Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4891

Search results for: phase transformation

4891 Pre-Transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Manendra Singh Parihar, Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury

Abstract:

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its microstructure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

Keywords: variant selection, reconstruction, EBSD, austenitic stainless steel, martensitic transformation

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4890 Variant Selection and Pre-transformation Phase Reconstruction for Deformation-Induced Transformation in AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Manendra Singh Parihar, Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury

Abstract:

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used and give a good combination of properties. When this steel is plastically deformed, a phase transformation of the metastable Face Centred Cubic Austenite to the stable Body Centred Cubic (α’) or to the Hexagonal close packed (ԑ) martensite may occur, leading to the enhancement in the mechanical properties like strength. The work was based on variant selection and corresponding texture analysis for the strain induced martensitic transformation during deformation of the parent austenite FCC phase to form the product HCP and the BCC martensite phases separately, obeying their respective orientation relationships. The automated method for reconstruction of the parent phase orientation using the EBSD data of the product phase orientation is done using the MATLAB and TSL-OIM software. The method of triplets was used which involves the formation of a triplet of neighboring product grains having a common variant and linking them using a misorientation-based criterion. This led to the proper reconstruction of the pre-transformation phase orientation data and thus to its micro structure and texture. The computational speed of current method is better compared to the previously used methods of reconstruction. The reconstruction of austenite from ԑ and α’ martensite was carried out for multiple samples and their IPF images, pole figures, inverse pole figures and ODFs were compared. Similar type of results was observed for all samples. The comparison gives the idea for estimating the correct sequence of the transformation i.e. γ → ε → α’ or γ → α’, during deformation of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

Keywords: variant selection, reconstruction, EBSD, austenitic stainless steel, martensitic transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
4889 Austenite Transformation in Duplex Stainless Steels under Fast Cooling Rates

Authors: L. O. Luengas, E. V. Morales, L. F. G. De Souza, I. S. Bott

Abstract:

Duplex Stainless Steels are well known for its good mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. However, when submitted to heating, these features can be lost since the good properties are strongly dependent on the austenite-ferrite phase ratio which has to be approximately 1:1 to keep the phase balance. In a welded joint, the transformation kinetics at the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a function of the cooling rates applied which in turn are dependent on the heat input. The HAZ is usually ferritized at these temperatures, and it has been argued that small variations of the chemical composition can play a role in the solid state transformation sequence of ferrite to austenite during cooling. The δ → γ transformation has been reported to be massive and diffusionless due to the fast cooling rate, but it is also considered a diffusion controlled transformation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different heat inputs on the HAZ of two duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and S32750, obtained by physical simulation.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, HAZ, microstructural characterization, physical simulation

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4888 Effects of Mechanical Test and Shape of Grain Boundary on Martensitic Transformation in Fe-Ni-C Steel

Authors: Mounir Gaci, Salim Meziani, Atmane Fouathia

Abstract:

The purpose of the present paper is to model the behavior of metal alloy, type TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity), during solid/solid phase transition. A two-dimensional micromechanical model is implemented in finite element software (ZEBULON) to simulate the martensitic transformation in Fe-Ni-C steel grain under mechanical tensile stress of 250 MPa. The effects of non-uniform grain boundary and the criterion of mechanical shear load on the transformation and on the TRIP value during martensitic transformation are studied. The suggested mechanical criterion is favourable to the influence of the shear phenomenon on the progression of the martensitic transformation (Magee’s mechanism). The obtained results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones and show the influence of the grain boundary shape and the chosen mechanical criterion (SMF) on the transformation parameters.

Keywords: martensitic transformation, non-uniform Grain Boundary, TRIP, shear Mechanical force (SMF)

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4887 Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Shuo-Ling Chang

Abstract:

The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.

