Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3019

Search results for: oxidative stability

3019 Improving Oxidative Stability of Encapsulated Krill and Black Cumin Oils and its Application in Functional Yogurt

Authors: Tamer El-Messery, Beraat Ozcelik


This study aimed to produce functional yogurt supplemented with microencapsulated krill oil as a source of omega 3, which is known, to maintain the normal brain function, reduce the risk of cancer, and preventing cardiovascular disease. Krill oil was mixed with black cumin oil (1:1) in order to increase its oxidative stability. β-caroteine (10 mg/100 ml) was used as a standard antioxidant. Maltodextrin (MD) was mixed with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum Arabic (GA) at the ratio of 8:2:0.5 ratios and used for microencapsulation of single or mixed oils. The microcapsules were dried by freeze and spray drying in order to maximize encapsulation efficiency and minimize lipid oxidation. The feed emulsions used for particle production were characterized for stability, viscosity and particle size, zeta potential, and oxidative stability. The oxidative stability for mixed krill oil and black cumin oil was the highest. The highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained using spray drying, which also showed the highest oxidative stability. The addition of encapsulated krill and black cumin oils (1:1) powder in yogurt manufacture reduced slightly effects on the development of acidity, textural parameters, and water holding capacity of yogurt as compared to control.

Keywords: Krill oil, black cumin oil, micro-encapsulation, oxidative stability, functional yogurt

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3018 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.


Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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3017 Fatty Acid Structure and Composition Effects of Biodiesel on Its Oxidative Stability

Authors: Gelu Varghese, Khizer Saeed


Biodiesel is as a mixture of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Recent studies in the literature suggest that end property of biodiesel such as its oxidative stability (OS) is highly influenced by the structure and composition of its alkyl esters than by environmental conditions. The structure and composition of these long chain fatty acid components have been also associated with trends in Cetane number, heat of combustion, cold flow properties viscosity, and lubricity. In the present work, detailed investigation has been carried out to decouple and correlate the fatty acid structure indices of biodiesel such as degree of unsaturation, chain length, double bond orientation, and composition with its oxidative stability. Measurements were taken using the EN14214 established Rancimat oxidative stability test method (EN141120). Firstly, effects of the degree of unsaturation, chain length and bond orientation were tested for the pure fatty acids to establish their oxidative stability. Results for pure Fatty acid show that Saturated FAs are more stable than unsaturated ones to oxidation; superior oxidative stability can be achieved by blending biodiesel fuels with relatively high in saturated fatty acid contents. A lower oxidative stability is noticed when a greater quantity of double bonds is present in the methyl ester. A strong inverse relationship with the number of double bonds and the Rancimat IP values can be identified. Trans isomer Methyl elaidate shows superior stability to oxidation than its cis isomer methyl oleate (7.2 vs. 2.3). Secondly, the effects of the variation in the composition of the biodiesel were investigated and established. Finally, biodiesels with varying structure and composition were investigated and correlated.

Keywords: biodiesel, fame, oxidative stability, fatty acid structure, acid composition

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3016 Tomato Peels Prevented Margarine and Soya/Sunflower Oils Oxidation

Authors: S. Zidani, A. Benakmoum, A. Mansouri, A. Ammouche


In this research paper, we studied the oxidative stability of table margarine and soya/sunflower oils rich in lycopene with tomato peel powder (TPP). For this 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) of TPP was added to oil used in margarine manufacture. Chromatic characteristics of margarine and soya/sunflower oil have been studied using 'Tristimulus Colorimetry' method. The main point of the research was to determine the antioxidant activity and the oxidative resistance of soya/sunflower and margarine with TPP (peroxide index, TBA index, and rancimat test). The sensory and textural properties, overall acceptability of margarine and oil were good, indicating that TPP could be added to oil to produce a margarine enriched in lycopene with excellent stability oxidative.

