology to the new type of hybrids. The long-term experiment was set up in 2015-2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The plots were set up in 75 thousand ha-1 plant density. We examined some mainly use hybrids of Hungary. The conducted studies are: germination dynamic, growing dynamic and the effect of annual weather for the yield. We use three different sowing date as early, average and late, and measure how many plant germinated during the germination process. In the experiment, we observed the germination dynamics in 6 hybrid in 4 replication. In each replication, we counted the germinated plants in 2m long 2 row wide area. Data will be shown in the average of the 6 hybrid and 4 replication. Growing dynamics were measured from the 10cm (4-6 leaf) plant highness. We measured 10 plants’ height in two weeks replication. The yield was measured buy a special plot harvester - the Sampo Rosenlew 2010 – what measured the weight of the harvested plot and also took a sample from it. We determined the water content of the samples for the water release dynamics. After it, we calculated the yield (t/ha) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them. We evaluated the data using Microsoft Excel 2015. The annual weather in each crop year define the maize germination dynamics because the amount of heat is determinative for the plants. In cooler crop year the weather is prolonged the germination. At the 2015 crop year the weather was cold in the beginning what prolonged the first sowing germination. But the second and third sowing germinated faster. In the 2016 crop year the weather was much favorable for plants so the first sowing germinated faster than in the previous year. After it the weather cooled down, therefore the second and third sowing germinated slower than the last year. The statistical data analysis program determined that there is a significant difference between the early and late sowing date growing dynamics. In 2015 the first sowing date had the highest amount of yield. The second biggest yield was in the average sowing time. The late sowing date has lowest amount of yield.

Keywords: germination, maize, sowing date, yield

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605 Application of Forward Contract and Crop Insurance as Risk Management Tools of Agriculture: A Case Study in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Bokhtiar Hasan, M. Delowar Hossain, Abu N. M. Wahid


The principal aim of the study is to find out a way to effectively manage the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather risks, and fund shortage. To hedge price volatility, farmers sometimes make contracts with agro-traders but fail to protect themselves effectively due to not having legal framework for such contracts. The study extensively reviews existing literature and find evidence that the majority studies either deal with price volatility or weather risks. If we could address these risks through a single model, it would be more useful to both the farmers and traders. Intrinsically, the authors endeavor in this regard, and the key contribution of this study basically lies in it. Initially, we conduct a small survey aspiring to identify the shortcomings of existing contracts. Later, we propose a model encompassing forward and insurance contracts together where forward contract will be used to hedge price volatility and insurance contract will be used to protect weather risks. Contribution/Originality: The study adds to the existing literature through proposing an integrated model comprising of forward contract and crop insurance which will support both farmers and traders to cope with the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather hazards, and fund shortage. JEL Classifications: O13, Q13

Keywords: agriculture, forward contract, insurance contract, risk management, model

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604 Analysis of Weather Radar Data for the Cloud Seeding in Korea, 2018

Authors: Yonghun Ro, Joo-Wan Cha, Sanghee Chae, Areum Ko, Woonseon Jung, Jong-Chul Ha


National Institute of Meteorological Science (NIMS) in South Korea has performed the cloud seeding to support the field of cloud physics. This is to determine the precipitation occurrence analyzing the changes in the microphysical schemes of clouds. NIMS conducted 12 times of cloud seeding in the lower height of the troposphere at Kangwon and Kyunggi provinces throughout 2018. The change in the reflectivity of the weather radar was analyzed to verify the enhancement of precipitation according to the cloud seeding in this study. First, the natural system in the near of the target area was separated to clear the seeding effect. The radar reflectivity in the point of ground gauge station was extracted in every 10 minutes and the increased values during the reaction time of cloud particles and seeding materials were estimated as a seeding effect considering the cloud temperature, wind speed and direction, and seeding line that the aircraft had passed by. The radar reflectivity affected by seeding materials was showed an increment of 5 to 10 dBZ, and enhanced precipitation cloud was also detected in the 11 cases of cloud seeding experiments.

