Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Lina T. Codilla

60 A Laboratory–Designed Activity in Ecology to Demonstrate the Allelopathic Property of the Philippine Chromolaena odorata L. (King and Robinson) Leaf Extracts

Authors: Lina T. Codilla

Abstract:

This study primarily designed a laboratory activity in ecology to demonstrate the allelopathic property of the Philippine Chromolaena odorata L. (hagonoy) leaf extracts to Lycopersicum esculentum (M), commonly known as tomatoes. Ethanol extracts of C. odorata leaves were tested on seed germination and seedling growth of L. esculentum in 7-day and 14-day observation periods. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test was utilized to determine differences among treatments while Pre–test – Post–test experimental design was utilized in the determination of the effectiveness of the designed laboratory activity. Results showed that the 0.5% concentration level of ethanol leaf extracts significantly inhibited germination and seedling growth of L. esculentum in both observation periods. These results were used as the basis in the development of instructional material in ecology. The laboratory activity underwent face validation by five (5) experts in various fields of specialization, namely, Biological Sciences, Chemistry and Science Education. The readability of the designed laboratory activity was determined using a Cloze Test. Pilot testing was conducted and showed that the laboratory activity developed is found to be a very effective tool in supplementing learning about allelopathy in ecology class. Thus, it is recommended for use among ecology classes but modification will be made in a small – scale basis to minimize time consumption.

Keywords: Allelopathy, chromolaena odorata l. (hagonoy), designed-laboratory activity, organic herbicide students’ performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
59 Collective Actions of the Women in Black of the Gaza Strip

Authors: Lina Fernanda González

Abstract:

Through this essay, an attempt will be made to make visible the work of the international network of the Women in Black (henceforth WB), on the one hand. On the other hand, the work of Women International Courts as a political practice will be showed as well, focusing their work into generating a collective identity - becoming thusly a peace building space, rescuing in this way the symbolic value of their practices consisting in peaceful resistance as political scenarios, that serve, too, a pedagogical and healing purposes.

Keywords: Women, Peace, collective actions, human rights and humanitarian international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
58 Stability Analysis of Rabies Model with Vaccination Effect and Culling in Dogs

Authors: Eti Dwi Wiraningsih, Folashade Agusto, Lina Aryati, Syamsuddin Toaha, Suzanne Lenhart, Widodo, Willy Govaerts

Abstract:

This paper considers a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of rabies virus in the wild dogs-domestic dogs-human zoonotic cycle. The effect of vaccination and culling in dogs is considered on the model, then the stability was analysed to get basic reproduction number. We use the next generation matrix method and Routh-Hurwitz test to analyze the stability of the Disease-Free Equilibrium and Endemic Equilibrium of this model.

Keywords: Stability Analysis, rabies model, vaccination effect, culling in dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
57 Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities for Mobile Health Applications

Authors: Leonardo Juan Ramirez Lopez, Yuli Paola Cifuentes Sanabria, Lina Paola Beltrán Beltrán

Abstract:

The availability to deploy mobile applications for healthcare is increasing daily thru different mobile app stores. But within these capabilities the number of hacking attacks has also increased, in particular into medical mobile applications. The security vulnerabilities in medical mobile apps can be triggered by errors in code, incorrect logic, poor design, among other parameters. This is usually used by malicious attackers to steal or modify the users’ information. The aim of this research is to analyze the vulnerabilities detected in mobile medical apps according to risk factor standards defined by OWASP in 2014.

Keywords: Protocols, Risk Factors, mHealth apps, OWASP, security vulnerabilities

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56 Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter

Authors: Lina Pan

Abstract:

In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.

Keywords: target detection, non-Gaussian clutter, covariance matrix estimation, maximum likelihood

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
55 Voice over IP Quality of Service Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in an Indoor Environment for Different Voice Codecs

Authors: Lina Abou Haibeh, Nadir Hakem, Ousama Abu Safia

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and quality of Voice over IP (VoIP) calls carried over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) which has a number of SIP nodes registered on a SIP Proxy are analyzed. The testing campaigns are carried out in an indoor corridor structure having a well-defined channel’s characteristics and model for the different voice codecs, G.711, G.727 and G.723.1. These voice codecs are commonly used in VoIP technology. The calls’ quality are evaluated using four Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, namely, mean opinion score (MOS), jitter, delay, and packet loss. The relationship between the wireless channel’s parameters and the optimum codec is well-established. According to the experimental results, the voice codec G.711 has the best performance for the proposed MANET topology

