Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 766

Search results for: wordless picture books

766 Preschool Story Retelling: Actions and Verb Use

Authors: Eva Nwokah, Casey Taliancich-Klinger, Lauren Luna, Sarah Rodriguez


Story-retelling is a technique frequently used to assess children’s language skills and support their development of narratives. Fourteen preschool children listened to one of two stories from the wordless, illustrated Frog book series and then retold the story using the pictures. A comparison of three verb types (action, mental and other) in the original story model, and children's verb use in their retold stories revealed the salience of action events. The children's stories contained a similar proportion of verb types to the original story. However, the action verbs they used were rarely those they had heard in the original. The implications for the process of lexical encoding and narrative recall are discussed, as well as suggestions for the use of wordless picture books and the language teaching of new verbs.

Keywords: story re-telling, verb use, preschool language, wordless picture books

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765 Identifying Children at Risk for Specific Language Impairment Using a Wordless Picture Narrative: A Study on Hindi, an Indian Language

Authors: Yozna Gurung


This paper presents preliminary findings from an on-going study on the use of Internal State Terms (IST) in the production of narratives of Hindi-English bilinguals in an attempt to identify children at risk for Specific Language Impairment. Narratives were examined for macrostructure (story structure and story complexity) and internal state terms or mental state terms (IST/MST). 31 students generated stories based on six pictures that were matched for content and story structure in L1 (Hindi) and L2 (English) using a wordless picture narrative. From 30 sample population, 2 students are at risk of Specific Language Impairment, according to this study i.e 6.45%. They showed least development in story grammar as well as IST in both their languages.

Keywords: internal state terms, macrostructure, specific language impairment, wordless picture narrative

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764 Systems Approach to Design and Production of Picture Books for the Pre-Primary Classes to Attain Educational Goals in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Azeez Ayodele Ayodele


This paper investigated the problem of picture books design and the quality of the pictures in picture books. The research surveyed nursery and primary schools in four major cities in southwest of Nigeria. The instruments including the descriptive survey questionnaire and a structured interview were developed, validated and administered for collection of relevant data. Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the data. The result of the study revealed that there were poor quality of pictures in picture books and this is due to scarcity of trained graphic designers who understand systems approach to picture books design and production. There is thus a need for more qualified graphic designers, given in-service professional training as well as a refresher course as criteria for upgrading by the stakeholders.

Keywords: pictures, picture books, pre-primary schools, trained graphic designers

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763 The Preparation and Effectiveness of Picture Book for Increasing Knowledge about Divorce

Authors: Denia Prameswari


The impacts of divorce are not only felt by parents but also by children. Preschool children are the most distressed while facing parental divorce. The negative impacts of divorce on children can be minimized when children had pervious knowledge about the event. One of the method to give knowledge about divorce to children is through picture book. Unfortunately, in Indonesia, researchers have not found picture books for preschoolers about divorce. This study aims to test the effectiveness of picture book in increasing knowledge of preschool children about divorce. Formulation of picture books in this study is based on three sources of information: (1) the study of literature, (2) analysis of picture books, and (3) need assessment. This picture book that have been prepared, then used to test its effectiveness for increasing knowledge of preschool children about divorce. The test was conducted using pre and post test on 5 participants. The statistical method used in this study is paired sample t-test. The purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. The participants for this study are preschool children with parents that is undergoing divorce proceedings. The result shows that picture books in this study significantly increase preschool children's knowledge about divorce. As an additional result, parents find it easier to explain divorce to their children using the picture book from this study. For further study, researcher can make another picture book about divorce for children at different age or to face another challenging situation in life.

Keywords: divorce, parent, picture book, preschool children

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762 Issues of Time's Urgency and Ritual in Children's Picture Books: A Closer Look at the Contributions of Grandparents

Authors: Karen Armstrong


Although invisible and fleeting, time is an essential variable in perception. Ritual is proposed as an antithesis to the passage of time, a way of linking our narratives with the past, present and future. This qualitative exploration examines a variety of award winning twentieth-century children’s picture books, specifically regarding the issues of time’s urgency and ritual with respect to children and grandparents. The paper will begin with a consideration of issues of time from the area of psychology, with regard to age, specifically contrasting later age and childhood. Next the value of ritual as represented by the presence of grandparents in children’s books. Specific instances of the contributions of grandparents or older adults with regard to this balancing function between time’s urgency and ritual will be discussed. Recommendations for future research include a consideration of grandparents’ or older characters’ depictions in books for older children.