Keywords: tomato peel powder, lycopene, table margarine, soya/sunflower oils, antioxidant activity, stability oxidative

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3015 Benzoxaboralone: A Boronic Acid with High Oxidative Stability and Utility in Biological Contexts

Authors: Brian J. Graham, Ronald T. Raines


The presence of a nearly vacant p orbital on boron endows boronic acids with unique abilities as a catalyst and ligand. An organocatalytic process has been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a platform chemical. Specifically, 2-carboxyphenylboronic acid (2-CPBA) has been shown to be an optimal catalyst for this process, promoting the desired transformation in the absence of metals. The attributes of 2-CPBA as a catalyst led to additional investigations of its structure and reactivity. 2-CPBA was found to exist as a cyclized benzoxaborolone adduct rather than a free carboxylic acid. This cyclization has profound consequences for the oxidative stability of the boronic acid. Stereoelectronic effects within the oxaborolone ring destabilize the oxidation transition state by reducing electron donation from the cyclic oxygen to the developing p orbital on boron. That leads to a 10,000-fold increase in oxidative stability while maintaining the normal reactivity of boronic acids toward diols (e.g., carbohydrates) and nucleophiles in proteins while also presenting numerous hydrogen-bond accepting and donating groups. Thus, benzoxaborolones are useful in catalysis, chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and allied fields.

Keywords: bioisosteres, boronic acid, catalysis, oxidative stability, pharmacophore, stereoelectronic effects

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3014 Study of Oxidative Stability, Cold Flow Properties and Iodine Value of Macauba Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Acacia A. Salomão, Willian L. Gomes da Silva, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


Biodiesel physical and chemical properties depend on the raw material composition used in its synthesis. Saturated fatty acid esters confer high oxidative stability, while unsaturated fatty acid esters improve the cold flow properties. In this study, an alternative vegetal source - the macauba kernel oil - was used in the biodiesel synthesis instead of conventional sources. Macauba can be collected from native palm trees and is found in several regions in Brazil. Its oil is a promising source when compared to several other oils commonly obtained from food products, such as soybean, corn or canola oil, due to its specific characteristics. However, the usage of biodiesel made from macauba oil alone is not recommended due to the difficulty of producing macauba in large quantities. For this reason, this project proposes the usage of blends of the macauba oil with conventional oils. These blends were prepared by mixing the macauba biodiesel with biodiesels obtained from soybean, corn, and from residual frying oil, in the following proportions: 20:80, 50:50 e 80:20 (w/w). Three parameters were evaluated, using the standard methods, in order to check the quality of the produced biofuel and its blends: oxidative stability, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and iodine value. The induction period (IP) expresses the oxidative stability of the biodiesel, the CFPP expresses the lowest temperature in which the biodiesel flows through a filter without plugging the system and the iodine value is a measure of the number of double bonds in a sample. The biodiesels obtained from soybean, residual frying oil and corn presented iodine values higher than 110 g/100 g, low oxidative stability and low CFPP. The IP values obtained from these biodiesels were lower than 8 h, which is below the recommended standard value. On the other hand, the CFPP value was found within the allowed limit (5 ºC is the maximum). Regarding the macauba biodiesel, a low iodine value was observed (31.6 g/100 g), which indicates the presence of high content of saturated fatty acid esters. The presence of saturated fatty acid esters should imply in a high oxidative stability (which was found accordingly, with IP = 64 h), and high CFPP, but curiously the latter was not observed (-3 ºC). This behavior can be explained by looking at the size of the carbon chains, as 65% of this biodiesel is composed by short chain saturated fatty acid esters (less than 14 carbons). The high oxidative stability and the low CFPP of macauba biodiesel are what make this biofuel a promising source. The soybean, corn and residual frying oil biodiesels also have low CFPP, but low oxidative stability. Therefore the blends proposed in this work, if compared to the common biodiesels, maintain the flow properties but present enhanced oxidative stability.

Keywords: biodiesel, blends, macauba kernel oil, stability oxidative

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3013 Oxidation Assessment of Mayonnaise with Headspace Single-Drop Microextarction (HS-SDME) Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) during Shelf-Life

Authors: Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Maryam Enteshari, Abdorreza Mohammadi


The oxidative stability of mayonnaise under different storage temperatures (4 and 25˚C) during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by different analytical methods. In this study, headspace single-drop microextarction (HS-SDME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a green, sensitive and rapid technique was applied to evaluate oxidative state in mayonnaise. Oxidation changes of extracted oil from mayonnaise were monitored by analytical parameters including peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-An V), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), and oxidative stability index (OSI). Hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-SDME/GC-MS method in mayonnaise matrix. The rate of oxidation in mayonnaises increased during storage and it was determined greater at 25 ˚C. The values of Anisidine and TBA were gradually enhanced during 6 months, while the amount of OSI decreased. At both temperatures, the content of hexanal was higher than heptanal during all storage periods. Also significant increments in hexanal and heptanal concentrations in the second and sixth month of storage have been observed. Hexanal concentrations in mayonnaises which were stored at 25 ˚C and during storage time showed the highest values. It can be concluded that the temperature and duration of storage time are definitive parameters which affect on quality and oxidative stability of mayonnaise. Additionally, hexanal content in comparison to heptanal is a more reliable oxidative indicator and HS-SDME/GC-MS can be applied in a quick and simple manner.