Keywords: QoS, manet, voip, Wireless Channel Modelling, session initiation protocol (SIP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
54 The Impact of School Education, Islamic Studies in Specific on the Student Identity Development

Authors: Lina Khashogji

Abstract:

This study highlights on analysing the educational experience of female Saudi Arabian students in private schools in Islamic studies subjects. Exploring how school environment, teachers’ authority and textbooks could influence the level of individuality. Considering the complex interaction between religious is social and political power in Saudi Arabia. The study draws on phenomenology as a guiding theoretical framework using multi methods. It includes a vertical/horizontal individualism measurement tool “survey” used on 120 students of two age groups (9-12) and (13-15). Semi-structured interviews with eight school teachers, observational notes in the classroom, and textbook analysis. The study links the interactions between the student mind, the teacher, the classroom and the curriculum.

Keywords: Education, Islamic Studies, Identity Development, Saudi Arabia, Individualism

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
53 Reflections on the Role of Cultural Identity in a Bilingual Education Program

Authors: Lina Tenjo, Ilba Rodríguez

Abstract:

The role of cultural identity in bilingual programs has been barely discussed in regards to SLA. This research focuses on providing relevant information that helps in having more knowledge about the experiences that an elementary student has during the second language learning process in a bilingual program within a multicultural context. This study explores the experience of 18 students in a dual language program, in a public elementary school in Northern Virginia, USA. It examines their dual language experience and the different ways this experience contributes to the formation of their cultural identity. The findings were studied with the purpose of determining the relationship between participants and certain aspects of cultural identity in a multicultural context. The reflections that originate from the voices of children are the key source that helps us to better understand the particular needs that young learners have during their participation in a DLP.

Keywords: Culture, Identity, Bilingual education, Second language acquisition, Acculturation, dual language program

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
52 Impact of Normative Institutional Factors on Sustainability Reporting

Authors: Lina Dagilienė

Abstract:

The article explores the impact of normative institutional factors on the development of sustainability reporting. The vast majority of research in the scientific literature focuses on mandatory institutional factors, i.e. how public institutions and market regulators affect sustainability reporting. Meanwhile, there is lack of empirical data for the impact of normative institutional factors. The effect of normative factors in this paper is based on the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO) and institutional theory. The case of Global Compact Local Network in the developing country was examined. The research results revealed that in the absence of regulated factors, companies were not active with regard to social disclosures; they presented non-systemized social information of a descriptive nature. Only 10% of sustainability reports were prepared using the GRI methodology. None of the reports were assured by third parties.

Keywords: Institutional Theory, normative, sustainability reporting, Global Compact Local Network

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51 Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Authors: Lina Sineviciene

Abstract:

Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s economic development in the context of sustainable development. Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012 years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of environment protection.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Economic Development, Economic growth, government expenditure

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50 Robust Pattern Recognition via Correntropy Generalized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Yulong Wang, Cuiming Zou

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel sparse representation method for robust pattern classification. Generalized orthogonal matching pursuit (GOMP) is a recently proposed efficient sparse representation technique. However, GOMP adopts the mean square error (MSE) criterion and assign the same weights to all measurements, including both severely and slightly corrupted ones. To reduce the limitation, we propose an information-theoretic GOMP (ITGOMP) method by exploiting the correntropy induced metric. The results show that ITGOMP can adaptively assign small weights on severely contaminated measurements and large weights on clean ones, respectively. An ITGOMP based classifier is further developed for robust pattern classification. The experiments on public real datasets demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

Keywords: pattern classification, matching pursuit, sparse representation, correntropy induced metric

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49 Effects of Video Games and Online Chat on Mathematics Performance in High School: An Approach of Multivariate Data Analysis

Authors: Lina Wu, Wenyi Lu, Ye Li

Abstract:

Regarding heavy video game players for boys and super online chat lovers for girls as a symbolic phrase in the current adolescent culture, this project of data analysis verifies the displacement effect on deteriorating mathematics performance. To evaluate correlation or regression coefficients between a factor of playing video games or chatting online and mathematics performance compared with other factors, we use multivariate analysis technique and take gender difference into account. We find the most important reason for the negative sign of the displacement effect on mathematics performance due to students’ poor academic background. Statistical analysis methods in this project could be applied to study internet users’ academic performance from the high school education to the college education.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, displacement effect, multivariate analysis technique, regression coefficients

