Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: chitin

39 Chitin Degradation in Pseudomonas fluorescens

Authors: Azhar Alhasawi, Vasu D. Appanna


Chitin, the second most abundant bio-polymer in nature after cellulose, composed of β (1→4) linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is a major structural component in the cell walls of fungi and the shells of crustaceans. Chitin and its derivatives are gaining importance of economic value due to its biological activity and its industrial and biomedical applications. There are several methods to hydrolyze chitin to NAG, but they are typically expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Chitinase which catalyzes the breakdown of chitin to NAG has received much attention owing to its various applications in biotechnology. The presented research examines the ability of the versatile soil microbe, Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in chitin medium to produce chitinase and a variety of value-added products under abiotic stress. We have found that with high pH, Pseudomonas fluorescens enable to metabolize chitin more than with neutral pH and the overexpression of chitinase was also increased. P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) assay for NAG production will be monitored and a combination of sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gels will be used to monitor the proteomic and metabolomic changes as a result of the abiotic stress. The bioreactor of chitinase will also be utilized.

Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens, chitin, DMAB, chitinase

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38 Chitin Crystalline Phase Transition Promoted by Deep Eutectic Solvent

Authors: Diana G. Ramirez-Wong, Marius Ramirez, Regina Sanchez-Leija, Adriana Rugerio, R. Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Martin A. Hernandez-Landaverde, Arturo Carranza, John A. Pojman, Josue D. Mota-Morales, Gabriel Luna-Barcenas


Chitin films were prepared using alpha-chitin from shrimp shells as raw material and a simple method of precipitation-evaporation. Choline chloride: urea Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) was used to disperse chitin and compared against hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). A careful analysis of the chemical and crystalline structure was followed along the synthesis of the films, revealing crystalline-phase transitions. The full conversion of alpha- to beta-, or alpha- to gamma-chitin structure were detected by XRD and NMR on the films. The synthesis of highly crystalline monophasic gamma-chitin films was achieved using a DES; whereas HFIP helps to promote the beta-phase. These results are encouraging to continue in the study of DES as good processing media to control the final properties of chitin based materials.

Keywords: chitin, deep eutectic solvent, polymorph, phase transformation

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37 In-Silico Fusion of Bacillus Licheniformis Chitin Deacetylase with Chitin Binding Domains from Chitinases

Authors: Keyur Raval, Steffen Krohn, Bruno Moerschbacher


Chitin, the biopolymer of the N-acetylglucosamine, is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet after cellulose. Industrially, chitin is isolated and purified from the shell residues of shrimps. A deacetylated derivative of chitin i.e. chitosan has more market value and applications owing to it solubility and overall cationic charge compared to the parent polymer. This deacetylation on an industrial scale is performed chemically using alkalis like sodium hydroxide. This reaction not only is hazardous to the environment owing to negative impact on the marine ecosystem. A greener option to this process is the enzymatic process. In nature, the naïve chitin is converted to chitosan by chitin deacetylase (CDA). This enzymatic conversion on the industrial scale is however hampered by the crystallinity of chitin. Thus, this enzymatic action requires the substrate i.e. chitin to be soluble which is technically difficult and an energy consuming process. We in this project wanted to address this shortcoming of CDA. In lieu of this, we have modeled a fusion protein with CDA and an auxiliary protein. The main interest being to increase the accessibility of the enzyme towards crystalline chitin. A similar fusion work with chitinases had improved the catalytic ability towards insoluble chitin. In the first step, suitable partners were searched through the protein data bank (PDB) wherein the domain architecture were sought. The next step was to create the models of the fused product using various in silico techniques. The models were created by MODELLER and evaluated for properties such as the energy or the impairment of the binding sites. A fusion PCR has been designed based on the linker sequences generated by MODELLER and would be tested for its activity towards insoluble chitin.

Keywords: chitin deacetylase, modeling, chitin binding domain, chitinases

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36 Prolonged Synthesis of Chitin Polysaccharide from Chlorovirus System

Authors: Numfon Rakkhumkaew, Takeru Kawasaki, Makoto Fujie, Takashi Yamada


Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses contain a gene that encodes a function for chitin synthesis, which is expressed early in viral infection to produce chitin polysaccharide, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked GlcNAc, on the outside of Chlorella cell wall. Interestingly, chlorovirus system is an eco-friendly system which converses CO2 and solar energy from the environment into useful materials. However, infected Chlorella cells are lysed at the final stage of viral infection, and this phenomenon is caused the breaking down of polysaccharide. To postpone the lysing period and prolong the synthesis of chitin polysaccharide on cells, the slow growing virus incorporated with aphidicolin treatment, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, was investigated. In this study, a total of 25 virus isolates from water samples in Japan region were analyzed for CHS (the gene for CH synthase) gene by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The accumulation and appearance of chitin polysaccharide on infected cells were detected by biotinylated chitin-binding proteins WGA (wheat germ agglutinin)-biotin for chitin in conjunction with avidin-Cy 2 or Cy 3 and investigated by fluorescence microscopy, observed as green or yellow fluorescence over the cell surface. Among all chlorovirus isolates, cells infected with CNF1 revealed the accumulation of chitin over the cell surface within 30 min p.i. and continued to accumulate on cells until 4 h p.i. before cell lyses which was 1.6 times longer accumulation period than cells infected with CVK2 (prototype virus). Furthermore, addition of aphidicolin could extend the chitin accumulation on cells infected with CNF1 until 8 h p.i. before cell lyses. Whereas, CVK2-infected cells treated with aphidicolin could prolong the chitin synthesis only for 6 h p.i. before cell lyses. Therefore, chitin synthesis by Chlorella-virus system could be prolonged by using slow-growing viral isolates and with aphidicolin.