Keywords: oxidative stability, mayonnaise, headspace single-drop microextarction (HS-SDME), shelf-life

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3012 Oxidative Stability of an Iranian Ghee (Butter Fat) Versus Soybean Oil During Storage at Different Temperatures

Authors: Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Maryam Enteshari


In this study, the oxidative stability of soybean oil under different storage temperatures (4 and 25 ˚C) and during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by various analytical methods and headspace-liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidation changes were monitored by analytical parameters consisted of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), fatty acids profile, iodine value (IV) and oxidative stability index (OSI). In addition, concentrations of hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-LPME/GC-MS technique. Rate of oxidation in soybean oil which stored at 25 ˚C was so higher. The AV, p-AV, and TBA were gradually increased during 6 months, while the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, IV, and OSI decreased. Other parameters included concentrations of both hexanal and heptanal, and PV exhibited increasing trend during primitive months of storage; then, at the end of third and fourth months a sudden decrement was understood for the concentrations of hexanal and heptanal and the amount of PV, simultaneously. The latter parameters increased again until the end of shelf-time. As a result, the temperature and time were effective factors in oxidative stability of soybean oil. Also intensive correlations were found for soybean oil at 4 ˚C between AV and TBA (r2=0.96), PV and p-AV (r2=0.9), IV and TBA (-r2=0.9), and for soybean oil stored at 4 ˚C between p-AV and TBA (r2=0.99).

Keywords: headspace-liquid phase microextraction, oxidation, shelf-life, soybean oil

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3011 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović


In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 µg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 µg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 µg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum

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3010 Evaluation of Oxidative Changes in Soybean Oil During Shelf-Life by Physico-Chemical Methods and Headspace-Liquid Phase Microextraction (HS-LPME) Technique

Authors: Maryam Enteshari, Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Abdorreza Mohammadi


In this study, the oxidative stability of soybean oil under different storage temperatures (4 and 25˚C) and during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by various analytical methods and headspace-liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidation changes were monitored by analytical parameters consisted of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), fatty acids profile, iodine value (IV), and oxidative stability index (OSI). In addition, concentrations of hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-LPME/GC-MS technique. Rate of oxidation in soybean oil which stored at 25˚C was so higher. The AV, p-AV, and TBA were gradually increased during 6 months while the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, IV, and OSI decreased. Other parameters included concentrations of both hexanal and heptanal, and PV exhibited increasing trend during primitive months of storage; then, at the end of third and fourth months a sudden decrement was understood for the concentrations of hexanal and heptanal and the amount of PV, simultaneously. The latter parameters increased again until the end of shelf-time. As a result, the temperature and time were effective factors in oxidative stability of soybean oil. Also intensive correlations were found for soybean oil at 4 ˚C between AV and TBA (r2=0.96), PV and p-AV (r2=0.9), IV and TBA (-r2=0.9), and for soybean oil stored at 4˚C between p-AV and TBA (r2=0.99).

Keywords: headspace-liquid phase microextraction, oxidation, shelf-life, soybean oil

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3009 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista, Matthieu Tubino


Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, oxidative stability, storage, synthetic antioxidants

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3008 Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Trans Fat Content and Oxidative Parameters of Groundnut Oil

Authors: Akanksha Jain, Santosh J. Passi, William Selvamurthy, Archna Singh


Heating/frying at elevated temperatures cause numerous physiochemical reactions including oxidative deterioration and trans fatty acid (TFA) formation; however Indian data on these parameters are scanty. The present study was designed to assess the effect of constant heating/frying on formation of TFAs and oxidative stability in groundnut oil. 750 mL of the oil was heated in a large iron karahi (utensil similar to a wok) and freshly cut potato strips were fried constantly at varying temperatures (160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC, 220ºC, 230ºC). In each case, the oil sample was drawn after one hour and stored at –20ºC until analysed. While TFA was estimated using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (AOCS official method Ce 1h–05), other chemical parameters were assessed by AOCS official methods. Oil samples subjected to heating/frying at varying temperatures demonstrated a significant increase in TFAs (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.01) while there was a corresponding decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). Frying process demonstrated greater TFA formation (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.11±0.01g/100g; at 230ºC it being 2.33±0.05g/100g) as compared to heating alone (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.07g±0.01/100g; at 230ºC it being 0.47±0.02g/100g), indicating that there was a significant difference in the generation of TFAs during the two thermal treatments (heating vs. frying; p=0.05). With increasing temperatures, acid value, p-anisidine value and total oxidation (TOTOX) value registered a significant increase (p < 0.01); however, peroxide value was found to be inconsistent. Thus, the formation of TFA and various oxidative parameters (except peroxide value) is directly influenced by the temperature of heating/frying. Since TFA formation and poor oxidative stability of oils can pose serious health concerns, food safety agencies/organizations need to devise appropriate policies, stringent food laws/standards and impose necessary safety regulations to curb oil abuse during the process of heating and frying. There is a dire need to raise consumer awareness regarding deleterious health effects of TFA and oxidative deterioration of oils at elevated temperatures employed during heating/frying procedures.