Keywords: nanoindentation, silicon, phase transformation, amorphous, annealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
4886 Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze

Abstract:

Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high-temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and at 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into the body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4885 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung

Abstract:

A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
4884 Thermal Effects of Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze

Abstract:

Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and in 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, neodymium, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
4883 Structural Analysis of Phase Transformation and Particle Formation in Metastable Metallic Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

Authors: Pouyan Motamedi, Ken Bosnick, Ken Cadien, James Hogan

Abstract:

Growth of conformal ultrathin metal films has attracted a considerable amount of attention recently. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) is a method capable of growing conformal thin films at low temperatures, with an exemplary control over thickness. The authors have recently reported on growth of metastable epitaxial nickel thin films via PEALD, along with a comprehensive characterization of the films and a study on the relationship between the growth parameters and the film characteristics. The goal of the current study is to use the mentioned films as a case study to investigate the temperature-activated phase transformation and agglomeration in ultrathin metallic films. For this purpose, metastable hexagonal nickel thin films were annealed using a controlled heating/cooling apparatus. The transformations in the crystal structure were observed via in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The samples were annealed to various temperatures in the range of 400-1100° C. The onset and progression of particle formation were studied in-situ via laser measurements. In addition, a four-point probe measurement tool was used to record the changes in the resistivity of the films, which is affected by phase transformation, as well as roughening and agglomeration. Thin films annealed at various temperature steps were then studied via atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, in order to get a better understanding of the correlated mechanisms, through which phase transformation and particle formation occur. The results indicate that the onset of hcp-to-bcc transformation is at 400°C, while particle formations commences at 590° C. If the annealed films are quenched after transformation, but prior to agglomeration, they show a noticeable drop in resistivity. This can be attributed to the fact that the hcp films are grown epitaxially, and are under severe tensile strain, and annealing leads to relaxation of the mismatch strain. In general, the results shed light on the nature of structural transformation in nickel thin films, as well as metallic thin films, in general.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition, metastable, nickel, phase transformation, thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4882 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi

Abstract:

Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

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4881 Investigation of Martensitic Transformation Zone at the Crack Tip of NiTi under Mode-I Loading Using Microscopic Image Correlation

Authors: Nima Shafaghi, Gunay Anlaş, C. Can Aydiner

Abstract:

A realistic understanding of martensitic phase transition under complex stress states is key for accurately describing the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs). Particularly regarding the sharply changing stress fields at the tip of a crack, the size, nature and shape of transformed zones are of great interest. There is significant variation among various analytical models in their predictions of the size and shape of the transformation zone. As the fully transformed region remains inside a very small boundary at the tip of the crack, experimental validation requires microscopic resolution. Here, the crack tip vicinity of NiTi compact tension specimen has been monitored in situ with microscopic image correlation with 20x magnification. With nominal 15 micrometer grains and 0.2 micrometer per pixel optical resolution, the strains at the crack tip are mapped with intra-grain detail. The transformation regions are then deduced using an equivalent strain formulation.

Keywords: digital image correlation, fracture, martensitic phase transition, mode I, NiTi, transformation zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4880 The Influence of C Element on the Phase Transformation in Weldment of Complex Stainless Steels 2507/316/316L

Authors: LIN Dong-Yih, Yang S.-M., Huang B.-W., Lian J.-A.

Abstract:

Super duplex stainless steel has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It becomes important structural material as its application has been extended to the fields such as renewable energy and the chemical industry because of its excellent properties. As examples are offshore wind power, solar cell machinery, and pipes in the chemical industry. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel can be eliminated by welding due to the precipitation of the hard and brittle σ phase, which is rich of chromium, and molybdenum elements. This paper studies the influence of carbon element on the phase transformation of -ferrite and σ phase in 2507 super duplex stainless steel. The 2507 will be under argon gas protection welded with 316 and 316L extra low carbon stainless steel separately. The microstructural phases of stainless steels before and after welding, in fusion, heat affected zones, and base material will be studied via X-ray, OM, SEM, EPMA i.e. their quantity, size, distribution, and morphology. The influences of diffusion by carbon element will be compared according to the microstructures, hardness, and corrosion tests.