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48 Simulation of Red Blood Cells in Complex Micro-Tubes

Authors: Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Lina Peng, Huixin Shi

Abstract:

In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. In this paper, we aim to apply a particle-based method, Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics (SDPD), to simulate the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex micro-tubes. We first present the theoretical models, including SDPD model, RBC-fluid interaction model, RBC deformation model, RBC aggregation model, and boundary treatment model. After that, we show the verification and validation of these models, by comparing our numerical results with the theoretical, experimental and previously-published numerical results. Finally, we provide some simulation cases, such as the motion and deformation of RBCs in rectangular, cylinder, curved, bifurcated, and constricted micro-tubes, respectively.

Keywords: deformation, aggregation, red blood cell, smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
47 An Equivalence between a Harmonic Form and a Closed Co-Closed Differential Form in L^Q and Non-L^Q Spaces

Authors: Lina Wu, Ye Li

Abstract:

An equivalent relation between a harmonic form and a closed co-closed form is established on a complete non-compact manifold. This equivalence has been generalized for a differential k-form ω from Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces when q=2 in the context of p-balanced growth where p=2. Especially for a simple differential k-form on a complete non-compact manifold, the equivalent relation has been verified with the extended scope of q for from finite q-energy in Lq spaces to infinite q-energy in non-Lq spaces when with 2-balanced growth. Generalized Hadamard Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, and Calculus skills including Integration by Parts as well as Convergent Series have been applied as estimation techniques to evaluate growth rates for a differential form. In particular, energy growth rates as indicated by an appropriate power range in a selected test function lead to a balance between a harmonic differential form and a closed co-closed differential form. Research ideas and computational methods in this paper could provide an innovative way in the study of broadening Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces with a wide variety of infinite energy growth for a differential form.

Keywords: closed forms, co-closed forms, harmonic forms, L^q spaces, p-balanced growth, simple differential k-forms

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46 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Hong Li, Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang

Abstract:

Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: Integral Equation, harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

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45 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon

Abstract:

Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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44 Debt Portfolios of the Poor: The Case of Street Vendors in Cali, Colombia

Authors: Lina Martínez, Juan David Rivera Acevedo, Isabella Franco

Abstract:

The informal economy plays a significant role in the job market in Colombia. Cali, the third largest city in the country, is characterized by a high percentage of socially and economically vulnerable population groups who take part in the urban informal economy, with street vending as their primary source of income. This paper studies the socio-economic dimensions of street vendors in Cali. In particular, it examines why they are unable to capitalize on their comparatively high earnings and are not likely to escape poverty even though they usually profit from government welfare and tax evasion due to the non-regulated character of informality. The analysis of an observational study and two surveys with 637 and 300 participants show that street vending is a cash-based day-to-day activity. Since most of the street vendors do not have access to formal banking systems, they depend on payday loans with incomparably high interest rates which absorb a large share of their income and maintain a continuous indebtedness. This is one of the main reasons why they are unable to improve their living conditions. However, the daily cash flow masks the high opportunity cost of loans and long-term deficits.

Keywords: Informal Economy, Colombia, street vendors, payday loans

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
43 Leukocyte Detection Using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows

Authors: Lina, Arlends Chris, Bagus Mulyawan, Agus B. Dharmawan

Abstract:

Blood cell analysis plays a significant role in the diagnosis of human health. As an alternative to the traditional technique conducted by laboratory technicians, this paper presents an automatic white blood cell (leukocyte) detection system using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows. The advantage of this method is to present a detection technique of white blood cells that are robust to imperfect shapes of blood cells with various image qualities. The input for this application is images from a microscope-slide translation video. The preprocessing stage is performed by stitching the input images. First, the overlapping parts of the images are determined, then stitching and blending processes of two input images are performed. Next, the Color Overlapping Windows is performed for white blood cell detection which consists of color filtering, window candidate checking, window marking, finds window overlaps, and window cropping processes. Experimental results show that this method could achieve an average of 82.12% detection accuracy of the leukocyte images.