Keywords: cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oxidative stability, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid

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3007 Microencapsulation of Tuna Oil and Mentha Piperita Oil Mixture using Different Combinations of Wall Materials with Whey Protein Isolate

Authors: Amr Mohamed Bakry Ibrahim, Yingzhou Ni, Hao Cheng, Li Liang


Tuna oil (omega-3 oil) has become increasingly popular in the last ten years, because it is considered one of the treasures of food which has many beneficial health effects for the humans. Nevertheless, the susceptibility of omega-3 oils to oxidative deterioration, resulting in the formation of oxidation products, in addition to organoleptic problems including “fishy” flavors, have presented obstacles to the more widespread use of tuna oils in the food industry. This study sought to evaluate the potential impact of Mentha piperita oil on physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of tuna oil microcapsules formed by spray drying using the partial substitution to whey protein isolate by carboxymethyl cellulose and pullulan. The emulsions before the drying process were characterized regarding size and ζ-potential, viscosity, surface tension. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that all emulsions were sphericity and homogeneous distribution without any visible particle aggregation. The microcapsules obtained after spray drying were characterized regarding microencapsulation efficiency, water activity, color, bulk density, flowability, scanning surface morphology and oxidative stability. The microcapsules were spherical shape had low water activity (0.11-0.23 aw). The microcapsules containing both tuna oil and Mentha piperita oil were smaller than others and addition of pullulan into wall materials improved the morphology of microcapsules. Microencapsulation efficiency of powdered oil ranged from 90% to 94%. Using Mentha piperita oil in the process of microencapsulation tuna oil enhanced the oxidative stability using whey protein isolate only or with carboxymethyl cellulose or pullulan as wall materials, resulting in improved storage stability and mask fishy odor. Therefore, it is foreseen using tuna-Mentha piperita oil mixture microcapsules in the applications of the food industries.

Keywords: Mentha piperita oil, microcapsule, tuna oil, whey protein isolate

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3006 Studies on Biojetfuel Obtained from Vegetable Oil: Process Characteristics, Engine Performance and Their Comparison with Mineral Jetfuel

Authors: F. Murilo T. Luna, Vanessa F. Oliveira, Alysson Rocha, Expedito J. S. Parente, Andre V. Bueno, Matheus C. M. Farias, Celio L. Cavalcante Jr.


Aviation jetfuel used in aircraft gas-turbine engines is customarily obtained from the kerosene distillation fraction of petroleum (150-275°C). Mineral jetfuel consists of a hydrocarbon mixture containing paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics, with low olefins content. In order to ensure their safety, several stringent requirements must be met by jetfuels, such as: high energy density, low risk of explosion, physicochemical stability and low pour point. In this context, aviation fuels eventually obtained from biofeedstocks (which have been coined as ‘biojetfuel’), must be used as ‘drop in’, since adaptations in aircraft engines are not desirable, to avoid problems with their operation reliability. Thus, potential aviation biofuels must present the same composition and physicochemical properties of conventional jetfuel. Among the potential feedtstocks for aviation biofuel, the babaçu oil, extracted from a palm tree extensively found in some regions of Brazil, contains expressive quantities of short chain saturated fatty acids and may be an interesting choice for biojetfuel production. In this study, biojetfuel was synthesized through homogeneous transesterification of babaçu oil using methanol and its properties were compared with petroleum-based jetfuel through measurements of oxidative stability, physicochemical properties and low temperature properties. The transesterification reactions were carried out using methanol and after decantation/wash procedures, the methyl esters were purified by molecular distillation under high vacuum at different temperatures. The results indicate significant improvement in oxidative stability and pour point of the products when compared to the fresh oil. After optimization of operational conditions, potential biojetfuel samples were obtained, consisting mainly of C8 esters, showing low pour point and high oxidative stability. Jet engine tests are being conducted in an automated test bed equipped with pollutant emissions analysers to study the operational performance of the biojetfuel that was obtained and compare with a mineral commercial jetfuel.

