Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 248

Search results for: aggregation

248 Efficient Positioning of Data Aggregation Point for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sifat Rahman Ahona, Rifat Tasnim, Naima Hassan

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Data aggregation is a helpful technique for reducing the data communication overhead in wireless sensor network. One of the important tasks of data aggregation is positioning of the aggregator points. There are a lot of works done on data aggregation. But, efficient positioning of the aggregators points is not focused so much. In this paper, authors are focusing on the positioning or the placement of the aggregation points in wireless sensor network. Authors proposed an algorithm to select the aggregators positions for a scenario where aggregator nodes are more powerful than sensor nodes.

Keywords: aggregation point, data communication, data aggregation, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
247 Modeling Aggregation of Insoluble Phase in Reactors

Authors: A. Brener, B. Ismailov, G. Berdalieva

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In the paper we submit the modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to systems with chemical reactions of first and second orders in which the main product is insoluble. The goal of this work is to create theoretical foundation and engineering procedures for calculating the chemical apparatuses in the conditions of joint course of chemical reactions and processes of aggregation of insoluble dispersed phases which are formed in working zones of the reactor.

Keywords: binary aggregation, clusters, chemical reactions, insoluble phases

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
246 DNAJB6 Chaperone Prevents the Aggregation of Intracellular but not Extracellular Aβ Peptides Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Rasha M. Hussein, Reem M. Hashem, Laila A. Rashed

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Alzheimer’s disease is the most common dementia disease in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. In addition, recent evidence indicates that accumulation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. This suggests that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain the protein quality control in the cell might be potential candidates for disease amelioration. DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of HSP, effectively prevented the aggregation of poly glutamines stretches associated with Huntington’s disease both in vitro and in cells. In addition, DNAJB6 was found recently to delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP and recombinant Aβ42 peptides respectively. We performed western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 can prevent Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not the seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Moreover, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of Aβ-GFP protein and its J-domain was essential for this anti-aggregation activity. Interestingly, overexpression of other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPB1 suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that DNAJB6 is a promising candidate for the inhibition of Aβ-GFP mediated aggregation through a canonical HSP70 dependent mechanism.

Keywords: , Alzheimer’s disease, chaperone, DNAJB6, aggregation

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245 Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services

Authors: A. Al Drees, A. Alahmari, R. Almuwayshir

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The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.

Keywords: e-banking, account aggregation, security, enterprise development

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
244 PDDA: Priority-Based, Dynamic Data Aggregation Approach for Sensor-Based Big Data Framework

Authors: Lutful Karim, Mohammed S. Al-kahtani

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Sensors are being used in various applications such as agriculture, health monitoring, air and water pollution monitoring, traffic monitoring and control and hence, play the vital role in the growth of big data. However, sensors collect redundant data. Thus, aggregating and filtering sensors data are significantly important to design an efficient big data framework. Current researches do not focus on aggregating and filtering data at multiple layers of sensor-based big data framework. Thus, this paper introduces (i) three layers data aggregation and framework for big data and (ii) a priority-based, dynamic data aggregation scheme (PDDA) for the lowest layer at sensors. Simulation results show that the PDDA outperforms existing tree and cluster-based data aggregation scheme in terms of overall network energy consumptions and end-to-end data transmission delay.

Keywords: big data, clustering, tree topology, data aggregation, sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
243 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing

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A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

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242 Event Driven Dynamic Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Ashok V. Sutagundar, Sunilkumar S. Manvi

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Energy, delay and bandwidth are the prime issues of wireless sensor network (WSN). Energy usage optimization and efficient bandwidth utilization are important issues in WSN. Event triggered data aggregation facilitates such optimal tasks for event affected area in WSN. Reliable delivery of the critical information to sink node is also a major challenge of WSN. To tackle these issues, we propose an event driven dynamic clustering and data aggregation scheme for WSN that enhances the life time of the network by minimizing redundant data transmission. The proposed scheme operates as follows: (1) Whenever the event is triggered, event triggered node selects the cluster head. (2) Cluster head gathers data from sensor nodes within the cluster. (3) Cluster head node identifies and classifies the events out of the collected data using Bayesian classifier. (4) Aggregation of data is done using statistical method. (5) Cluster head discovers the paths to the sink node using residual energy, path distance and bandwidth. (6) If the aggregated data is critical, cluster head sends the aggregated data over the multipath for reliable data communication. (7) Otherwise aggregated data is transmitted towards sink node over the single path which is having the more bandwidth and residual energy. The performance of the scheme is validated for various WSN scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of aggregation time, cluster formation time and energy consumed for aggregation.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, dynamic clustering, data aggregation, wireless communication

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241 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech

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Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: red blood cell, rouleaux, microfluidics, image processing, population balance modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
240 A New Aggregation Operator for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Based On the Geometric Means of the Left and Right Line Slopes

Authors: Manju Pandey, Nilay Khare, S. C. Shrivastava

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This paper is the final in a series, which has defined two new classes of aggregation operators for triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on the geometrical characteristics of their fuzzy membership functions. In the present paper, a new aggregation operator for trapezoidal fuzzy numbers has been defined. The new operator is based on the geometric mean of the membership lines to the left and right of the maximum possibility interval. The operator is defined and the analytical relationships have been derived. Computation of the aggregate is demonstrated with a numerical example. Corresponding arithmetic and geometric aggregates as well as results from the recent work of the authors on TrFN aggregates have also been computed.