Keywords: cloud seeding, reflectivity, weather radar, seeding effect

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603 Predicting Photovoltaic Energy Profile of Birzeit University Campus Based on Weather Forecast

Authors: Muhammad Abu-Khaizaran, Ahmad Faza’, Tariq Othman, Yahia Yousef


This paper presents a study to provide sufficient and reliable information about constructing a Photovoltaic energy profile of the Birzeit University campus (BZU) based on the weather forecast. The developed Photovoltaic energy profile helps to predict the energy yield of the Photovoltaic systems based on the weather forecast and hence helps planning energy production and consumption. Two models will be developed in this paper; a Clear Sky Irradiance model and a Cloud-Cover Radiation model to predict the irradiance for a clear sky day and a cloudy day, respectively. The adopted procedure for developing such models takes into consideration two levels of abstraction. First, irradiance and weather data were acquired by a sensory (measurement) system installed on the rooftop of the Information Technology College building at Birzeit University campus. Second, power readings of a fully operational 51kW commercial Photovoltaic system installed in the University at the rooftop of the adjacent College of Pharmacy-Nursing and Health Professions building are used to validate the output of a simulation model and to help refine its structure. Based on a comparison between a mathematical model, which calculates Clear Sky Irradiance for the University location and two sets of accumulated measured data, it is found that the simulation system offers an accurate resemblance to the installed PV power station on clear sky days. However, these comparisons show a divergence between the expected energy yield and actual energy yield in extreme weather conditions, including clouding and soiling effects. Therefore, a more accurate prediction model for irradiance that takes into consideration weather factors, such as relative humidity and cloudiness, which affect irradiance, was developed; Cloud-Cover Radiation Model (CRM). The equivalent mathematical formulas implement corrections to provide more accurate inputs to the simulation system. The results of the CRM show a very good match with the actual measured irradiance during a cloudy day. The developed Photovoltaic profile helps in predicting the output energy yield of the Photovoltaic system installed at the University campus based on the predicted weather conditions. The simulation and practical results for both models are in a very good match.

Keywords: clear-sky irradiance model, cloud-cover radiation model, photovoltaic, weather forecast

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602 Contributions of Natural and Human Activities to Urban Surface Runoff with Different Hydrological Scenarios (Orléans, France)

Authors: Al-Juhaishi Mohammed, Mikael Motelica-Heino, Fabrice Muller, Audrey Guirimand-Dufour, Christian Défarge


This study aims at improving the urban hydrological cycle of the Orléans agglomeration (France) and understanding the relationship between physical and chemical parameters of urban surface runoff and the hydrological conditions. In particular water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major dissolved cations and anions, and chemical and biological oxygen demands were monitored for three types of urban water discharges (wastewater treatment plant output (WWTP), storm overflow and stormwater outfall) under two hydrologic scenarii (dry and wet weather). The first results were obtained over a period of five months.Each investigated (Ormes and l’Egoutier) outfall represents an urban runoff source that receives water from runoff roads, gutters, the irrigation of gardens and other sources of flow over the Earth’s surface that drains in its catchments and carries it to the Loire River. In wet weather conditions there is rain water runoff and an additional input from the roof gutters that have entered the stormwater system during rainfall. For the comparison the results La Chilesse is a storm overflow that was selected in our study as a potential source of waste water which is located before the (WWTP).The comparison of the physical-chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), concentration of major cations and anions) together with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) helped to characterize sources of runoff waters in the different watersheds. It also helped to highlight the infiltration of wastewater in some stormwater systems that reject directly in the Loire River. The values of the conductivity measured in the outflow of Ormes were always higher than those measured in the other two outlets. The results showed a temporal variation for the Ormes outfall of conductivity from 1465 µS cm-1 in the dry weather flow to 650 µS cm-1 in the wet weather flow and also a spatial variation in the wet weather flow from 650 µS cm-1 in the Ormes outfall to 281 μS cm-1 in L’Egouttier outfall. The ultimate BOD (BOD28) showed a significant decrease in La Corne outfall from 210 mg L-1 in the wet weather flow to 75 mg L-1 in the dry weather flow because of the nutrient load that was transported by the runoff.

Keywords: BOD, COD, the Loire River, urban hydrology, urban dry and wet weather discharges, macronutrients

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601 Effectiveness of Weather Index Insurance for Smallholders in Ethiopia

Authors: Federica Di Marcantonio, Antoine Leblois, Wolfgang Göbel, Hervè Kerdiles


Weather-related shocks can threaten the ability of farmers to maintain their agricultural output and food security levels. Informal coping mechanisms (i.e. migration or community risk sharing) have always played a significant role in mitigating the negative effects of weather-related shocks in Ethiopia, but they have been found to be an incomplete strategy, particularly as a response to covariate shocks. Particularly, as an alternative to the traditional risk pooling products, an innovative form of insurance known as Index-based Insurance has received a lot of attention from researchers and international organizations, leading to an increased number of pilot initiatives in many countries. Despite the potential benefit of the product in protecting the livelihoods of farmers and pastoralists against climate shocks, to date there has been an unexpectedly low uptake. Using information from current pilot projects on index-based insurance in Ethiopia, this paper discusses the determinants of uptake that have so far undermined the scaling-up of the products, by focusing in particular on weather data availability, price affordability and willingness to pay. We found that, aside from data constraint issues, high price elasticity and low willingness to pay represent impediments to the development of the market. These results, bring us to rethink the role of index insurance as products for enhancing smallholders’ response to covariate shocks, and particularly for improving their food security.