Keywords: image stitching, color overlapping windows, leukocyte detection, white blood cell detection

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42 A Two-Stage Airport Ground Movement Speed Profile Design Methodology Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Zhang Tianci, Ding Meng, Zuo Hongfu, Zeng Lina, Sun Zejun

Abstract:

Automation of airport operations can greatly improve ground movement efficiency. In this paper, we study the speed profile design problem for advanced airport ground movement control and guidance. The problem is constrained by the surface four-dimensional trajectory generated in taxi planning. A decomposed approach of two stages is presented to solve this problem efficiently. In the first stage, speeds are allocated at control points which ensure smooth speed profiles can be found later. In the second stage, detailed speed profiles of each taxi interval are generated according to the allocated control point speeds with the objective of minimizing the overall fuel consumption. We present a swarm intelligence based algorithm for the first-stage problem and a discrete variable driven enumeration method for the second-stage problem since it only has a small set of discrete variables. Experimental results demonstrate the presented methodology performs well on real world speed profile design problems.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Fuel Consumption, airport ground movement, smoothness, speed profile design

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41 Application of a Generalized Additive Model to Reveal the Relations between the Density of Zooplankton with Other Variables in the West Daya Bay, China

Authors: Lei Wang, Weiwen Li, Hao Huang, Chengmao You, Jianji Liao, Lina An

Abstract:

Zooplankton are a central issue in the ecology which makes a great contribution to maintaining the balance of an ecosystem. It is critical in promoting the material cycle and energy flow within the ecosystems. A generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to analyze the relationships between the density (individuals per m³) of zooplankton and other variables in West Daya Bay. All data used in this analysis (the survey month, survey station (longitude and latitude), the depth of the water column, the superficial concentration of chlorophyll a, the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, the number of zooplankton species and the number of zooplankton species) were collected through monthly scientific surveys during January to December 2016. GLM model (generalized linear model) was used to choose the significant variables’ impact on the density of zooplankton, and the GAM was employed to analyze the relationship between the density of zooplankton and the significant variables. The results showed that the density of zooplankton increased with an increase of the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, but decreased with a decrease in the depth of the water column. Both high numbers of zooplankton species and the overall total number of zooplankton individuals led to a higher density of zooplankton.

Keywords: Density, zooplankton, generalized additive model, generalized linear model, the West Daya Bay

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40 Computation of Flood and Drought Years over the North-West Himalayan Region Using Indian Meteorological Department Rainfall Data

Authors: Sudip Kumar Kundu, Charu Singh

Abstract:

The climatic condition over Indian region is highly dependent on monsoon. India receives maximum amount of rainfall during southwest monsoon. Indian economy is highly dependent on agriculture. The presence of flood and drought years influenced the total cultivation system as well as the economy of the country as Indian agricultural systems is still highly dependent on the monsoon rainfall. The present study has been planned to investigate the flood and drought years for the north-west Himalayan region from 1951 to 2014 by using area average Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall data. For this investigation the Normalized index (NI) has been utilized to find out whether the particular year is drought or flood. The data have been extracted for the north-west Himalayan (NWH) region states namely Uttarakhand (UK), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to find out the rainy season average rainfall for each year, climatological mean and the standard deviation. After calculation it has been plotted by the diagrams (or graphs) to show the results- some of the years associated with drought years, some are flood years and rest are neutral. The flood and drought years can also relate with the large-scale phenomena El-Nino and La-Lina.

Keywords: Flood, Rainfall, Drought, NWH, IMD, normalized index

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
39 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas

Abstract:

The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: Food, Health, Functional food, dietary supplements, Colombia

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38 Fifth Grade Student Skills of Reading Illustrated Drawings in Physical and Chemical Changes Included in Science Textbook

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Lina L. Al-Rewaili

Abstract:

The current study aimed to measure the fifth Grade student skills of reading illustrates in physical and chemical chapter included in science textbook, as well as identity the tasks the dispersants related to designing these illustrates which obstruct the students to read them properly. The researcher applied the test instrument of open discuss questions to measure the skill of: recognizing, description, interpretation and assessment for a sample of this research consisted of (269) students who read three illustrates, and conduct an interview with sample of them (27) students to recognize the dispersants related to designing of these illustrates. The study results showed that there are poor levels in illustrated drawing reading skills: description, interpretation, and assessment. The most important dispersants which obstruct the students to read theses illustrates properly representing: Art impacts of these illustrates, there are some elements which don’t serve these illustrates. In the light of the above results, the researcher provided some recommendations such as training the students on using the images and illustrates properly in science textbooks, as well as create simple designs of illustrates and they should be free of crowded elements and impacts which don’t serve the illustrates.