Keywords: children's picture books, grandparents, ritual, time

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761 A Study on Children's Literature for Multiracial Asian American Children

Authors: Kaori Mori Want


American society is a racially diverse society and there are children books that tell the importance of respecting racial differences. Through reading books, children understand the world around them little by little along with their direct interaction with the world in reality. They find role models in books, strive to be like role models, and grow confidence in who they are. Books thus nurture the mind of children. On the other hand, because of their small presence, children books for multiracial Asian American children are scarce. Multiracial Asian American population is increasing but they are still minority in number. The lack of children’s books for these children may deprive the opportunities of them to embrace their multiraciality positively because they cannot find someone like them in any books. Children books for multiracial Asian American are still not that many, but a few have been being published recently. This paper introduces children books for multiracial Asian American children, and examines how they address issues pertaining to these children, and how they could nurture their self-esteem. Many states of the US used to ban interracial marriages and interracial families and their children once were discriminated against in American society. There was even a theory called the hybrid degeneracy theory which claimed that mixed race children were inferior mentally and physically. In this negative social environment, some multiracial Asian American people report that they had trouble embracing their multiracial identity positively. Yet, children books for these children are full of positive messages. This paper will argue the importance of children books for the mental growth of multiracial Asian American children, and how these books can contribute to the development of multiculturalism in the US in general.

Keywords: critical mixed race studies in the US, hapa children literature, interracial marriage, multiraciality

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760 A Character Detection Method for Ancient Yi Books Based on Connected Components and Regressive Character Segmentation

Authors: Xu Han, Shanxiong Chen, Shiyu Zhu, Xiaoyu Lin, Fujia Zhao, Dingwang Wang


Character detection is an important issue for character recognition of ancient Yi books. The accuracy of detection directly affects the recognition effect of ancient Yi books. Considering the complex layout, the lack of standard typesetting and the mixed arrangement between images and texts, we propose a character detection method for ancient Yi books based on connected components and regressive character segmentation. First, the scanned images of ancient Yi books are preprocessed with nonlocal mean filtering, and then a modified local adaptive threshold binarization algorithm is used to obtain the binary images to segment the foreground and background for the images. Second, the non-text areas are removed by the method based on connected components. Finally, the single character in the ancient Yi books is segmented by our method. The experimental results show that the method can effectively separate the text areas and non-text areas for ancient Yi books and achieve higher accuracy and recall rate in the experiment of character detection, and effectively solve the problem of character detection and segmentation in character recognition of ancient books.

Keywords: CCS concepts, computing methodologies, interest point, salient region detections, image segmentation

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759 Teachers’ and Students’ Reactions to a Guided Reading Program Designed by a Teachers’ Professional Learning Community

Authors: Yea-Mei Leou, Shiu-Hsung Huang, T. C. Shen, Chin-Ya Fang


The purposes of this study were to explore how to establish a professional learning community for English teachers at a junior high school, and to explore how teachers and students think about the guided reading program. The participants were three experienced English teachers and their ESL seventh-grade students from three classes in a junior high school. Leveled picture books and worksheets were used in the program. Questionnaires and interviews were used for gathering information. The findings were as follows: First, most students enjoyed this guided reading program. Second, the teachers thought the guided reading program was helpful to students’ learning and the discussions in the professional learning community refreshed their ideas, but the preparation for the teaching was time-consuming. Suggestions based on the findings were provided.

Keywords: ESL students, guided reading, leveled books, professional learning community

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758 Application of Interval Valued Picture Fuzzy Set in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Palash Dutta


More frequently uncertainties are encountered in medical diagnosis and therefore it is the most important and interesting area of applications of fuzzy set theory. In this present study, an attempt has been made to extend Sanchez’s approach for medical diagnosis via interval valued picture fuzzy sets and exhibit the technique with suitable case studies. In this article, it is observed that a refusal can be expressed in the databases concerning the examined objects. The technique is performing diagnosis on the basis of distance measures and as a result, this approach makes it possible to introduce weights of all symptoms and consequently patient can be diagnosed directly.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, uncertainty, fuzzy set, picture fuzzy set, interval valued picture fuzzy set

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757 E-Book Market In Vietnam: Great Potential, Many Barriers