Keywords: index-based insurance, willingness to pay, satellite information, Ethiopia

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600 Lessons from Nature: Defensive Designs for the Built Environment

Authors: Rebecca A. Deek


There is evidence that erratic and extreme weather is becoming a common occurrence, and even predictions that this will become even more frequent and more severe. It also appears that the severity of earthquakes is intensifying. Some observers believe that human conduct has given reasons for such change; others attribute this to environmental and geological cycles. However, as some physicists, environmental scientists, politicians, and others continue to debate the connection between weather events, seismic activities, and climate change, other scientists, engineers, and urban planners are exploring how can our habitat become more responsive and resilient to such phenomena. There are a number of recent instances of nature’s destructive events that provide basis for the development of defensive measures.

Keywords: biomimicry, natural disasters, protection of human lives, resilient infrastructures

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599 The Impact of Vertical Velocity Parameter Conditions and Its Relationship with Weather Parameters in the Hail Event

Authors: Nadine Ayasha


Hail happened in Sukabumi (August 23, 2020), Sekadau (August 22, 2020), and Bogor (September 23, 2020), where this extreme weather phenomenon occurred in the dry season. This study uses the ERA5 reanalysis model data, it aims to examine the vertical velocity impact on the hail occurrence in the dry season, as well as its relation to other weather parameters such as relative humidity, streamline, and wind velocity. Moreover, HCAI product satellite data is used as supporting data for the convective cloud development analysis. Based on the results of graphs, contours, and Hovmoller vertical cut from ERA5 modeling, the vertical velocity values in the 925 Mb-300 Mb layer in Sukabumi, Sekadau, and Bogor before the hail event ranged between -1.2-(-0.2), -1.5-(-0.2), -1-0 Pa/s. A negative value indicates that there is an upward motion from the air mass that trigger the convective cloud growth, which produces hail. It is evidenced by the presence of Cumulonimbus cloud on HCAI product when the hail falls. Therefore, the vertical velocity has significant effect on the hail event. In addition, the relative humidity in the 850-700 Mb layer is quite wet, which ranges from 80-90%. Meanwhile, the streamline and wind velocity in the three regions show the convergence with slowing wind velocity ranging from 2-4 knots. These results show that the upward motion of the vertical velocity is enough to form the wet atmospheric humidity and form a convergence for the growth of the convective cloud, which produce hail in the dry season.

Keywords: hail, extreme weather, vertical velocity, relative humidity, streamline

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598 Rainstorm Characteristics over the Northeastern Region of Thailand: Weather Radar Analysis

Authors: P. Intaracharoen, P. Chantraket, C. Detyothin, S. Kirtsaeng


Radar reflectivity data from Phimai weather radar station of DRRAA (Department of Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation) were used to analyzed the rainstorm characteristics via Thunderstorm Identification Tracking Analysis and Nowcasting (TITAN) algorithm. The Phimai weather radar station was situated at Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand. The data from 277 days of rainstorm events occurring from May 2016 to May 2017 were used to investigate temporal distribution characteristics of convective individual rainclouds. The important storm properties, structures, and their behaviors were analyzed by 9 variables as storm number, storm duration, storm volume, storm area, storm top, storm base, storm speed, storm orientation, and maximum storm reflectivity. The rainstorm characteristics were also examined by separating the data into two periods as wet and dry season followed by an announcement of TMD (Thai Meteorological Department), under the influence of southwest monsoon (SWM) and northeast monsoon (NEM). According to the characteristics of rainstorm results, it can be seen that rainstorms during the SWM influence were found to be the most potential rainstorms over northeastern region of Thailand. The SWM rainstorms are larger number of the storm (404, 140 no./day), storm area (34.09, 26.79 km²) and storm volume (95.43, 66.97 km³) than NEM rainstorms, respectively. For the storm duration, the average individual storm duration during the SWM and NEM was found a minor difference in both periods (47.6, 48.38 min) and almost all storm duration in both periods were less than 3 hours. The storm velocity was not exceeding 15 km/hr (13.34 km/hr for SWM and 10.67 km/hr for NEM). For the rainstorm reflectivity, it was found a little difference between wet and dry season (43.08 dBz for SWM and 43.72 dBz for NEM). It assumed that rainstorms occurred in both seasons have same raindrop size.

Keywords: rainstorm characteristics, weather radar, TITAN, Northeastern Thailand

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