Keywords: reading illustrated drawings skills, fifth grade science, physical and chemical changes

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37 Altered L-Type Calcium Channel Activity in Atrioventricular Nodal Myocytes from Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Lina T. Al Kury, Frank Christopher Howarth, Kathryn H. Yull

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in patients with Type-1 Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. In the present study, using streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of Type-1 DM, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current (ICaL). A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. ICaL also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident. These findings demonstrate that experimentally–induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. The changes in ion channel activity may underlie the abnormalities in the cardiac electrical function that contribute to the high mortality levels in patients with DM.

Keywords: Diabetes, Cardiac, ion-channel, atrioventricular node, calcium channel

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36 Embodied Spiritualities and Emerging Search for Social Transformation: An Embodied Ethnographic Study of Yoga Practices in Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Lina M. Vidal

Abstract:

This paper discusses yoga practices involvement in both self-transformation and social transformations by means of an embodied ethnographic approach to different initiatives for social change in Medellín. In the context of gradual popularization of embodied spiritualities, yoga practices have opened their way in calls for social change in a performative perspective which involves collective experiences, reflections and production of embodied knowledge. Through the reflection on bodily dimension and corporal experience, this ethnographic approach acknowledges inter-corporality and somatic modes of attention during observations and personal experiences. In social change initiatives that include yoga practices were identified transformations of common understanding on social issues such as it is produced by institutionalized education, health system and other fields of knowledge. This is clearly visible in yoga projects for children in vulnerable conditions, homeless people, prisoners, and young people recovering from drug addiction. These projects are often promoted by organizations and networks, which incorporate individual life stories into collective experiences. Dissemination of yoga is heading to a broad institutional and cultural legitimation of yoga and of spirituality that impact different fields of social work and everyday life in general. This way, yoga is becoming an embodied activist way of life and a legitimate field for social work.

Keywords: Social Transformation, Medellín, embodied ethnography, embodied spiritualities, yoga practices

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35 Establishing Quality Evaluation Indicators of Early Education Center for 0~3 Years Old

Authors: Lina Feng

Abstract:

The study aimed at establishing quality evaluation indicators of an early education center for 0~3 years old, and defining the weight system of it. Expert questionnaire and Fuzzy Delphi method were applied. Firstly, in order to ensure the indicators in accordance with the practice of early education, 16 experts were invited as respondents to a preliminary Expert Questionnaire about Quality Evaluation Indicators of Early Education Center for 0~3 Years Old. The indicators were based on relevant studies on quality evaluation indicators of early education centers in China and abroad. Secondly, 20 scholars, kindergarten principals, and educational administrators were invited to form a fuzzy Delphi expert team. The experts’ opinions on the importance of indicators were calculated through triangle fuzzy numbers in order to select appropriate indicators and calculate indicator weights. This procedure resulted in the final Quality Evaluation Indicators of Early education Center for 0~3 Years Old. The Indicators contained three major levels, including 6 first-level indicators, 30 second-level indicators, and 147 third-level indicators. The 6 first-level indicators were health and safety; educational and cultivating activities; development of babies; conditions of the center; management of the center; and collaboration between family and the community. The indicators established by this study could provide suggestions for the high-quality environment for promoting the development of early year children.

Keywords: Educational Management, Fuzzy Delphi Method, early education center for 0~3 years old, quality evaluation indicator

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34 Out of Pocket Costs for Patients with Tuberculosis in Colombia: Evidence from Three Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Gustavo Gonzalez, Jose Hernandez, Lina Martínez, Carlos Lázaro, Diana Castrillon, Jonathan Cardona, Laura Mejía, Yina Sanchez, Luisa Ochoa, Evert Jimenez

Abstract:

Objectives: Economic analyses of tuberculosis control interventions are usually focused on the payer’s perspective. To assess the overall economic impact of the disease, out-of-pocket and indirect costs are also required. This research is aimed to estimate overall economic impact under DOTS-strategy (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 91 adult tuberculosis patients in treatment for at least two months was conducted from the society perspective. A standardized questionnaire was used in three different cities of Colombia: Medellin (poverty is 17.7%), Monteria (poverty is 36.9%) and Quibdó (poverty is 51.2%). Costs were converted to 2013 USD and categorized into two periods: diagnostics phase and treatment. Results: The median cost during diagnostics was 13$ (±SD 9.5). The median monthly patient out-of-pocket costs during treatment were 32$ (±SD 6.8), equivalent to 17% of patient’s median monthly income, estimated in 186$ (±SD 23). Costs recorded in Medellin were 47$ in Monteria was 18$ and in Quibdó was 13$. Conclusion: Patient costs under DOTS strategy are high even when services are provided free of charge. The creation or strengthening of community-based treatment supervisors could greatly impact costs of tuberculosis and lower drop-outs.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Tuberculosis, Colombia, costs and cost analysis