Keywords: chitin, chlorovirus, Chlorella virus, aphidicolin

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35 Biosorption of Manganese Mine Effluents Using Crude Chitin from Philippine Bivalves

Authors: Randy Molejona Jr., Elaine Nicole Saquin


The area around the Ajuy river in Iloilo, Philippines, is currently being mined for manganese ore, and river water samples exceed the maximum manganese contaminant level set by US-EPA. At the same time, the surplus of local bivalve waste is another environmental concern. Synthetic chemical treatment compromises water quality, leaving toxic residues. Therefore, an alternative treatment process is biosorption or using the physical and chemical properties of biomass to adsorb heavy metals in contaminated water. The study aims to extract crude chitin from shell wastes of Bractechlamys vexillum, Perna viridis, and Placuna placenta and determine its adsorption capacity on manganese in simulated and actual mine water. Crude chitin was obtained by pulverization, deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorization of shells. Biosorption by flocculation followed 5 g: 50 mL chitin-to-water ratio. Filtrates were analyzed using MP-AES after 24 hours. In both actual and simulated mine water, respectively, B. vexillum yielded the highest adsorption percentage of 91.43% and 99.58%, comparable to P. placenta of 91.43% and 99.37%, while significantly different to P. viridis of -57.14% and 31.53%, (p < 0.05). FT-IR validated the presence of chitin in shells based on carbonyl-containing functional groups at peaks 1530-1560 cm⁻¹ and 1660-1680 cm⁻¹. SEM micrographs showed the amorphous and non-homogenous structure of chitin. Thus, crude chitin from B. vexillum and P. placenta can be bio-sorbents for water treatment of manganese-impacted effluents, and promote appropriate waste management of local bivalves.

Keywords: biosorption, chitin, FT-IR, mine effluents, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
34 Promissing Antifungal Chitinase from Marine Strain of Bacillus

Authors: Ben Amar Cheba, Taha Ibrahim Zaghloul, Mohamad Hisham El-Massry, Ahmad Rafik El-Mahdy


Seventy two bacterial strains with ability to degrade chitin were isolated during a screening program. One of the most potent isolates (strain R2) was identified as Bacillus sp. using conventional methods as well as 16S rRNA technique and submitted in the Gen Bank sequence database as Bacillus sp. R2 with a given accession number DQ 923161. This strain was able to produce high levels of extracellular chitinase. The chitinase of Bacillus sp. R2 hydrolyzed several chitinous substrates preferentially and showed a maximum activity toward the β chitin such as Calmar pen and squid bone chitins with the folds 1.47 and 1.23 respectively. The enzyme also exhibited a substrate binding capacity of more than 70% for squid chitin, shrimp shell colloidal chitin, chitosan and prawn shell chitin. The chitinase showed a moderate antifungal activity against many phytopathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium degitatum and Fusarium calmorum.This strain could be a suitable candidate for chitinase production on an industrial scale for using as promising antifungal biopestecide.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Bacillus sp. R2, chitinase, substrate specificity

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33 Cadmium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Natural Biosorbents

Authors: Z. V. P. Murthy, Preeti Arunachalam, Sangeeta Balram


Removal of metal ions from different wastewaters has become important due to their effects on living beings. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals found in different industrial wastewaters. There are many conventional methods available to remove heavy metals from wastewaters like adsorption, membrane separations, precipitation, electrolytic methods, etc. and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present work deals with the use of natural biosorbents (chitin and chitosan) to separate cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption data were fitted with different isotherms and kinetics models. Amongst different adsorption isotherms used to fit the adsorption data, the Freundlich isotherm showed better fits for both the biosorbents. The kinetics data of adsorption of cadmium showed better fit with pseudo-second order model for both the biosorbents. Chitosan, the derivative from chitin, showed better performance than chitin. The separation results are encouraging.

Keywords: chitin, chitosan, cadmium, isotherm, kinetics

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32 Starch Incorporated Hydroxyapatite/Chitin Nanocomposite as a Novel Bone Construct

Authors: Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shakir, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor E. Iram


A nanocomposite system integrating hydroxyapatite, chitin and starch (n-HA/CT/ST) has been synthesized via co-precipitation approach at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for Bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size and surface morphology against n-HA/CT (nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin) nanocomposite have been obtained by correlating and comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. The comparative study of the bioactivity of n-HA/CT and n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent improved these properties in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite. The rise in thermal stability in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite as compared to n-HA/CT has been observed by comparing the TGA results. The comparison of SEM images of both the scaffolds indicated that the addition of ST influenced the surface morphology of n-HA/CT scaffold which appeared to be rougher and porous. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 cells and in-vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CT/ST matrix referred superior non-toxic property of n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite and higher possibility of osteo-integration in-vivo, respectively.