Keywords: biojetfuel, babaçu oil, oxidative stability, engine tests

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3005 On the Other Side of Shining Mercury: In Silico Prediction of Cold Stabilizing Mutations in Serine Endopeptidase from Bacillus lentus

Authors: Debamitra Chakravorty, Pratap K. Parida


Cold-adapted proteases enhance wash performance in low-temperature laundry resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and wear of textiles and are also used in the dehairing process in leather industries. Unfortunately, the possible drawbacks of using cold-adapted proteases are their instability at higher temperatures. Therefore, proteases with broad temperature stability are required. Unfortunately, wild-type cold-adapted proteases exhibit instability at higher temperatures and thus have low shelf lives. Therefore, attempts to engineer cold-adapted proteases by protein engineering were made previously by directed evolution and random mutagenesis. The lacuna is the time, capital, and labour involved to obtain these variants are very demanding and challenging. Therefore, rational engineering for cold stability without compromising an enzyme's optimum pH and temperature for activity is the current requirement. In this work, mutations were rationally designed with the aid of high throughput computational methodology of network analysis, evolutionary conservation scores, and molecular dynamics simulations for Savinase from Bacillus lentus with the intention of rendering the mutants cold stable without affecting their temperature and pH optimum for activity. Further, an attempt was made to incorporate a mutation in the most stable mutant rationally obtained by this method to introduce oxidative stability in the mutant. Such enzymes are desired in detergents with bleaching agents. In silico analysis by performing 300 ns molecular dynamics simulations at 5 different temperatures revealed that these three mutants were found to be better in cold stability compared to the wild type Savinase from Bacillus lentus. Conclusively, this work shows that cold adaptation without losing optimum temperature and pH stability and additionally stability from oxidative damage can be rationally designed by in silico enzyme engineering. The key findings of this work were first, the in silico data of H5 (cold stable savinase) used as a control in this work, corroborated with its reported wet lab temperature stability data. Secondly, three cold stable mutants of Savinase from Bacillus lentus were rationally identified. Lastly, a mutation which will stabilize savinase against oxidative damage was additionally identified.

Keywords: cold stability, molecular dynamics simulations, protein engineering, rational design

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3004 Forced Degradation Study of Rifaximin Formulated Tablets to Determine Stability Indicating Nature of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method

Authors: Abid Fida Masih


Forced degradation study of Rifaximin was conducted to determine the stability indicating potential of HPLC testing method for detection of Rifaximin in formulated tablets to be employed for quality control and stability testing. The questioned method applied with mobile phase methanol: water (70:30), 5µm, 250 x 4.6mm, C18 column, wavelength 293nm and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Forced degradation study was performed under oxidative, acidic, basic, thermal and photolytic conditions. The applied method successfully determined the degradation products after acidic and basic degradation without interfering with Rifaximin detection. Therefore, the method was said to be stability indicating and can be applied for quality control and stability testing of Rifaxmin tablets during its shelf life.

Keywords: forced degradation, high-performance liquid chromatography, method validation, rifaximin, stability indicating method

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3003 Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Edible Oil by Microencapsulation Using Plant Proteins