Authors: Zakir Hossain


Nowadays reading e-books on laptops, smartphones, and tablets have become a new leisure activity for Vietnamese youth. Since 2011 the copyrighted e-book market began to develop in Vietnam with the participation of five local enterprises. Over the last five years, thousands of e-books were published including the first online early education book series for children from 0 to 6 years old. Research shows that 61% Vietnamese find reading e-books is comfortable, and 45% feel convenient buying books online. More than half of the Vietnamese consider reading online far better than buying printed books, and surprisingly people over age 30 desire reading online while those under 18 prefer reading printed books. Hence with a market of more than 40 million regular internet users including 22 million smartphone users, Vietnam has ample opportunities to develop the e-book market and contribute a great deal to the diversity of the local reading culture which is essential for Building a Lifelong Learning Society, a state ambition of Vietnam by 2020. However, the e-book market in Vietnam is still in its infancy and is growing far too slowly than e-book producers had expected. All five e-book enterprises are facing numerous challenges. While the big profit that e-book technology can bring has been clearly recognised in other countries, e-books in Vietnam only make up less than 1% share of the book market. The objective of the study is to identify the difficulties and barriers to the development of the e-book market in Vietnam through an extensive literature review available in English. The study revealed that illegal e-books due to copyright infringement and an inconvenient payment system to purchase e-books are the major obstacles. The great potential of e-books in Vietnam is a reality but requires government enforcement of copyright protection laws, a new area of focus for the e-book market. Furthermore, Vietnamese readers should change their habits from using free and illegal e-books to develop the e-publishing industry in Vietnam.

Keywords: copyright, e-book, e-book reading, e-publishing, Vietnam

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756 Exploring the Types of Infants and Toddlers' Reading Responses in Nursery Centers: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Ming Fang Hsieh


The purpose of this study was to investigate the reading responses of infants and toddlers across different contexts in nursery centers. The study adopted Sipe’s framework for children’s literacy education to explore the reading behavior of infants and toddlers. The study was conducted at two nurseries. The sample comprised 46 infants and toddlers and 6 caregivers. The methods of data collection included observation of various reading activities, including shared reading in a group, one-on-one reading, and unstructured reading activities, as well as interviews with caregivers. The data obtained through observations and interviews were transcribed and analyzed. The caregivers and the children’s parents signed an informed consent form before the start of the study. There was no risk anticipated during the course of the study. The analysis revealed five types of reading responses exhibited by the infants and toddlers: (1) linguistic- verbally responding to reading, repeating vocabulary, and answering questions; (2) affective- concentrating on reading or requesting for repeated reading, leaning on books, and gazing at caregivers; (3) explosive- children under 18 months were observed manipulating books through their bodies or different movements like flipping, rotating, or tapping on books; (4) social- during unstructured reading context, children were seen interacting with peers or following the rules of reading, sitting properly, and choosing one book at a time; and (5) distracted responses- paying attention to something else instead of reading, walking around, and playing, which was usually observed during shared reading in a group. The study concluded that children’s distraction and explosive reading behaviors may be a part of the process of their emergent reading behavior. As children develop, they demonstrate an increase in verbal responses, improved concentration, and better behavior. The study suggests that adults should continue to provide appropriate reading opportunities beginning from infancy to nurture children’s reading behaviors.

Keywords: reading response, infants and toddlers, early reading, picture books

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755 Translation and Sociolinguistics of Classical Books

Authors: Laura de Almeida


This paper aims to present research involving the translation of classical books originally in English and translated into the Portuguese language. The objective is to analyze the linguistic varieties evident and how they appear in the other language the work was translated into. We based our study on the sociolinguistics theory, more specifically, the study of the Black English Vernacular. Our methodology is built on collecting data from the speech characters of the Black English Vernacular from some books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. On doing so, we compare the two versions of a book and how they reflected the linguistic variety. Our purpose is to show that some translators do not worry when dealing with linguistic variety. In other words, they just translate the story without taking into account some important linguistic aspects which need attention, such as language variation.

Keywords: classical books, linguistic variation, sociolinguistics, translation

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754 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: GPS bsed based Robotic library, library management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library

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753 Indoor Microclimate in a Historic Library: Considerations on the Positive Effect of Historic Books on the Stability of Indoor Relative Humidity

Authors: Magda Posani, Maria Do Rosario Veiga, Vasco Peixoto De Freitas


The presented research considers the hygrothermal data acquired in the municipal library of Porto. The library is housed in an XVIII century convent and, among all the rooms in the construction, one, in particular, was chosen for the monitoring campaign because of the presence of a great number of historic books. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as CO₂ concentration, were measured for six consecutive months, in the period December 24th - June 24th. The indoor environment of the building is controlled with a heating and cooling system that is turned on only during the opening hours of the library. The ventilation rate is low because the windows are kept closed, and there is no forced ventilation. The micro-climate is analyzed in terms of users’ comfort and degradation risks for historic books and valuable building surfaces. Through a comparison between indoor and outdoor measured hygrothermal data, indoor relative humidity appears very stable. The influence of the hygroscopicity of books on the stabilization of indoor relative humidity is therefore investigated in detail. The paper finally discusses the benefits given by the presence of historic books in libraries with intermittent heating and cooling. The possibility of obtaining a comfortable and stable indoor climate with low use of HVAC systems in these conditions, while avoiding degradation risks for books and historic building components, is further debated.