Keywords: bioactive, chitin, hyroxyapatite, nanocomposite

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31 Deproteination and Demineralization of Shrimp Waste Using Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Crude Chitin and Chitosan

Authors: Farramae Francisco, Rhoda Mae Simora, Sharon Nunal


Deproteination and demineralization efficiencies of shrimp waste using two Lactobacillus species treated with different carbohydrate sources for chitin production, its chemical conversion to chitosan and the quality of chitin and chitosan produced were determined. Using 5% glucose and 5% cassava starch as carbohydrate sources, pH slightly increased from the initial pH of 6.0 to 6.8 and 7.2, respectively after 24 h and maintained their pH at 6.7 to 7.3 throughout the treatment period. Demineralization (%) in 5 % glucose and 5 % cassava was highest during the first day of treatment which was 82% and 83%, respectively. Deproteination (%) was highest in 5% cassava starch on the 3rd day of treatment at 84.4%. The obtained chitin from 5% cassava and 5% glucose had a residual ash and protein below 1% and solubility of 59% and 44.3%, respectively. Chitosan produced from 5% cassava and 5% glucose had protein content below 0.05%; residual ash was 1.1% and 0.8%, respectively. Chitosan solubility and degree of deacetylation were 56% and 33% in 5% glucose and 48% and 29% in 5% cassava, respectively. The advantage this alternative technology offers over that of chemical extraction is large reduction in chemicals needed thus less effluent production and generation of a protein-rich liquor, although the demineralization process should be improved to achieve greater degree of deacetylation.

Keywords: alternative carbon source, bioprocessing, lactic acid bacteria, waste utilization

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30 Partial Purification and Characterization of a Low Molecular Weight and Industrially Important Chitinase and a Chitin Deacetylase Enzyme from Streptomyces Chilikensis RC1830, a Novel Strain Isolated from Chilika Lake, India

Authors: Lopamudra Ray, Malla Padma, Dibya Bhol, Samir Ranjan Mishra, A. N. Panda, Gurdeep Rastogi, T. K. Adhya, Ajit Kumar Pattnaik, Mrutyunjay Suar, Vishakha Raina


Chilika Lake is the largest coastal estuarine brackish water lagoon in Asia situated on the east coast of India and is a designated Ramsar site. In the current study, several chitinolytic microorganisms were isolated and screened by appearance of clearance zone on 0.5% colloidal chitin agar plate. A strain designated as RC 1830 displayed maximum colloidal chitin degradation by release of 112 μmol/ml/min of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in 48h. The strain was taxonomically identified by polyphasic approach based on a range of phenotypic and genotypic properties and was found to be a novel species named Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830. The organism was halophilic (12% NaCl w/v), alkalophilic (pH10) and was capable of hydrolyzing chitin, starch, cellulose, gelatin, casein, tributyrin and tween 80. The partial purification of chitinase enzymes from RC1830 was performed by DEAE Sephacel anion exchange chromatography which revealed the presence of a very low molecular weight chitinase(10.5kD) which may be a probable chitobiosidase enzyme. The study reports the presence of a low MW chitinase (10.5kD) and a chitin decaetylase from a novel Streptomyces strain RC1830 isolated from Chilika Lake. Previously chitinases less than 20.5kD have not been reported from any other Streptomyces species. The enzymes was characterized with respect to optimum pH, temperature, and substrate specificity and temperature stability.

Keywords: chitinases, chitobiosidase, Chilika Lake, India

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29 Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Dextrin/Chitin Nanocomposite System for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mohammad Shakir, Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor-E-Iram


A nanocomposite system incorporating dextrin into nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin matrix (n-HA/DX/CT) has been successfully synthesized via co-precipitation route at room temperature for the application in bone tissue engineering by investigating biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and mechanical properties. The FTIR spectra of n-HA/DX/CT nanocomposite indicated a considerable intermolecular interaction between the various components of the system. The results of XRD, TEM and TGA/DTA revealed that the crystallinity, size and thermal stability of the n-HA/DX/CT scaffold has decreased and increased respectively. The result of SEM image of the n-HA/DX/CT scaffold indicated that the incorporation of dextrin affected the surface morphology while considerable in-vitro bioactivity has been observed in n-HA/DX/CT based on SBF study, referring a step towards possibility of making direct bond to living bone if implanted. Moreover, MTT assay suggested the non-toxic nature of n-HA/DX/CT to murine fibroblast L929 cells. The swelling study of n-HA/DX/CT scaffold indicated the low swelling rate for n-HADX/CT. All these results have paved the way for n-HA/DX/CT to be used as a competent material for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: autograft, chitin, dextrin, nanocomposite