Authors: L. Le Priol, A. Nesterenko, K. El Kirat, K. Saleh


Introduction and objectives: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 are widely recognized as being beneficial to the health and normal growth. Unfortunately, due to their highly unsaturated nature, these molecules are sensitive to oxidation and thermic degradation leading to the production of toxic compounds and unpleasant flavors and smells. Hence, it is necessary to find out a suitable way to protect them. Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a low-cost encapsulation technology and most commonly used in the food industry. Many compounds can be used as wall materials, but there is a growing interest in the use of biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, over the last years. The objective of this study is to increase the oxidative stability of sunflower oil by microencapsulation in plant protein matrices using spray-drying technique. Material and methods: Sunflower oil was used as a model substance for oxidable food oils. Proteins from brown rice, hemp, pea, soy and sunflower seeds were used as emulsifiers and microencapsulation wall materials. First, the proteins were solubilized in distilled water. Then, the emulsions were pre-homogenized using a high-speed homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) and stabilized by using a high-pressure homogenizer (HHP). Drying of the emulsion was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer. The oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil was determined by performing accelerated oxidation tests with a Rancimat. The size of the microparticles was measured using a laser diffraction analyzer. The morphology of the spray-dried microparticles was acquired using environmental scanning microscopy. Results: Pure sunflower oil was used as a reference material. Its induction time was 9.5 ± 0.1 h. The microencapsulation of sunflower oil in pea and soy protein matrices significantly improved its oxidative stability with induction times of 21.3 ± 0.4 h and 12.5 ± 0.4 h respectively. The encapsulation with hemp proteins did not significantly change the oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil. Sunflower and brown rice proteins were ineffective materials for this application, with induction times of 7.2 ± 0.2 h and 7.0 ± 0.1 h respectively. The volume mean diameter of the microparticles formulated with soy and pea proteins were 8.9 ± 0.1 µm and 16.3 ± 1.2 µm respectively. The values for hemp, sunflower and brown rice proteins could not be obtained due to the agglomeration of the microparticles. ESEM images showed smooth and round microparticles with soy and pea proteins. The surfaces of the microparticles obtained with sunflower and hemp proteins were porous. The surface was rough when brown rice proteins were used as the encapsulating agent. Conclusion: Soy and pea proteins appeared to be efficient wall materials for the microencapsulation of sunflower oil by spray drying. These results were partly explained by the higher solubility of soy and pea proteins in water compared to hemp, sunflower, and brown rice proteins. Acknowledgment: This work has been performed, in partnership with the SAS PIVERT, within the frame of the French Institute for the Energy Transition (Institut pour la Transition Energétique (ITE)) P.I.V.E.R.T. ( selected as an Investments for the Future (Investissements d’Avenir). This work was supported, as part of the Investments for the Future, by the French Government under the reference ANR-001-01.

Keywords: biopolymer, edible oil, microencapsulation, oxidative stability, release, spray-drying

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3002 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee


Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity

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3001 Determination of the Oxidative Potential of Organic Materials: Method Development

Authors: Jui Afrin, Akhtarul Islam


In this paper, the solution of glucose, yeast and glucose yeast mixture are being used as sample solution for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general COD determination method used to determine the different rang of oxidative potential. But in this work has shown to determine the definite oxidative potential for different concentration for known COD value and wanted to see the difference between experimental value and the theoretical value for evaluating the method drawbacks. In this study, made the values of oxidative potential like 400 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 700 mg/L and 800mg/L for various sample solutions and determined the oxidative potential according to our developed method. Plotting the experimental COD values vs. sample solutions of various concentrations in mg/L to draw the curve. From these curves see that the curves for glucose solution is not linear; its deviate from linearity for the lower concentration and the reason for this deviation is unknown. If these drawback can be removed this method can be effectively used to determine Oxidative Potential of Industrial wastewater (such as: Leather industry wastewater, Municipal wastewater, Food industry wastewater, Textile wastewater, Pharmaceuticals waste water) that’s why more experiment and study required.

Keywords: bod (biological oxygen demand), cod (chemical oxygen demand), oxidative potential, titration, waste water, development

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3000 Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Aromatic Hydrocarbon Polymers Containing Trifluoromethylphenyl Side Chain for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Yi-Chiang Huang, Hsu-Feng Lee, Yu-Chao Tseng, Wen-Yao Huang


Proton exchange membranes as a key component in fuel cells have been widely studying over the past few decades. As proton exchange, membranes should have some main characteristics, such as good mechanical properties, low oxidative stability and high proton conductivity. In this work, trifluoromethyl groups had been introduced on polymer backbone and phenyl side chain which can provide densely located sulfonic acid group substitution and also promotes solubility, thermal and oxidative stability. Herein, a series of novel sulfonated aromatic hydrocarbon polyelectrolytes was synthesized by polycondensation of 4,4''''-difluoro-3,3''''- bis(trifluoromethyl)-2'',3''-bis(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1':4',1'':4'',1''':4''',1''''-quinquephenyl with 2'',3''',5'',6''-tetraphenyl-[1,1':4',1'': 4'',1''':4''',1''''-quinquephenyl]-4,4''''-diol and post-sulfonated was through chlorosulfonic acid to given sulfonated polymers (SFC3-X) possessing ion exchange capacities ranging from 1.93, 1.91 and 2.53 mmol/g. ¹H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy were applied to confirm the structure and composition of sulfonated polymers. The membranes exhibited considerably dimension stability (10-27.8% in length change; 24-56.5% in thickness change) and excellent oxidative stability (weight remain higher than 97%). The mechanical properties of membranes demonstrated good tensile strength on account of the high rigidity multi-phenylated backbone. Young's modulus were ranged 0.65-0.77GPa which is much larger than that of Nafion 211 (0.10GPa). Proton conductivities of membranes ranged from 130 to 240 mS/cm at 80 °C under fully humidified which were comparable or higher than that of Nafion 211 (150 mS/cm). The morphology of membranes was investigated by transmission electron microscopy which demonstrated a clear hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation with spherical ionic clusters in the size range of 5-20 nm. The SFC3-1.97 single fuel cell performance demonstrates the maximum power density at 1.08W/cm², and Nafion 211 was 1.24W/cm² as a reference in this work. The result indicated that SFC3-X are good candidates for proton exchange membranes in fuel cell applications. Fuel cell of other membranes is under testing.