Keywords: books, historic buildings, hygroscopicity, relative humidity

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752 The Visualization of the Way of Creating a Service: Slavic Liturgical Books. Between Text and Music

Authors: Victoria Legkikh


To create a new Orthodox service of Jerusalem rite and to make it possible for a performance, one had to use several types of books. These are menaions and triodion, cleargy service book, stichirarion and typikon. These books keep a part of the information about the service, which a medieval copyist had to put together like a puzzle. But an abundance of necessary books and their variety created a lot of problems in copying services. The main problem was the difference of text in notated and not notated manuscripts (they were corrected at a different time) and lack of information in typikon, which provided only a type of hymns and their mode. After all, a copyist could have both corrected and not corrected manuscripts which also provided a different type of service. It brings us to the situation when we hardly have a couple of manuscripts containing the same service, and it is difficult to understand which changes were made voluntarily and which ones were provided by different types of available manuscripts. A recent paper proposes an analysis of every type of liturgical book and a way of using them in copying and correcting a service so we can divide voluntary changes and changes due to various types of books. The paper also proposes an index showing the “material” life of hymns in different types of manuscripts and the changes of its version and place in the same type of manuscript. This type of index can help in reconstructing the way of creation/copying service and can be useful for publication of the services providing necessary information of every hymn in every used manuscript.

Keywords: orthodox church music, creation, manuscripts, liturgical books

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751 Using Electronic Books to Enhance the Museum Visitors' Experience

Authors: Elvin Karaaslan Klose


Museums are important sites of informal, often semi-structured and self-paced learning. Challenged by digital alternatives and increased expectations from their visitors, museums have to adapt to the digital age by enriching their collection and educational content with additional options for interactivity. One such option lies in the concept of the electronic book, which can be used either on dedicated devices or downloaded by visitors before entering the exhibition area. These electronic books serve as an alternative or supplement to the classic audio guide and provide visitors with information about artifacts as well as background stories and factoids about the subjects of the exhibition. Bringing such interactive elements into the museum experience has been shown to increase information retention and enjoyment among young aged visitors and adults. This article aims to bring together both theoretical frameworks and practical examples of how interactive media in the form of electronic books can be used to enhance the experience of the museum visitor.

Keywords: electronic books, interactive media, arts education, museum education

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750 Causes and Consequences of Unauthorized Use of Books: Readers, Authors, and Publishers' Perspective

Authors: Arūnas Gudinavičius, Vincas Grigas


Purpose: The current study aims to identify and explore causes and consequences of unauthorized use of books from readers’, publishers’, and authors’ points of view. The case of Lithuania also assessed, especially historical background (banned alphabet, book smuggling, theft as the social norm in Soviet times) of the country. Design/methodology/approach: Aiming for more understanding why readers, authors and publishers are using or not using technology for unauthorized access of books, technology acceptance model approach was used, a total of 30 respondents (publishers, authors and readers) were interviewed in semi-structured face-to-face interviews and thematic analysis of collected qualitative data was conducted. Interviews were coded in English with coding software for further analysis. Findings: Findings indicate that the main cause for the unauthorized use of books is a lack of legal e-book titles and acquisition options. This mainly points at publishers, however, instead of using unauthorized sources as opportunities for author promotion or marketing, they rather concentrate on the causes of unauthorized use of books which they are not in control of, including access to unauthorized sources, habits, and economic causes. Some publishers believe that the lack of legal e-book titles is the consequence of unauthorized use of book rather than its cause. Originality: This research contributed to the body of knowledge by investigating unauthorized use of books from readers’, publishers’, and authors’ points of view which renders to have a better understanding of the causes and consequences of such behavior, as well as differences between these roles. We suggest that these causes lead to the intention to use and actual use of technology which is easier to use and which gives more perceived advantages – technology for unauthorized downloading and reading of books vs legal e-book acquisition options.

Keywords: digital piracy, unauthorized access, publishing industry, book reader, intellectual property rights

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749 Comparing Bestseller Books in Japanese Public Libraries Managed by Outsourcing and by Local Governments

Authors: Yuhiro Mizunuma, Keita Tsuji


In Japan, local governments have long managed public libraries; however, organizations including private enterprises took over their management with the introduction of an outsourcing system in 2003. Now, whether local governments should apply this system to public libraries is under discussion, and many argue that it is inappropriate for public libraries. In this study, to provide basic data for such discussions, the differences between public libraries managed by outsourcing (henceforth, 'outsourcing libraries') and those managed directly by local governments (henceforth 'direct management libraries') were examined, focusing on bestsellers. We chose the 435 books on the top-20 bestseller lists published from 1996 to 2015 inclusive, as our sample bestseller books; and 413 outsourcing libraries' and 2,619 direct management libraries' holdings of them were investigated using the Calil API (a free Web service that can perform cross-library searches on libraries in Japan). Results show that outsourcing libraries tend to hold fewer bestsellers than direct management libraries. It was also found that direct management libraries tend to hold many duplicates of bestsellers, and that, in many cases, many of those were not being borrowed in direct management libraries.