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28 Evaluation of a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron in the Shrimp Palaemon Adspersus: Impact on Ecdysteroids and Chitin Contents

Authors: Hinda Berghiche, Hamida Benradia, Noureddine Soltani


Pesticides are widely used in crop production and are known to induce a major contamination of ecosystems especially in aquatic environments. The leaching of a large amount of pollutants derived from agricultural activities (fertilizers, pesticides) might contaminate rivers which diverse into the likes and estuarine and coastal environments affecting several organisms such as crustacean species. In this context, there is searched for new selective insecticides with minimal toxic effects on the environment and human health such as growth insect regulators (GIRs). The current study aimed to examine the impact of novaluron (CE 20%), a potent benzoylphenylurea derivative insecticide on mosquito larvae, against non-target shrimp, Palaemon adspersus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae). The compound was tested at two concentrations (0.91 mg/L and 4.30 mg/L) corresponding respectively to the LC50 and LC90 determined against fourth-instar larvae of Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera, Culicidae). The molting hormone titer was determined in the haemolymph by an enzyme-immunoassay, while chitin was measured in peripheral integument at different stages during the molting cycle. Under normal conditions, the haemolymphatic ecdysteroid concentrations increased during the molting cycle to reach peak at stage D. In the treated series, we note absence of the peak at stage D and an increase at stages B, C and D as compared to the controls. Concerning the chitin amounts, we observe an increase from stage A to stage C followed by a decrease at stage D. Exposition of shrimps to novaluron resulted in a significant decrease of values at all molting stages with a dose-response effect. Thus, the insecticide can present secondary effects on this non-target arthropod species.

Keywords: toxicology, novaluron, crustacean, palaemon adspersus, ecdysteroids, cuticle, chitin

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27 Purification and Characterization of a Novel Extracellular Chitinase from Bacillus licheniformis LHH100

Authors: Laribi-Habchi Hasiba, Bouanane-Darenfed Amel, Drouiche Nadjib, Pausse André, Mameri Nabil


Chitin, a linear 1, 4-linked N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) polysaccharide is the major structural component of fungal cell walls, insect exoskeletons and shells of crustaceans. It is one of the most abundant naturally occurring polysaccharides and has attracted tremendous attention in the fields of agriculture, pharmacology and biotechnology. Each year, a vast amount of chitin waste is released from the aquatic food industry, where crustaceans (prawn, crab, Shrimp and lobster) constitute one of the main agricultural products. This creates a serious environmental problem. This linear polymer can be hydrolyzed by bases, acids or enzymes such as chitinase. In this context an extracellular chitinase (ChiA-65) was produced and purified from a newly isolated LHH100. Pure protein was obtained after heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Based on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 65,195.13 Da. The sequence of the 27 N-terminal residues of the mature ChiA-65 showed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 4 and 75◦C. Among the inhibitors and metals tested p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and Hg + completelyinhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc) n (n = 2–4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)2> p-NP-(GlcNAc)4> p-NP-(GlcNAc)3. Our results suggest that ChiA-65 preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc) n. ChiA-65 obeyed Michaelis Menten kinetics the Km and kcat values being 0.385 mg, colloidal chitin/ml and5000 s−1, respectively. ChiA-65 exhibited remarkable biochemical properties suggesting that this enzyme is suitable for bioconversion of chitin waste.

Keywords: Bacillus licheniformis LHH100, characterization, extracellular chitinase, purification

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26 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash, Vikas Tomar


The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: chitin, composites, interfaces, fracture

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25 Effect of Inhibitor of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in the Mediterranean Flour Moth: Structural Parametrs of Cuticule and Ecdysteroid Amounts

Authors: S. Yezli-Touiker, L. Kirane-Amrani, N. Soltani-Mazouni


Ephestia kuehniella Zeller Lepidoptera, Pyralidae commonly called Mediterranean flour moth, is serious cosmopolitan pest of stored grain products, particularly flour Month. This species is also a source of allergen that causes asthma and rhinitis. Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) it was tested in vivo by topical application on development of E. kuehniella. The compound is diluted in acetone and applied topically to newly emerged pupae (10mg/2ml). Report chitin protein of cuticule and ecdysteroid Amounts were determined in vivo. Results show that the captopril does not affect chitin protein of cuticule but traitment with captopril increase the hormonal production, the quantitative analysis reveals the presence of two peaks one at third and another at fifth day.

Keywords: Ephestia kuehniella, cuticule, hormone, captopril

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24 Measurements of Chitin by Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Its Relationship to Ochratoxin a Production

Authors: Jamal Elzwai, Kofi Aidoo, Alan Candlish


Production of OTA was detected after 24hr by Aspergillus ochraceus isolate whereas at 36hr for A. carbonarius isolate and Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and 60hr for A. ochraceus CBS 588.68. Highest OTA level was produced by A. carbonarius isolate followed by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and finally A. ochraceus isolate. Glucosamine content of barley sample before fermentation was found to be negligible and remained almost constant during the incubation time. Glucosamine content started to increase at 12 hours after incubation with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, and after 12 hours with P. verrucosum IMI 285522. Highest glucosamine content, as a result of increase in fungal biomass, was produced by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 followed by A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate, and finally by P. verrucosum IMI 285522. It appears that there is a correlation between OTA synthesis and glucosamine content with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 but not with P. verrucosum IMI 285522.