Keywords: complex stainless steel, welding, phase formation, carbon element, sigma phase, delta ferrite

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4879 Study of Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials for High-Energy Li-ion Batteries

Authors: Liu Li, Kim Seng Lee, Li Lu

Abstract:

The high-energy-density Li-rich layered materials are promising cathode materials for the next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. They have attracted a lot of attentions due mainly to their high reversible capacity of more than 250 mAh•g-1 at low charge-discharge current. However several drawbacks still hinder their applications, such as voltage decay caused by an undesired phase transformation during cycling and poor rate capability. To conquer these issues, the authors applied F modification methods on the pristine Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 to enhance its electrochemical performance.

Keywords: Li-ion battery, Li-rich layered cathode material, phase transformation, cycling stability, rate capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
4878 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

Abstract:

The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions, severe plastic deformation, titanium alloys

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4877 Modelling of Phase Transformation Kinetics in Post Heat-Treated Resistance Spot Weld of AISI 1010 Mild Steel

Authors: B. V. Feujofack Kemda, N. Barka, M. Jahazi, D. Osmani

Abstract:

Automobile manufacturers are constantly seeking means to reduce the weight of car bodies. The usage of several steel grades in auto body assembling has been found to be a good technique to enlighten vehicles weight. This few years, the usage of dual phase (DP) steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels and boron steels in some parts of the auto body have become a necessity because of their lightweight. However, these steels are martensitic, when they undergo a fast heat treatment, the resultant microstructure is essential, made of martensite. Resistance spot welding (RSW), one of the most used techniques in assembling auto bodies, becomes problematic in the case of these steels. RSW being indeed a process were steel is heated and cooled in a very short period of time, the resulting weld nugget is mostly fully martensitic, especially in the case of DP, TRIP and boron steels but that also holds for plain carbon steels as AISI 1010 grade which is extensively used in auto body inner parts. Martensite in its turn must be avoided as most as possible when welding steel because it is the principal source of brittleness and it weakens weld nugget. Thus, this work aims to find a mean to reduce martensite fraction in weld nugget when using RSW for assembling. The prediction of phase transformation kinetics during RSW has been done. That phase transformation kinetics prediction has been made possible through the modelling of the whole welding process, and a technique called post weld heat treatment (PWHT) have been applied in order to reduce martensite fraction in the weld nugget. Simulation has been performed for AISI 1010 grade, and results show that the application of PWHT leads to the formation of not only martensite but also ferrite, bainite and pearlite during the cooling of weld nugget. Welding experiments have been done in parallel and micrographic analyses show the presence of several phases in the weld nugget. Experimental weld geometry and phase proportions are in good agreement with simulation results, showing here the validity of the model.

Keywords: resistance spot welding, AISI 1010, modeling, post weld heat treatment, phase transformation, kinetics

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4876 Effect of Nano/Micro Alumina Matrix on Alumina-Cubic Boron Nitride Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: A. S. Hakeem, B. Ahmed, M. Ehsan, A. Ibrahim, H. M. Irshad, T. Laoui

Abstract:

Alumina (Al2O3) - cubic boron nitride (cBN) ceramic composites were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using α-Al2O3 particle sizes; 150 µm, 150 nm and cBN particle size of 42 µm. Alumina-cBN composites containing 10, 20 and 30wt% cBN with and without Ni coated were sintering at an elevated temperature of 1400°C at a constant uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa. The effect of matrix particle size, cBN and Ni content on mechanical properties and thermal properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, diffusivity, expansion, densification, phase transformation, microstructure, hardness and toughness of the Al2O3-cBN/(Ni) composites under specific sintering conditions were investigated. The highest relative densification of 150 nm-Al2O3 containing 30wt% cBN (Ni coated) composite was 99% at TSPS = 1400°C. In case of 150 µm- Al2O3 compositions, the phase transformation of cBN to hBN were observed, and the relative densification decreased. Thermal conductivity depicts maximum value in case of 150 nm- Al2O3-30wt% cBN-Ni composition. The Vickers hardness of this composition at TSPS = 1400°C also showed the highest value of 29 GPa.