Keywords: bestseller books, book collection, Japanese public libraries, outsourcing

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748 Teaching Kindness as Moral Virtue in Preschool Children: The Effectiveness of Picture-Storybook Reading and Hand-Puppet Storytelling

Authors: Rose Mini Agoes Salim, Shahnaz Safitri


The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of teaching kindness in preschool children by using several techniques. Kindness is a physical act or emotional support aimed to build or maintain relationships with others. Kindness is known to be essential in the development of moral reasoning to distinguish between the good and bad things. In this study, kindness is operationalized as several acts including helping friends, comforting sad friends, inviting friends to play, protecting others, sharing, saying hello, saying thank you, encouraging others, and apologizing. It is mentioned that kindness is crucial to be developed in preschool children because this is the time the children begin to interact with their social environment through play. Furthermore, preschool children's cognitive development makes them begin to represent the world with words, which then allows them to interact with others. On the other hand, preschool children egocentric thinking makes them still need to learn to consider another person's perspective. In relation to social interaction, preschool children need to be stimulated and assisted by adult to be able to pay attention to other and act with kindness toward them. On teaching kindness to children, the quality of interaction between children and their significant others is the key factor. It is known that preschool children learn about kindness by imitating adults on their two way interaction. Specifically, this study examines two types of teaching techniques that can be done by parents as a way to teach kindness, namely the picture-storybook reading and hand-puppet storytelling. These techniques were examined because both activities are easy to do and both also provide a model of behavior for the child based on the character in the story. To specifically examine those techniques effectiveness in teaching kindness, two studies were conducted. Study I involves 31 children aged 5-6 years old with picture-storybook reading technique, where the intervention is done by reading 8 picture books for 8 days. In study II, hand-puppet storytelling technique is examined to 32 children aged 3-5 years old. The treatments effectiveness are measured using an instrument in the form of nine colored cards that describe the behavior of kindness. Data analysis using Wilcoxon Signed-rank test shows a significant difference on the average score of kindness (p < 0.05) before and after the intervention has been held. For daily observation, a ‘kindness tree’ and observation sheets are used which are filled out by the teacher. Two weeks after interventions, an improvement on all kindness behaviors measured is intact. The same result is also gained from both ‘kindness tree’ and observational sheets.

Keywords: kindness, moral teaching, storytelling, hand puppet

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747 Discovering Word-Class Deficits in Persons with Aphasia

Authors: Yashaswini Channabasavegowda, Hema Nagaraj


Aim: The current study aims at discovering word-class deficits concerning the noun-verb ratio in confrontation naming, picture description, and picture-word matching tasks. A total of ten persons with aphasia (PWA) and ten age-matched neurotypical individuals (NTI) were recruited for the study. The research includes both behavioural and objective measures to assess the word class deficits in PWA. Objective: The main objective of the research is to identify word class deficits seen in persons with aphasia, using various speech eliciting tasks. Method: The study was conducted in the L1 of the participants, considered to be Kannada. Action naming test and Boston naming test adapted to the Kannada version are administered to the participants; also, a picture description task is carried out. Picture-word matching task was carried out using e-prime software (version 2) to measure the accuracy and reaction time with respect to identification verbs and nouns. The stimulus was presented through auditory and visual modes. Data were analysed to identify errors noticed in the naming of nouns versus verbs, with respect to the Boston naming test and action naming test and also usage of nouns and verbs in the picture description task. Reaction time and accuracy for picture-word matching were extracted from the software. Results: PWA showed a significant difference in sentence structure compared to age-matched NTI. Also, PWA showed impairment in syntactic measures in the picture description task, with fewer correct grammatical sentences and fewer correct usage of verbs and nouns, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs. PWA had poorer accuracy and lesser reaction time in the picture-word matching task compared to NTI, and accuracy was higher for nouns compared to verbs in PWA. The deficits were noticed irrespective of the cause leading to aphasia.