Keywords: fuel cells, polyelectrolyte, proton exchange membrane, sulfonated polymers

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2999 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu


Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

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2998 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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2997 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu


A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

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2996 Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants from Cypriot Salvia fruticosa Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula


Vegetable oils, which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, are susceptible to oxidative deterioration. The lipid oxidation of oils results in the production of rancid odors and unpleasant flavors as well as the reduction of their nutritional quality and safety. Traditionally, synthetic antioxidants are employed for their retardation or prevention of oxidative deterioration of oils. However, these compounds are suspected to pose health hazards. Consequently, recently there has been a growing interest in the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin for improving the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. The genus Salvia (sage) is well known for its antioxidant activity. In the Cypriot flora Salvia fruticosa is the most distributed indigenous Salvia species. In the present study, extracts were prepared from S. fruticosa aerial parts using various solvents and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Moreover, the antioxidant efficacy of all extracts was assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate, which was subjected to accelerated aging (60 °C, 30 days). The progress of lipid oxidation was monitored by the determination of the peroxide, p-aniside, conjugated dienes and trienes value according to the official AOCS methods. Synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene-BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole-BHA) were employed at their legal limit (200 ppm) as reference. Finally, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the prepared extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that although all sage extracts prepared from S. fruticosa exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the methanolic extract, followed by the non-toxic, food grade ethanol. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the antioxidant potency and the TPC of extracts was observed in all cases. Interestingly, sage extracts prevented lipid oxidation in corn oil at all concentrations tested, however, the magnitude of stabilization was dose dependent. More specifically, results from the different oxidation parameters were in agreement with each other and indicated that the protection offered by the various extracts depended on their TPC. Among the extracts, the methanolic extract was more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Finally, both methanolic and ethanolic sage extracts at a concentration of 1000 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of the reference synthetic antioxidants. Based on the results of the present study, sage extracts could be used for minimizing or preventing lipid oxidation in oils and, thus, prolonging their shelf-life. In particular, given that the use of dietary alcohol, such as ethanol, is preferable than methanol in food applications, the ethanolic extract prepared from S. fruticosa could be used as an alternative natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, sage

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2995 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel


A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: design of experiment (DOE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), optimization, oxidative desulfurization (ODS)

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2994 C₅₉Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalytic Material for Heck Coupling Reaction

Authors: Manjusha C. Padole, Parag A. Deshpande


Density functional theory calculations were carried out for identification of an active heterogeneous catalyst to carry out Heck coupling reaction which is of pharmaceutical importance. One of the carbonaceous nanomaterials, heterofullerene, was designed for the reaction. Stability and reactivity of the proposed heterofullerenes (C59M, M = Pd/Ni) were established with insights into the metal-carbon bond, electron affinity and chemical potential. Adsorbent potentials of both the heterofullerenes were examined from the adsorption study of four halobenzenes (C6H5F, C6H5Cl, C6H5Br and C6H5I). Oxidative addition activities of all four halobenzenes were investigated by developing free energy landscapes over both the heterofullerenes for rate determining step (oxidative addition). C6H5I showed a good catalytic activity for the rate determining step. Thus, C6H5I was proposed as a suitable halobenzene and complete free energy landscapes for Heck coupling reaction were developed over C59Pd and C59Ni. Smaller activation barriers observed over C59Pd in comparison with C59Ni put us in a position to propose C59Pd to be an efficient heterofullerene for carrying Heck coupling reaction.