Keywords: alumina composite, cubic boron nitride, mechanical properties, phase transformation, Spark plasma sintering

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4875 Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 Heusler Alloys

Authors: Mst Nazmunnahar, Juan del Val, Alena Vimmrova, Blanca Hernando, Julian González

Abstract:

We report the microstructural and magnetic properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 ribbon Heusler alloys. Experimental results were obtained by differential scanning calorymetry, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. The Ni-Mn-Sn system undergoes a martensitic structural transformation in a wide temperature range. For example, for Ni50Mn39Sn11 the start and finish temperatures of the martensitic and austenite phase transformation for ribbon alloy were Ms = 336K , Mf = 328K, As = 335K and Af = 343K whereas no structural transformation is observed for Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloys. Magnetic measurements show the typical ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature 207K at low applied field of 50 Oe. The complex behavior exhibited by these Heusler alloys should be ascribed to the strong coupling between magnetism and structure, being their magnetic behavior determined by the distance between Mn atoms.

Keywords: as-cast ribbon, Heusler alloys, magnetic properties, structural transformation

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4874 Modelling Phase Transformations in Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding under Transient Heating Rates

Authors: Jefri Draup, Antoine Ambard, Chi-Toan Nguyen

Abstract:

Zirconium alloys exhibit solid-state phase transformations under thermal loading. These can lead to a significant evolution of the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear fuel cladding structures. Therefore, the ability to capture effects of phase transformation on the material constitutive behavior is of interest during conditions of severe transient thermal loading. Whilst typical Avrami, or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), type models for phase transformations have been shown to have a good correlation with the behavior of Zircaloy-4 under constant heating rates, the effects of variable and fast heating rates are not fully explored. The present study utilises the results of in-situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements in order to validate the phase transformation models for Zircaloy-4 under fast variable heating rates. These models are used to assess the performance of fuel cladding structures under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The results indicate that simple Avrami type models can provide a reasonable indication of the phase distribution in experimental test specimens under variable fast thermal loading. However, the accuracy of these models deteriorates under the faster heating regimes, i.e., 100Cs⁻¹. The studies highlight areas for improvement of simple Avrami type models, such as the inclusion of temperature rate dependence of the JMAK n-exponent.

Keywords: accident, fuel, modelling, zirconium

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4873 Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using a Transformation Approach

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

Two-dimensional (2-D) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks have been widely considered for high-quality coding of image and video data at low bit rates. Without implementing subband coding, a 2-D QMF bank is required to have an exactly linear-phase response without magnitude distortion, i.e., the perfect reconstruction (PR) characteristics. The design problem of 2-D QMF banks with the PR characteristics has been considered in the literature for many years. This paper presents a transformation approach for designing 2-D two-channel QMF banks. Under a suitable one-dimensional (1-D) to two-dimensional (2-D) transformation with a specified decimation/interpolation matrix, the analysis and synthesis filters of the QMF bank are composed of 1-D causal and stable digital allpass filters (DAFs) and possess the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property. This facilitates the design problem of the two-channel QMF banks by finding the real coefficients of the 1-D recursive DAFs. The design problem is formulated based on the minimax phase approximation for the 1-D DAFs. A novel objective function is then derived to obtain an optimization for 1-D minimax phase approximation. As a result, the problem of minimizing the objective function can be simply solved by using the well-known weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (L∞) optimal sense. The novelty of the proposed design method is that the design procedure is very simple and the designed 2-D QMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response. Simulation results show that the proposed design method provides much better design performance and much less design complexity as compared with the existing techniques.

Keywords: Quincunx QMF bank, doubly complementary filter, digital allpass filter, WLS algorithm

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4872 Lattice Twinning and Detwinning Processes in Phase Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel

Abstract:

Shape memory effect is a peculiar property exhibited by certain alloy systems and based on martensitic transformation, and shape memory properties are closely related to the microstructures of the material. Shape memory effect is linked with martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation and occurs with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears on cooling from high-temperature parent phase. Lattice twinning and detwinning can be considered as elementary processes activated during the transformation. Thermally induced martensite occurs as martensite variants, in self-accommodating manner and consists of lattice twins. Also, this martensite is called the twinned martensite or multivariant martensite. Deformation of shape memory alloys in martensitic state proceeds through a martensite variant reorientation. The martensite variants turn into the reoriented single variants with deformation, and the reorientation process has great importance for the shape memory behavior. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable β- phase region, which has DO3 –type ordered lattice in ternary case at high temperature, and these structures martensiticaly turn into the layered complex structures with lattice twinning mechanism, on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. The twinning occurs as martensite variants with lattice invariant shears in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110}- type plane of austenite matrix. Lattice invariant shear is not uniform in copper based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of unusual layered structures, like 3R, 9R, or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. The unit cell and periodicity are completed through 18 atomic layers in case of 18R-structure. On the other hand, the deformed material recovers the original shape on heating above the austenite finish temperature. Meanwhile, the material returns to the twinned martensite structures (thermally induced martensite structure) in one way (irreversible) shape memory effect on cooling below the martensite finish temperature, whereas the material returns to the detwinned martensite structure (deformed martensite) in two-way (reversible) shape memory effect. Shortly one can say that the microstructural mechanisms, responsible for the shape memory effect are the twinning and detwinning processes as well as martensitic transformation. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out on two copper-based ternary alloys, CuZnAl, and CuAlMn.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, twinning and detwinning, layered structures

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4871 Chemical and Physical Properties and Biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–4V Produced by Electron Beam Rapid Manufacturing and Selective Laser Melting for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Bing–Jing Zhao, Chang-Kui Liu, Hong Wang, Min Hu

Abstract:

Electron beam rapid manufacturing (EBRM) or Selective laser melting is an additive manufacturing process that uses 3D CAD data as a digital information source and energy in the form of a high-power laser beam or electron beam to create three-dimensional metal parts by fusing fine metallic powders together.Object:The present study was conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties ,the phase transformation,the corrosivity and the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V by EBRM,SLM and forging technique.Method: Ti-6Al-4V alloy standard test pieces were manufactured by EBRM, SLM and forging technique according to AMS4999,GB/T228 and ISO 10993.The mechanical properties were analyzed by universal test machine. The phase transformation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosivity was analyzed by electrochemical method. The biocompatibility was analyzed by co-culturing with mesenchymal stem cell and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP) to evaluate cell adhesion and differentiation, respectively. Results: The mechanical properties, the phase transformation, the corrosivity and the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V by EBRM、SLM were similar to forging and meet the mechanical property requirements of AMS4999 standard. a­phase microstructure for the EBM production contrast to the a’­phase microstructure of the SLM product. Mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and differentiation were well. Conclusion: The property of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy manufactured by EBRM and SLM technique can meet the medical standard from this study. But some further study should be proceeded in order to applying well in clinical practice.

Keywords: 3D printing, Electron Beam Rapid Manufacturing (EBRM), Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Computer Aided Design (CAD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
4870 Microstructure Evolution and Pre-transformation Microstructure Reconstruction in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Shreyash Hadke, Manendra Singh Parihar, Rajesh Khatirkar

Abstract:

In the present investigation, the variation in the microstructure with the changes in the heat treatment conditions i.e. temperature and time was observed. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was subject to solution annealing treatments in β (1066C) and α+β phase (930C and 850C) followed by quenching, air cooling and furnace cooling to room temperature respectively. The effect of solution annealing and cooling on the microstructure was studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical composition of the β phase for different conditions was determined with the help of energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) attached to SEM. Furnace cooling resulted in the development of coarser structure (α+β), while air cooling resulted in much finer structure with widmanstatten morphology of α at the grain boundaries. Quenching from solution annealing temperature formed α’ martensite, their proportion being dependent on the temperature in β phase field. It is well known that the transformation of β to α follows Burger orientation relationship (OR). In order to reconstruct the microstructure of parent β phase, a MATLAB code was written using neighbor-to-neighbor, triplet method and Tari’s method. The code was tested on the annealed samples (1066C solution annealing temperature followed by furnace cooling to room temperature). The parent phase data thus generated was then plotted using the TSL-OIM software. The reconstruction results of the above methods were compared and analyzed. The Tari’s approach (clustering approach) gave better results compared to neighbor-to-neighbor and triplet method but the time taken by the triplet method was least compared to the other two methods.

Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V alloy, microstructure, electron backscattered diffraction, parent phase reconstruction

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4869 Developing a Theory for Study of Transformation of Historic Cities

Authors: Sana Ahrar

Abstract:

Cities are undergoing rapid transformation with the change in lifestyle and technological advancements. These transformations may be experienced or physically visible in the built form. This paper focuses on the relationship between the social, physical environment, change in lifestyle and the interrelated factors influencing the transformation of any historic city. Shahjahanabad as a city has undergone transformation under the various political powers as well as the various policy implementations after independence. These visible traces of transformation diffused throughout the city may be due to socio-economic, historic, political factors and due to the globalization process. This study shall enable evolving a theory for the study of transformation of Historic cities such as Shahjahanabad: which has been plundered, rebuilt, and which still thrives as a ‘living heritage city’. The theory developed will be the process of studying the transformation and can be used by planners, policy makers and researchers in different urban contexts.

Keywords: heritage, historic cities, Shahjahanabad, transformation

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4868 Mastering Digitization: A Quality-Adapted Digital Transformation Model

Authors: Franziska Schaefer, Marlene Kuhn, Heiner Otten

Abstract:

In the very near future, digitization will be the main challenge a company has to master to survive in a highly competitive market. Developing the right transformation strategy by considering all relevant aspects determines the success or failure of a company. Especially the digital focus on the customer plays a key role in creating sustainable competitive advantages, also leading to new tasks within the quality management. Therefore, quality management needs to be particularly addressed to support the upcoming digital change. In this paper, we present an analysis of existing digital transformation approaches and derive a transformation strategy from a quality management perspective. We identify and classify different transformation dimensions and assess their relevance to quality management tasks, resulting in a quality-adapted digital transformation model. Furthermore, we introduce applicable and customized quality management methods to support the presented digital transformation tasks. With our developed model we provide a digital transformation guideline from a quality perspective to master future disruptive changes.

Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, quality management, strategy

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4867 An Automatic Model Transformation Methodology Based on Semantic and Syntactic Comparisons and the Granularity Issue Involved

Authors: Tiexin Wang, Sebastien Truptil, Frederick Benaben

Abstract:

Model transformation, as a pivotal aspect of Model-driven engineering, attracts more and more attentions both from researchers and practitioners. Many domains (enterprise engineering, software engineering, knowledge engineering, etc.) use model transformation principles and practices to serve to their domain specific problems; furthermore, model transformation could also be used to fulfill the gap between different domains: by sharing and exchanging knowledge. Since model transformation has been widely used, there comes new requirement on it: effectively and efficiently define the transformation process and reduce manual effort that involved in. This paper presents an automatic model transformation methodology based on semantic and syntactic comparisons, and focuses particularly on granularity issue that existed in transformation process. Comparing to the traditional model transformation methodologies, this methodology serves to a general purpose: cross-domain methodology. Semantic and syntactic checking measurements are combined into a refined transformation process, which solves the granularity issue. Moreover, semantic and syntactic comparisons are supported by software tool; manual effort is replaced in this way.

Keywords: automatic model transformation, granularity issue, model-driven engineering, semantic and syntactic comparisons

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4866 The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process

Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi

Abstract:

The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM) application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo-Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to a model without SSPT.

Keywords: residual stress, ferritic steels, SSPT, coupled-TMM

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4865 Effects of Sn and Al on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Beta Ti Alloys

Authors: Yonosuke Murayama

Abstract:

We have developed and studied a metastable beta Ti alloy, which shows super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus according to the phase stability of its beta phase. The super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus are required in a wide range of applications in various industrial fields. For example, the metallic implant with low Young’s modulus and non-toxicity is desirable because the large difference of Young’s modulus between the human bone and the implant material may cause a stress-shielding phenomenon. We have investigated the role of Sn and Al in metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys. The metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys form during quenching from the beta field at high temperature. While Cr and V act as beta stabilizers, Sn and Al are considered as elements to suppress the athermal omega phase produced during quenching. The athermal omega phase degrades the properties of super-elasticity and Young’s modulus. Although Al and Sn as single elements are considered as an alpha stabilizer and neutral, respectively, Sn and Al acted also as beta stabilizers when added simultaneously with beta stabilized element of Cr or V in this experiment. The quenched microstructure of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys shifts from martensitic structure to beta single-phase structure with increasing Cr or V. The Young’s modulus of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys decreased and then increased with increasing Cr or V, each showing its own minimum value of Young's modulus respectively. The composition of the alloy with the minimum Young’s modulus is a near border composition where the quenched microstructure shifts from martensite to beta. The border composition of Ti-Cr-Sn and Ti-V-Sn alloys required only less amount of each beta stabilizer, Cr or V, than Ti-Cr-Al and Ti-V-Al alloys. This indicates that the effect of Sn as a beta stabilizer is stronger than Al. Sn and Al influenced the competitive relation between stress-induced martensitic transformation and slip deformation. Thus, super-elastic properties of metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys varied depending on the alloyed element, Sn or Al.

Keywords: metastable beta Ti alloy, super-elasticity, low Young’s modulus, stress-induced martensitic transformation, beta stabilized element

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4864 Health Transformation Program and Effects on Health Expenditures

Authors: Zeynep Karacor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk

Abstract:

In recent years, the rise of population density and the problem of aging population took attention to the health expenditures. In Turkey, some regulations and infrastructure changes in health sector have occurred. These changes are called Health Transformation Program. The productivity of health services, patient satisfaction, quality of services are tried to be improved with this program. Some radical changes are applied in Turkish economy in this context. The aim of this paper is to present the effects of Health Transformation Program on health expenditures. In the first part of the paper, some information’s about health system and applications in Turkey are discussed. In the second part, the aims of Health Transformation Program are explained. And in the third part the effects of Health Transformation Program on health expenditures are examined.

Keywords: health transformation program, Turkey, health services, health expenditures

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
4863 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen

Abstract:

Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangle

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4862 Transformation of Aluminum Unstable Oxyhydroxides in Ultrafine α-Al2O3 in Presence of Various Seeds

Authors: T. Kuchukhidze, N. Jalagonia, Z. Phachulia, R. Chedia

Abstract:

Ceramic obtained on the base of aluminum oxide has wide application range, because it has unique properties, for example, wear-resistance, dielectric characteristics, exploitation ability at high temperatures and in corrosive atmosphere. Low temperature synthesis of α-Al2O3 is energo-economical process and it is actual for developing technologies of corundum ceramics fabrication. In the present work possibilities of low temperature transformation of oxyhydroxides in α-Al2O3, during a presence of small amount of rare–earth elements compounds (also Th, Re), have been discussed. Aluminium unstable oxyhydroxides have been obtained by hydrolysis of aluminium isopropoxide, nitrates, sulphate, chloride in alkaline environment at 80-90ºC tempertures. β-Al(OH)3 has been received from aluminium powder by ultrasonic development. Drying of oxyhydroxide sol has been conducted with presence of various types seeds, which amount reaches 0,1-0,2% (mas). Neodymium, holmium, thorium, lanthanum, cerium, gadolinium, disprosium nitrates and rhenium carbonyls have been used as seeds and they have been added to the sol specimens in amount of 0.1-0.2% (mas) calculated on metals. Annealing of obtained gels is carried out at 70 – 1100ºC for 2 hrs. The same specimen transforms in α-Al2O3 at 1100ºC. At this temperature in case of presence of lanthanum and gadolinium transformation takes place by 70-85%. In case of presence of thorium stabilization of γ-and θ-phases takes place. It is established, that thorium causes inhibition of α-phase generation at 1100ºC, at the time in all other doped specimens α-phase is generated at lower temperatures (1000-1050ºC). During the work the following devices have been used: X-ray difractometer DRON-3M (Cu-Kα, Ni filter, 2º/min), High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON, electronic scanning microscopes Nikon ECLIPSE LV 150, NMM-800TRF, planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, SHIMADZU Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester, DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dyna sizer.

Keywords: α-Alumina, combustion, phase transformation, seeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 313