Keywords: nouns, verbs, aphasia, naming, description

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746 Design and Emotion: The Value of 1970s French Children’s Books in the Middle East

Authors: Tina Sleiman


In the early 1970s, a graphics revolution - in quantity and quality - marked the youth publications sector in France. The increased interest in youth publications was supported with the emergence of youth libraries and major publishing houses. In parallel, the 'Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique' (currently the International Organization of the Francophonie) was created, and several Arab countries had joined as members. In spite of political turmoil in the Middle East, French schools in Arab countries were still functioning and some even flourishing. This is a testament that French culture was, and still is, a major export to the region. This study focuses on the aesthetic value of the graphic styles that characterize French children’s books from the 1970s, and their personal value to Francophone people who have consumed these artifacts, in the Middle East. The first part of the study looks at the artifact itself: starting from the context of creation and consumption of these books, and continuing to the preservation and remaining collections. The aesthetic value is studied and compared to similar types of visuals of juxtaposed time periods. The second part examines the audience’s response to the visuals in terms of style recognition or identification, along with emotional significance or associations, and the personal value the artifacts might hold to their consumers. The methods of investigation consist of a literature review, a survey of book collections, and a visual questionnaire, supported by personal interviews. As an outcome, visual patterns will be identified: elements from 1970s children’s books reborn in contemporary youth-based publications. Results of the study shall inform us directly on the aesthetic and personal value of illustrated French children’s books in the Middle East, and indirectly on the capacity of youth-targeted design to create a long-term emotional response from its audience.

Keywords: children’s books, French visual culture, graphic style, publication design, revival

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745 Assessment of E-learning Facilities and Information Need by Open and Distance Learning Students in Jalingo, Nigeria

Authors: R. M. Bashir, Sabo Elizabeth


Electronic learning is an increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. An investigation on the assessment of e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students in Jalingo, Nigeria was conducted. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 students of the university. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Information on assessment of e-learning facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women, a large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students. A high proportion of the students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate students was higher compared with those students that owned a computer. Inadequate e-books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities. Inadequate computer facilities caused delay in examination schedule at the study center. Open and distance learning students required to a high extent information on university timetable and schedule of activities, books (hard and e-books) and reference materials and contact with course coordinators via internet for better learning and academic performance.

Keywords: open and distance learning, information required, electronic books, internet gadgets, Likert scale test

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744 A Model for Language Intervention: Toys & Picture-Books as Early Pedagogical Props for the Transmission of Lazuri

Authors: Peri Ozlem Yuksel-Sokmen, Irfan Cagtay


Oral languages are destined to disappear rapidly in the absence of interventions aimed at encouraging their usage by young children. The seminal language preservation model proposed by Fishman (1991) stresses the importance of multiple generations using the endangered L1 while engaged in daily routines with younger children. Over the last two decades Fishman (2001) has used his intergenerational transmission model in documenting the revitalization of Basque languages, providing evidence that families are transmitting Euskara as a first language to their children with success. In our study, to motivate usage of Lazuri, we asked caregivers to speak the language while engaged with their toddlers (12 to 48 months) in semi-structured play, and included both parents (N=32) and grandparents (N=30) as play partners. This unnatural prompting to speak only in Lazuri was greeted with reluctance, as 90% of our families indicated that they had stopped using Lazuri with their children. Nevertheless, caregivers followed instructions and produced 67% of their utterances in Lazuri, with another 14% of utterances using a combination of Lazuri and Turkish (Codeswitch). Although children spoke mostly in Turkish (83% of utterances), frequencies of caregiver utterances in Lazuri or Codeswitch predicted the extent to which their children used the minority language in return. This trend suggests that home interventions aimed at encouraging dyads to communicate in a non-preferred, endangered language can effectively increase children’s usage of the language. Alternatively, this result suggests than any use of the minority language on the part of the children will promote its further usage by caregivers. For researchers examining links between play, culture, and child development, structured play has emerged as a critical methodology (e.g., Frost, Wortham, Reifel, 2007, Lilliard et al., 2012; Sutton-Smith, 1986; Gaskins & Miller, 2009), allowing investigation of cultural and individual variation in parenting styles, as well as the role of culture in constraining the affordances of toys. Toy props, as well as picture-books in native languages, can be used as tools in the transmission and preservation of endangered languages by allowing children to explore adult roles through enactment of social routines and conversational patterns modeled by caregivers. Through adult-guided play children not only acquire scripts for culturally significant activities, but also develop skills in expressing themselves in culturally relevant ways that may continue to develop over their lives through community engagement. Further pedagogical tools, such as language games and e-learning, will be discussed in this proposed oral talk.

Keywords: language intervention, pedagogical tools, endangered languages, Lazuri

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743 Metaphysical and Mystical Viewpoints of Roozbihan Baqli Shirazi on the Quran

Authors: Seyed Abdol Majid Hosseinizadeh


This study aims at an assessment of the part of interpretational issues on the Quran in Roozbihan Baqli Shirazi's books, who has been a mystic and Sufi in the 12th century. He has written many mystical books which Henry Corbin and others have introduced and researched, especially his commentary on the Quran called Ara'is al-Bayan, but he also has other interpretational viewpoints on the Quran spread throughout his mystical works, which have not been considered. In this paper, it has been shown through a documentary method that Quranic verses and their interpretations also have a great role in his other works.