Keywords: chitin, barley, Ochratoxin A, Aspergiluus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum

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23 Extraction, Characterization, and Applicability of Rich β-Glucan Fractions from Fungal Biomass

Authors: Zaida Perez-Bassart, Berta Polanco-Estibalez, Maria Jose Fabra, Amparo Lopez-Rubio, Antonio Martinez-Abad


Mushroom production has enormously increased in recent years, not only as food products but also for applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Consequently, interest in its chemical composition, nutritional value, and therapeutic properties has also increased. Fungi are rich in bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, glycopeptides, and ergosterol, of great medicinal value, but within polysaccharides, β-glucans are the most prominent molecules. They are formed by D-glucose monomers, linked by β-glucosidic bonds β-(1,3) with side chains linked by β-(1,6) bonds. The number and position of the β-(1,6) branches strongly influence the arrangement of the tertiary structure, which, together with the molecular weight, determine the different attributed bioactivities (immunostimulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, prebiotic, etc.) and physico-chemical properties (solubility, bioaccessibility, viscosity or emulsifying). On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the study of fungi as an alternative source of chitin obtained from the by-products of the fungal industry. In this work, a cascade extraction process using aqueous neutral and alkaline treatments was carried out for Grifola frondosa and Lentinula edodes, and the compositional analysis and functional properties of each fraction were characterized. Interestingly, the first fraction obtained by using aqueous treatment at room temperature was the richest in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, thus obtaining a greater antioxidant capacity than in the other fractions. In contrast, the fractions obtained by alkaline treatments showed a higher degree of β-glucans purification compared to aqueous extractions but a lower extraction yield. Results revealed the different structural recalcitrance of β-glucans, preferentially linked to proteins or chitin depending on the fungus type, which had a direct impact on the functionalities and bioactivities of each fraction.

Keywords: fungi, mushroom, β-glucans, chitin

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22 Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma sp. against Macrophomina phaseolina

Authors: Jayarama Reddy, Anand S., H., Sundaram, Jeldi Hemachandran


Forty two strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from cultivated lands around Bangalore and analyzed for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina. The potential of biocontrol agents ultimately lies in their capacity to control pathogens in vivo. Bioefficacy studies were hence conducted using chickpea (Cicer arientum c.v. Annigeri) as an experimental plant by the roll paper towel method. Overall the isolates T6, T35, T30, and T25 showed better antagonistic potential in addition to enhancing plant growth. The production of chitinases to break down the mycelial cell walls of fungal plant pathogens has been implicated as a major cause of biocontrol activity. In order to study the mechanism of biocontrol against Macrophomina phaseolina, ten better performing strains were plated on media, amended with colloidal chitin and Sclerotium rolfsii cell wall extract. All the isolates showed chitinolytic activity on day three as well as day five. Production of endochitinase and exochitinase were assayed in liquid media using colloidal chitin amended broth. Strains T35 and T6 displayed maximum endochitinase and exochitinase activity. Although all strains exhibited cellulase activity, the quantum of enzyme produced was higher in T35 and T6. The results also indicate a positive correlation between enzyme production and bioefficacy.

Keywords: biocontrol, bioefficacy, cellulase, chitinase

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21 Fabrication and Analysis of Simplified Dragonfly Wing Structures Created Using Balsa Wood and Red Prepreg Fibre Glass for Use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles

Authors: Praveena Nair Sivasankaran, Thomas Arthur Ward, Rubentheren Viyapuri


Paper describes a methodology to fabricate a simplified dragonfly wing structure using balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. These simplified wing structures were created for use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAV). Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated and possess complex vein structures. In order to mimic the wings function and retain its properties, a simplified version of the wing was designed. The simplified dragonfly wing structure was created using a method called spatial network analysis which utilizes Canny edge detection method. The vein structure of the wings were carved out in balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. Balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass was chosen due to its ultra- lightweight property and hence, highly suitable to be used in our application. The fabricated structure was then immersed in a nanocomposite solution containing chitosan as a film matrix, reinforced with chitin nanowhiskers and tannic acid as a crosslinking agent. These materials closely mimic the membrane of a dragonfly wing. Finally, the wings were subjected to a bending test and comparisons were made with previous research for verification. The results had a margin of difference of about 3% and thus the structure was validated.