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33 Relationship between the Ability of Accruals and Non-Systematic Risk of Shares for Companies Listed in Stock Exchange: Case Study, Tehran

Authors: Lina Najafian, Hamidreza Vakilifard

Abstract:

The present study focused on the relationship between the quality of accruals and non-systematic risk. The independent study variables included the ability of accruals, the information content of accruals, and amount of discretionary accruals considered as accruals quality measures. The dependent variable was non-systematic risk based on the Fama and French Three Factor model (FFTFM) and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The control variables were firm size, financial leverage, stock return, cash flow fluctuations, and book-to-market ratio. The data collection method was based on library research and document mining including financial statements. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The study results showed that there is a significant direct relationship between financial leverage and discretionary accruals and non-systematic risk based on FFTFM and CAPM. There is also a significant direct relationship between the ability of accruals, information content of accruals, firm size, and stock return and non-systematic based on both models. It was also found that there is no relationship between book-to-market ratio and cash flow fluctuations and non-systematic risk.

Keywords: accruals quality, non-systematic risk, CAPM, FFTFM

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32 Ti-Mo-N Nano-Grains Embedded into Thin MoSₓ-Based Amorphous Matrix: A Novel Structure for Superhardness and Ultra-Low Wear

Authors: Lina Yang, Mao Wen, Kan Zhang, Jianhong Chen

Abstract:

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) represents a highly sought lubricant for reducing friction based on intrinsic layered structure, but for this reason, practical applications have been greatly restricted due to the fact that its low hardness would cause severe wear. Here, a novel TiMoN/MoSₓ composite coatings with TiMoN solid solution grains embedded into MoSₓ-based amorphous matrix has been successfully designed and synthesized, through magnetron co-sputtering technology. Desirably, in virtue of such special microstructure, superhardness and excellent toughness can be well achieved, along with an ultra-low wear rate at ~2×10⁻¹¹ mm³/Nm in the air environment, simultaneously, low friction at ~0.1 is maintained. It should be noted that this wear level is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of pure TiN coating, and is, as we know, the lowest wear rate in dry sliding. Investigations of tribofilm reveal that it is amorphous MoS₂ in nature, and its formation arises directly from the MoSₓ amorphous matrix. Which contributes to effective lubrication behavior, coupled with excellent mechanical performances of such composite coating, exceptionally low wear can be guaranteed. The findings in this work suggest that the special composite structure makes it possible for the synthesis of super-hard and super-durable lubricative coating, offering guidance to synthesize ultrahigh performance protective coating for industrial application.

Keywords: Hardness, Toughness, tribological properties, MoS₂-containing composite coatings

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31 The Mechanism of Upgrading and Urban Development in the Egyptian City: Case Study of Damietta

Authors: Lina Fayed Amin

Abstract:

The research studied, in the beginning, the related urban concepts such as the urban, development, urban development. As it also deals with the upgrading, urban upgrading, community participation and the role of local administration in development and upgrading projects. Then it studies some regional upgrading & urban development projects in Egypt followed by international projects, and the analysis the strategies followed in dealing with these projects. Afterwards, we state the regional aspects of both Damietta governorate & city, dealing with its potentials & development constraints. Followed by studying the upgrading and urban development projects strategies in reflection to the city’s crucial problems, and the constraints that faced the upgrading & development project. Then, it studied the implementation of the project’s strategies & it provided the financial resources needed for the development project in Damietta city. Followed by the studying of the urban and human development projects in the upgrading of Damietta city, as well as analyzing the different projects &analyzing the results of these projects on the aspects of the city’s needs. Then the research analysis in comparison the upgrading and urban development project in Damietta and the regional upgrading and development projects in Egypt. As well as the comparison between the upgrading and urban development project and the international projects in some Arabic and foreign countries in relation to the goals, problems, obstacles, the community participation, the finance resources and the results. Finally, it reviews the results and recommendations that were reached as a result of studying the similar urban upgrading projects in Egypt and in some Arabic and foreign countries. Followed by the analytical analysis of the upgrading and urban development in Egypt

Keywords: Urban development, urban upgrading, Damietta city, upgrading mechanisms

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