Keywords: interpretation, Islamic mysticism, Quran, Roozbihan Baqli Shirazi

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742 Assessment of E-Learning Facilities in Open and Distance Learning and Information Need by Students

Authors: Sabo Elizabeth


Electronic learning is increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. This approach is important in human capital development. An investigation of open distance and e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students was carried out in Jalingo, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 registered ODL students of the NOUN. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Assessment of the effectiveness of ODL facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women. A large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students in ODL compared to the youth. A high proportion of the ODL students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate ODL students was high, and large number of the students does not own a laptop computer. Inadequate e -books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities in the study areas. Inadequate computer facilities and power back up caused inconveniences and delay in administering and use of e learning facilities. To a high extent, open and distance learning students needed information on university time table and schedule of activities, availability and access to books (hard and e-books) and reference materials. The respondents emphasized that contact with course coordinators via internet will provide a better learning and academic performance.

Keywords: open and distance learning, information required, electronic books, internet gadgets, Likert scale test

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741 The Significance of Picture Mining in the Fashion and Design as a New Research Method

Authors: Katsue Edo, Yu Hiroi


T Increasing attention has been paid to using pictures and photographs in research since the beginning of the 21th century in social sciences. Meanwhile we have been studying the usefulness of Picture mining, which is one of the new ways for a these picture using researches. Picture Mining is an explorative research analysis method that takes useful information from pictures, photographs and static or moving images. It is often compared with the methods of text mining. The Picture Mining concept includes observational research in the broad sense, because it also aims to analyze moving images (Ochihara and Edo 2013). In the recent literature, studies and reports using pictures are increasing due to the environmental changes. These are identified as technological and social changes (Edo 2013). Low price digital cameras and i-phones, high information transmission speed, low costs for information transferring and high performance and resolution of the cameras of mobile phones have changed the photographing behavior of people. Consequently, there is less resistance in taking and processing photographs for most of the people in the developing countries. In these studies, this method of collecting data from respondents is often called as ‘participant-generated photography’ or ‘respondent-generated visual imagery’, which focuses on the collection of data and its analysis (Pauwels 2011, Snyder 2012). But there are few systematical and conceptual studies that supports it significance of these methods. We have discussed in the recent years to conceptualize these picture using research methods and formalize theoretical findings (Edo et. al. 2014). We have identified the most efficient fields of Picture mining in the following areas inductively and in case studies; 1) Research in Consumer and Customer Lifestyles. 2) New Product Development. 3) Research in Fashion and Design. Though we have found that it will be useful in these fields and areas, we must verify these assumptions. In this study we will focus on the field of fashion and design, to determine whether picture mining methods are really reliable in this area. In order to do so we have conducted an empirical research of the respondents’ attitudes and behavior concerning pictures and photographs. We compared the attitudes and behavior of pictures toward fashion to meals, and found out that taking pictures of fashion is not as easy as taking meals and food. Respondents do not often take pictures of fashion and upload their pictures online, such as Facebook and Instagram, compared to meals and food because of the difficulty of taking them. We concluded that we should be more careful in analyzing pictures in the fashion area for there still might be some kind of bias existing even if the environment of pictures have drastically changed in these years.

Keywords: empirical research, fashion and design, Picture Mining, qualitative research

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740 Teaching Continuities in the Great Books Tradition and Contemporary Popular Culture

Authors: Alex Kizuk


This paper studies the trope or meme of the Siren in terms of what long-standing cultural continuities can be found in college classrooms today. Those who have raised children may remember reading from Hans Christian Anderson's 'The Little Mermaid' (1836), not to mention regaling them with colorful Disneyesque versions when they were younger. Though Anderson tempered the darker first ending of the story to give the little mermaid more agency in her salvation—a prognostic developed in Disney adaptations—nonetheless, the tale pivots on an image of a 'heavenly realm' that the mermaid may eventually come to know or comprehend as a beloved woman on dry land. Only after 300 years, however, may she hope to see that 'which lives forever' and 'rises through thin air, up to the shining stars. Just as [sea-people] rise through the water to see the lands on earth.' What students today can see in this example is a trope of the agonistic soul in a hard-won disembarkation at a harbour of knowledge--where the seeker after truth may come to know through persistence (300 years)—all that is good and true concerning human life. This paper discusses several such examples from the Great Books and popular culture to suggest that teaching in the world of the 21st century could do worse than accede to some such perennial seeking.