Keywords: dragonfly wings, simplified, Canny edge detection, balsa wood, red prepreg, chitin, chitosan, tannic acid

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20 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Tyre Pyrolytic Oil Using Low Cost Natural Adsorbents

Authors: Neha Budhwani


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during the pyrolysis of scrap tyres to produce tyre pyrolytic oil (TPO). Due to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic properties PAHs are priority pollutants. Hence it is essential to remove PAHs from TPO before utilising TPO as a petroleum fuel alternative (to run the engine). Agricultural wastes have promising future to be utilized as biosorbent due to their cost effectiveness, abundant availability, high biosorption capacity and renewability. Various low cost adsorbents were prepared from natural sources. Uptake of PAHs present in tyre pyrolytic oil was investigated using various low-cost adsor¬bents of natural origin including sawdust (shiham), coconut fiber, neem bark, chitin, activated charcol. Adsorption experiments of different PAHs viz. naphthalene, acenaphthalene, biphenyl and anthracene have been carried out at ambient temperature (25°C) and at pH 7. It was observed that for any given PAH, the adsorption capacity increases with the lignin content. Freundlich constant kf and 1/n have been evaluated and it was found that the adsorption isotherms of PAHs were in agreement with a Freundlich model, while the uptake capacity of PAHs followed the order: activated charcoal> saw dust (shisham) > coconut fiber > chitin. The partition coefficients in acetone-water, and the adsorption constants at equilibrium, could be linearly correlated with octanol–water partition coefficients. It is observed that natural adsorbents are good alternative for PAHs removal. Sawdust of Dalbergia sissoo, a by-product of sawmills was found to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of PAHs present in TPO. It is observed that adsorbents studied were comparable to those of some conventional adsorbents.

Keywords: natural adsorbent, PAHs, TPO, coconut fiber, wood powder (shisham), naphthalene, acenaphthene, biphenyl and anthracene

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19 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin


Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity

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18 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang


Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

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17 Advanced Catechol-Modified Chitosan Hydrogels with the Inducement of Iron (III) Ion at Acidic Condition

Authors: Ngoc Quang Nguyen, Daewon Sohn


Chitosan (CS) is a natural polycationic polysaccharide and pH-sensitive polymer with incomplete deacetylation from claiming chitin. It is also a guaranteeing material in terms of pharmaceutical, chemical, and sustenance industry due to its exceptional structure (reactive –OH and –NH2 groups). In this study, a catechol-functionalized chitosan (CCS, for an eminent level for substitution) was synthesized and propelled by marine mussel cuticles in place on research those intricate connections between Fe³⁺ and catechol under acidic conditions. The ratios of catechol, chitosan and other reagents decide the structure of the hydrogel. The gel formation is then well-maintained by dual cross-linking through electrostatic interactions between Fe³⁺ and CCS and covalent catechol-coupling-based coordinate bonds. The hydrogels showed enhanced cohesiveness and shock-absorbing properties with increasing pH due to coordinate bonds inspired by mussel byssal threads. Thus, the gelation time, rheological properties, UV-vis and ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and the morphologic aspects were elucidated to describe those crosslinking components and the physical properties of the chitosan backbones and hydrogel frameworks.

Keywords: catechol, chitosan, iron ion, gelation, hydrogel

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16 Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Response of Rice Leaves to Chitosan under Drought Stress

Authors: Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Wasinee Pongprayoon


Chitosan has been proposed as a natural polymer, and it is derived from chitin. The objective of this research was to determine the growth promoting responses induced by chitosan at the molecular physiology level in Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under drought stress by adding of 2% polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) to the nutrient solution and after removal of the drought stress (re-water). Oligomeric chitosan at 40 ppm could enhance shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight during drought stress and re-water. After 7 days of drought stress and re-water, significant increases in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents in KDML 105 cultivar were observed. The 749 phosphoproteins in rice leaf treated with chitosan could be resolved by phosphoprotein enrichment, tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. They can be classified into 10 groups. Proteins involved in the metabolic process and biological regulation were upregulated in response to chitosan during drought stress. This work will help us to understand protein phosphorylation relating to chitosan response during drought stress in aromatic rice seedlings.

Keywords: Chitosan, drought, phosphoproteome, rice

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15 Hemostasis Poly Vinyl Alcohol Gauze Coated with Chitosan Encapsulated with Polymer and Drug

Authors: Abhishekkumar Ramasamy, Parameshwari


Chitosan is the deacyelitated derivative of chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer just after cellulose. Without doubt, its biomedical usages have gained more importance among the vast variety of chitosan applications owing to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, particular interest has been devoted to chitosan hydrogels as a promising alternative in competition with conventional sutures or bioadhesives. Different parameters such as acid type and concentration, and degree of deacetylation (DD%) of chitosan, were altered to modify hydrogel properties including viscosity, pH, cohesive strength, and tissue bioadhesiveness. In the current work, we have investigated the effectiveness of chitosan hydrogel encapsulated with tanexamic acid to stop bleeding. Chitosan film was obtained with solubilization of chitosan powder in aqueous acidic media. In vivo experiments have been conducted on rat and rabbit models that provide a convenient way to evaluate the efficacy of prepared samples. The arteries vein was punctured on the hind limb of the rat and the gauze was been applied on the punchered area. Bioadhesive strength as well as irritant effects were discussed. Samples with higher degree of deacetylation, including Chs-16 and Chs-19 that were dissolved in lactic media showed best sealing effect.