Keywords: metal-substituted fullerene, density functional theory, electron affinity, oxidative addition, Heck coupling reaction

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2993 Night Shift Work as an Oxidative Stressor: A Systematic Review

Authors: Madeline Gibson


Night shift workers make up an essential part of the modern workforce. However, night shift workers have higher incidences of late in life diseases and earlier mortality. Night shift workers are exposed to constant light and experience circadian rhythm disruption. Sleep disruption is thought to increase oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance of excess pro-oxidative factors and reactive oxygen species over anti-oxidative activity. Oxidative stress can damage cells, proteins and DNA and can eventually lead to varied chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia. This review aimed to understand whether night shift workers were at greater risk of oxidative stress and to contribute to a consensus on this relationship. Twelve studies published in 2001-2019 examining 2,081 workers were included in the review. Studies compared both the impact of working a single shift and in comparisons between those who regularly work night shifts and only day shifts. All studies had evidence to support this relationship across a range of oxidative stress indicators, including increased DNA damage, reduced DNA repair capacity, increased lipid peroxidation, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and to a lesser extent, a reduction in antioxidant defense. This research supports the theory that melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle mediate the relationship between shift work and oxidative stress. It is concluded that night shift work increases the risk for oxidative stress and, therefore, future disease. Recommendations are made to promote the long-term health of shift workers considering these findings.

Keywords: night shift work, coxidative stress, circadian rhythm, melatonin, disease, circadian rhythm disruption

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2992 Atomic Layer Deposition of MoO₃ on Mesoporous γ-Al₂O₃ Prepared by Sol-Gel Method as Efficient Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Refractory Dibenzothiophene Compound

Authors: S. Said, Asmaa A. Abdulrahman


MoOₓ/Al₂O₃ based catalyst has long been widely used as an active catalyst in oxidative desulfurization reaction due to its high stability under severe reaction conditions and high resistance to sulfur poisoning. In this context, 4 & 9wt.% MoO₃ grafted on mesoporous γ-Al₂O₃ has been synthesized using the modified atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. Another MoO₃/Al₂O₃ sample was prepared by the conventional wetness impregnation (IM) method, for comparison. The effect of the preparation methods on the metal-support interaction was evaluated using different characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N₂-physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H₂- temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of the model fuel oil was used as a probe reaction to examine the catalytic efficiency of the prepared catalysts. ALD method led to samples with much better physicochemical properties than those of the prepared one via the impregnation method. However, the 9 wt.%MoO₃/Al₂O₃ (ALD) catalyst in the ODS reaction of model fuel oil shows enhanced catalytic performance with ~90%, which has been attributed to the more Mo⁶⁺ surface concentrations relative to Al³⁺ with large pore diameter and surface area. The kinetic study shows that the ODS of DBT follows a pseudo first-order rate reaction.

Keywords: mesoporous Al₂O₃, xMoO₃/Al₂O₃, atomic layer deposition, wetness impregnation, ODS, DBT

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2991 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid


This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, rats

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2990 Appraisal of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Non Descript Goat from Arid Tracts in India

Authors: Sudha Summarwar, Sudesh Agarwal, Deepali Lall, Nalini Kataria, Jyotsana Pandey


Assessment of antioxidant status is an effective tool to appraise the presence of oxidative stress. A combination of assays can be used to evaluate the antioxidant status like serum catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). In human medicine pregnancy is known to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress produces harmful effects to the developing foetus. Several metabolic changes occur in the maternal body to meet the demand of energy of developing foetus. Due to these changes susceptibility of maternal body increases to oxidative stress. There is paucity of research work on this aspect in nondescript goats. Therefore, the present study was intended to appraise the oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant non-descript goat. Blood samples were collected for serum separation in otherwise healthy pregnant and non-pregnant nondescript goats. Mean values of serum CAT, SOD and MAO were found on a higher side (p≤0.05) with serum SOD values showing a rise of 2.5 times higher than the control healthy value. Correlations among all the three parameters were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01) especially greatest in youngest group of pregnant animals. Illustration of result enlightened the veracity of bumped up production of free radicals in pregnant animals. Technical savoir-faire of oxidative stress supervision is essential for upholding of health status of foetus. The upshot of present study undoubtedly implied the development of oxidative stress in pregnant goats on the basis of altered antioxidant status. These findings conclude that initially the oxidative stress due to pregnancy is critically combated by the intricate defensive mechanism of natural antioxidant system of the body. It appears that this imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant must be checked in time to prevent cellular damage by regularly appraising the antioxidant status through laboratory methods.

Keywords: antioxidant, oxidative stress, pregnancy, serum catalase

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