Keywords: the Great Books, tradition, popular culture, 21st century directions in teaching

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739 Exploring Family and Preschool Early Interactive Literacy Practices in Jordan

Authors: Rana Alkhamra


Background: Child's earliest experiences with books and stories during the first years of his life are strongly linked with the development of his early language and literacy skills. Interacting in routine learning activities, such as shared book reading, storytelling, and teaching about the letters of the alphabet make a critical foundation for early learning, language growth and emergent literacy. Aim: The current study explores family and preschool early interactive literacy practices in families and preschools (nursery and kindergarten) in Jordan. It highlights the importance of early interactive literacy activities on child language and literacy growth and development. Methods: This is a cross sectional study that surveyed 243 Jordanian families. The survey investigated literacy routine practices, largely shared books reading, at home and at preschool; child speech and language development; and family demographics. Results: Around 92.5% of the families read books and stories to their children, as frequently as 1-2 times weekly or monthly (75%). Only 19.6% read books on daily basis. Many families reported preferring story-telling (97%). Despite that families acknowledged the importance of early literacy activities, on language, reading and writing, cognitive, and academic development, 45% asked for education and training pertaining to specific ways and ideas to help their young children develop language and literacy skills. About 69% of the families reported reading books and stories to their children for 15 minutes a day, while 71.2% indicated having their children watch television for 3 to > 6 hours a day. At preschool, only 52.8% of the teachers were reported to read books and stories. Factors like parent education, monthly income, living inside (33.6%) or outside (66.4%) the capital city of Amman significantly (p < 0.05) affected child early literacy interactive activities whether at home or at preschool. Conclusion: Early language and literacy skills depend largely on the opportunities and experiences provided to children in the home and in preschool environment. Family literacy programs can play an important role in bridging the gap in early literacy experiences for families that need help. Also, speech therapists can work in collaboration with families and educators to ensure that young children have high quality and sufficient opportunities to participate in early literacy activities both at home and in preschool environments.

Keywords: literacy, interactive activities, language, practices, family, preschool, Jordan

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738 Smashed Mirror: Immigrant Students’ Constructions of South Africa

Authors: Vandeyar Saloshna, Vandeyar Hirusellvan


The image of post-apartheid South African Society that is reflected in the social mirror of the world is largely one of hope, faith, and aspiration. But is this reality? Utilizing social constructivism, case study approach and narrative inquiry, this chapter set out to explore the reflection of South African students from the lens of immigrant students. The picture that unfolds is troublesome in its negativity. In this chapter, we establish in detail what this picture is about and what implications it holds for South African Society.

Keywords: immigrant students, social mirror, xenophobia, identity formation, makwerekwere, expectations

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737 Nostalgia in Photographed Books for Children – the Case of Photography Books of Children in the Kibbutz

Authors: Ayala Amir


The paper presents interdisciplinary research which draws on the literary study and the cultural study of photography to explore a literary genre defined by nostalgia – the photographed book for children. This genre, which was popular in the second half of the 20th century, presents the romantic, nostalgic image of childhood created in the visual arts in the 18th century (as suggested by Ann Higonnet). At the same time, it capitalizes on the nostalgia inherent in the event of photography as formulated by Jennifer Green-Lewis: photography frames a moment in the present while transforming it into a past longed for in the future. Unlike Freudian melancholy, nostalgia is an effect that enables representation by acknowledging the loss and containing it in the very experience of the object. The representation and preservation of the lost object (nature, childhood, innocence) are in the center of the genre of children's photography books – a modern version of ancient pastoral. In it, the unique synergia of word and image results in a nostalgic image of childhood in an era already conquered by modernization. The nostalgic effect works both in the representation of space – an Edenic image of nature already shadowed by its demise, and of time – an image of childhood imbued by what Gill Bartholnyes calls the "looking backward aesthetics" – under the sign of loss. Little critical attention has been devoted to this genre with the exception of the work of Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer, who noted the nostalgic effect of the well-known series of photography books by Astrid Lindgren and Anna Riwkin-Brick. This research aims to elaborate Kümmerling-Meibauer's approach using the theories of the study of photography, word-image studies, as well as current studies of childhood. The theoretical perspectives are implemented in the case study of photography books created in one of the most innovative social structures in our time – the Israeli Kibbutz. This communal way of life designed a society where children will experience their childhood in a parentless rural environment that will save them from the fate of the Oedipal fall. It is suggested that in documenting these children in a fictional format, photographers and writers, images and words cooperated in creating nostalgic works situated on the border between nature and culture, imagination and reality, utopia and its realization in history.

Keywords: nostalgia, photography , childhood, children's books, kibutz

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