Keywords: chitosan, biocomaptibility, biodegradability, bioadhersive, deacetylation

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14 Synthesis of Chitosan/Silver Nanocomposites: Antibacterial Properties and Tissue Regeneration for Thermal Burn Injury

Authors: B.L. España-Sánchez, E. Luna-Hernández, R.A. Mauricio-Sánchez, M.E. Cruz-Soto, F. Padilla-Vaca, R. Muñoz, L. Granados-López, L.R. Ovalle-Flores, J.L. Menchaca-Arredondo, G. Luna-Bárcenas


Treatment of burn injured has been considered an important clinical problem due to the fluid control and the presence of microorganisms during the healing process. Conventional treatment includes antiseptic techniques, topical medication and surgical removal of damaged skin, to avoid bacterial growth. In order to accelerate this process, different alternatives for tissue regeneration have been explored, including artificial skin, polymers, hydrogels and hybrid materials. Some requirements consider a nonreactive organic polymer with high biocompatibility and skin adherence, avoiding bacterial infections. Chitin-derivative biopolymer such as chitosan (CS) has been used in skin regeneration following third-degree burns. The biological interest of CS is associated with the improvement of tissue cell stimulation, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. In particular, antimicrobial properties of CS can be significantly increased when is blended with nanostructured materials. Silver-based nanocomposites have gained attention in medicine due to their high antibacterial properties against pathogens, related to their high surface area/volume ratio at nanomolar concentrations. Silver nanocomposites can be blended or synthesized with chitin-derivative biopolymers in order to obtain a biodegradable/antimicrobial hybrid with improved physic-mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites based on chitosan/silver nanoparticles (CS/nAg) were synthesized by the in situ chemical reduction method, improving their antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria and enhancing the healing process in thermal burn injuries produced in an animal model. CS/nAg was prepared in solution by the chemical reduction method, using AgNO₃ as precursor. CS was dissolved in acetic acid and mixed with different molar concentrations of AgNO₃: 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 M. Solutions were stirred at 95°C during 20 hours, in order to promote the nAg formation. CS/nAg solutions were placed in Petri dishes and dried, to obtain films. Structural analyses confirm the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (nAg) by means of UV-Vis and TEM, with an average size of 7.5 nm and spherical morphology. FTIR analyses showed the complex formation by the interaction of hydroxyl and amine groups with metallic nanoparticles, and surface chemical analysis (XPS) shows low concentration of Ag⁰/Ag⁺ species. Topography surface analyses by means of AFM shown that hydrated CS form a mesh with an average diameter of 10 µm. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was improved in all evaluated conditions, such as nAg loading and interaction time. CS/nAg nanocomposites films did not show Ag⁰/Ag⁺ release in saline buffer and rat serum after exposition during 7 days. Healing process was significantly enhanced by the presence of CS/nAg nanocomposites, inducing the production of myofibloblasts, collagen remodelation, blood vessels neoformation and epidermis regeneration after 7 days of injury treatment, by means of histological and immunohistochemistry assays. The present work suggests that hydrated CS/nAg nanocomposites can be formed a mesh, improving the bacterial penetration and the contact with embedded nAg, producing complete growth inhibition after 1.5 hours. Furthermore, CS/nAg nanocomposites improve the cell tissue regeneration in thermal burn injuries induced in rats. Synthesis of antibacterial, non-toxic, and biocompatible nanocomposites can be an important issue in tissue engineering and health care applications.

Keywords: antibacterial, chitosan, healing process, nanocomposites, silver

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13 Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Antibiotic Production Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

Authors: Ahmed Y. Kutbi, C. Russell. J. Baird, M. McNaughtan, Francis Wayman


Wastewaters from antibiotic production facilities are characterized with high concentrations of dissolved organic substances. Subsequently, it challenges wastewater treatment plant operator to achieve successful biological treatment and to meet regulatory emission levels. Of the dissolved organic substances, this research is investigating the fate of organic nitrogenous compounds (i.e., Chitin) in an antibiotic production wastewater treatment plant located in Irvine, Scotland and its impact on the WWTP removal performance. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in WWTP effluents are of significance because 1) its potential to cause eutrophication in receiving waters, 2) the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by products in drinking waters and 3) limits WWTPs ability to achieve very low total nitrogen (TN) emissions limits (5 – 25 mg/l). The latter point is where the knowledge gap lays between the operator and the regulator in setting viable TN emission levels. The samples collected from Irvine site at the different stages of the treatment were analyzed for TN and DON. Results showed that the average TN in the WWTP influents and effluents are 798 and 261 mg/l respectively, in other words, the plant achieved 67 % removal of TN. DON Represented 51% of the influents TN, while the effluents accounted 26 % of the TN concentrations. Therefore, an ongoing investigation is carried out to identify DON constituents in WWTP effluent and evaluate its impact on the WWTP performance and its potential bioavailability for algae in receiving waters, which is, in this case, Irvine Bay.

Keywords: biological wastewater treatment plant, dissolved organic nitrogen, bio-availability, Irvine Bay

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12 Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Medium Using Devised Column Filters Packed with Chitosan from Trash Crab Shells: A Characterization Study

Authors: Charles Klein O. Gorit, Mark Tristan J. Quimque Jr., M. Cecilia V. Almeda, Concepcion M. Salvana


Chitosan is a promising biopolymer commonly found in crustacean shells that has plausible effects in water purification and wastewater treatment. It is a primary derivative of chitin and considered second of the most abundant biopolymer prior to cellulose. Morphological analysis had been done using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Microscopy (SEM/EDS), and due to its porous nature, it showcases a certain degree of porosity, hence, larger adsorption site of heavy metal. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy of the chitosan and ‘lead-bound’ chitosan, shows a relative increase of percent abundance of lead cation from 1.44% to 2.08% hence, adsorption occurs. Chitosan, as a nitrogenous polysaccharide, subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows amide bands ranging from 1635.36 cm⁻¹ for amide 1 band and 1558.40 cm-1 for amide 2 band with NH stretching. For ‘lead-bound’ chitosan, the FT-IR analysis shows a change in peaks upon adsorption of Pb(II) cation. The spectrum shows broadening of OH and NH stretching band. Such observation can be attributed to the probability that the attachment of Pb(II) ions is in these functional groups. A column filter was devised with lead-bound chitosan to determine the zero point charge (pHzpc) of the biopolymer. The results show that at pH 8.34, below than the zpc level of literatures cited for lead which ranges from pH 4 to 7, favors the adsorption site of chitosan and its capability to adsorb traces amount of aqueous lead.

Keywords: chitosan, biopolymer, FT-IR, SEM, zero-point charge, heavy metal, lead ions

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11 Crab Shell Waste Chitosan-Based Thin Film for Acoustic Sensor Applications

Authors: Maydariana Ayuningtyas, Bambang Riyanto, Akhiruddin Maddu


Industrial waste of crustacean shells, such as shrimp and crab, has been considered as one of the major issues contributing to environmental pollution. The waste processing mechanisms to form new, practical substances with added value have been developed. Chitosan, a derived matter from chitin, which is obtained from crab and shrimp shells, performs prodigiously in broad range applications. A chitosan composite-based diaphragm is a new inspiration in fiber optic acoustic sensor advancement. Elastic modulus, dynamic response, and sensitivity to acoustic wave of chitosan-based composite film contribute great potentials of organic-based sound-detecting material. The objective of this research was to develop chitosan diaphragm application in fiber optic microphone system. The formulation was conducted by blending 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution with dissolved chitosan at 0%, 1% and 2% in 1:1 ratio, respectively. Composite diaphragms were characterized for the morphological and mechanical properties to predict the desired acoustic sensor sensitivity. The composite with 2% chitosan indicated optimum performance with 242.55 µm thickness, 67.9% relative humidity, and 29-76% light transmittance. The Young’s modulus of 2%-chitosan composite material was 4.89×104 N/m2, which generated the voltage amplitude of 0.013V and performed sensitivity of 3.28 mV/Pa at 1 kHz. Based on the results above, chitosan from crustacean shell waste can be considered as a viable alternative material for fiber optic acoustic sensor sensing pad development. Further, the research in chitosan utilisation is proposed as novel optical microphone development in anthropogenic noise controlling effort for environmental and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: acoustic sensor, chitosan, composite, crab shell, diaphragm, waste utilisation

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10 Sublethal Effect of Tebufenozide, an Ecdysteroid Agonist, on the Reproduction of German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

Authors: Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Amina Badi, Nadia Aribi


German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is known to be an important pest due to its high reproductive potential and its ability to build up large infectious populations. The infestations were generally controlled by neurotoxic insecticides including organophosphates (OP), carbamate and pyrethroids. An alternative cockroach’s control approach is the use insect growth regulators (IGRs). The relative fewer effects of these chemicals on non-target insects and animals, and their favourable environmental fate, make them attractive insecticides for inclusion in integrated pest management programmes. The juvenoids and chitin synthesis inhibitors are two classes of IGRs that have received the most attention for useful chemicals to manage German cockroaches while ecdysone agonists were mostly used to control Lepidopteran species. In the present study, the sublethal effects of the non-sreroidal ecdysone agonist tebufenozide were evaluated topically on adults of the B. germanica. The effects on reproduction were observed in adults females of cockroaches that survived exposure to LD25 (146 µg/g of insect) of tebufenozide. Dissection of treated females showed a clear reduction in both the number of oocytes per paired ovaries and the size of basal oocytes, as compared to controls. In addition, tebufenozide significantly reduced the mating success of pairs and altered the fertility as shown through the reduction of ootheca development and total absence of viable nymph. Tebufenozide disrupted the German cockroach reproduction by interfering with homeostasis of the insect hormones. In conclusion, the overall results suggested that tebufenozide can be used as a biorational insecticide for controlling cockroaches.

Keywords: B. germanica, ecdysteroid agonist, tebufenozide, reproduction

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