Keywords: LR fuzzy number, interval fuzzy number, triangular fuzzy number, trapezoidal fuzzy number, apex angle, left apex angle, right apex angle, aggregation operator, arithmetic and geometric mean

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239 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

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Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
238 SA-SPKC: Secure and Efficient Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Stateful Public Key Cryptography

Authors: Merad Boudia Omar Rafik, Feham Mohammed

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Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provides a great reduction of energy consumption. The limited resources of sensor nodes make the choice of an encryption algorithm very important for providing security for data aggregation. Asymmetric cryptography involves large ciphertexts and heavy computations but solves, on the other hand, the problem of key distribution of symmetric one. The latter provides smaller ciphertexts and speed computations. Also, the recent researches have shown that achieving the end-to-end confidentiality and the end-to-end integrity at the same is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose (SA-SPKC), a novel security protocol which addresses both security services for WSNs, and where only the base station can verify the individual data and identify the malicious node. Our scheme is based on stateful public key encryption (StPKE). The latter combines the best features of both kinds of encryption along with state in order to reduce the computation overhead. Our analysis

Keywords: secure data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, elliptic curve cryptography, homomorphic encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
237 Rethinking News Aggregation to Achieve Depolarization

Authors: Kushagra Khandelwal, Chinmay Anand, Sharmistha Banerjee

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This paper presents an approach to news aggregation that is aimed at solving the issues centered on depolarization and manipulation of news information and stories. Largest democracies across the globe face numerous issues related to news democratization. With the advancements in technology and increasing outreach, web has become an important information source which is inclusive of news. Research was focused on the current millennial population consisting of modern day internet users. The study involved literature review, an online survey, an expert interview with a journalist and a focus group discussion with the user groups. The study was aimed at investigating problems associated with the current news system from both the consumer as well as distributor point of view. The research findings helped in producing five key potential opportunity areas which were explored for design intervention. Upon ideation, we identified five design features which include opinion aggregation. Categorized opinions, news tracking, online discussion and ability to take actions that support news democratization.

Keywords: citizen journalism, democratization, depolarized news, napsterization, news aggregation, opinions

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
236 Preparation of Wireless Networks and Security; Challenges in Efficient Accession of Encrypted Data in Healthcare

Authors: M. Zayoud, S. Oueida, S. Ionescu, P. AbiChar

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Background: Wireless sensor network is encompassed of diversified tools of information technology, which is widely applied in a range of domains, including military surveillance, weather forecasting, and earthquake forecasting. Strengthened grounds are always developed for wireless sensor networks, which usually emerges security issues during professional application. Thus, essential technological tools are necessary to be assessed for secure aggregation of data. Moreover, such practices have to be incorporated in the healthcare practices that shall be serving in the best of the mutual interest Objective: Aggregation of encrypted data has been assessed through homomorphic stream cipher to assure its effectiveness along with providing the optimum solutions to the field of healthcare. Methods: An experimental design has been incorporated, which utilized newly developed cipher along with CPU-constrained devices. Modular additions have also been employed to evaluate the nature of aggregated data. The processes of homomorphic stream cipher have been highlighted through different sensors and modular additions. Results: Homomorphic stream cipher has been recognized as simple and secure process, which has allowed efficient aggregation of encrypted data. In addition, the application has led its way to the improvisation of the healthcare practices. Statistical values can be easily computed through the aggregation on the basis of selected cipher. Sensed data in accordance with variance, mean, and standard deviation has also been computed through the selected tool. Conclusion: It can be concluded that homomorphic stream cipher can be an ideal tool for appropriate aggregation of data. Alongside, it shall also provide the best solutions to the healthcare sector.

Keywords: aggregation, cipher, homomorphic stream, encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
235 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

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In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
234 Wind Speed Prediction Using Passive Aggregation Artificial Intelligence Model

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Amin Mohamed Nassar

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Wind energy is a fluctuating energy source unlike conventional power plants, thus, it is necessary to accurately predict short term wind speed to integrate wind energy in the electricity supply structure. To do so, we present a hybrid artificial intelligence model of short term wind speed prediction based on passive aggregation of the particle swarm optimization and neural networks. As a result, improvement of the prediction accuracy is obviously obtained compared to the standard artificial intelligence method.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, neural networks, particle swarm optimization, passive aggregation, wind speed prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
233 Investigations of Protein Aggregation Using Sequence and Structure Based Features

Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, A. Mary Thangakani, Sandeep Kumar, D. Velmurugan

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The main cause of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemier, Parkinson, and spongiform encephalopathies is formation of amyloid fibrils and plaques in proteins. We have analyzed different sets of proteins and peptides to understand the influence of sequence-based features on protein aggregation process. The comparison of 373 pairs of homologous mesophilic and thermophilic proteins showed that aggregation-prone regions (APRs) are present in both. But, the thermophilic protein monomers show greater ability to ‘stow away’ the APRs in their hydrophobic cores and protect them from solvent exposure. The comparison of amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating hexapeptides suggested distinct preferences for specific residues at the six positions as well as all possible combinations of nine residue pairs. The compositions of residues at different positions and residue pairs have been converted into energy potentials and utilized for distinguishing between amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating peptides. Our method could correctly identify the amyloid forming peptides at an accuracy of 95-100% in different datasets of peptides.

Keywords: aggregation, amyloids, thermophilic proteins, amino acid residues, machine learning techniques

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232 Aggregation of Butanediyl-1,4-Bis(Tetradecyldimethylammonium Bromide) (14–4–14) Gemini Surfactants in Presence of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Authors: P. Ajmal Koya, Tariq Ahmad Wagay, K. Ismail

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One of the fundamental property of surfactant molecules are their ability to aggregate in water or binary mixtures of water and organic solvents as an effort to minimize their unfavourable interaction with the medium. In this work, influence two co-solvents (ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)) on the aggregation properties of a cationic gemini surfactant, butanediyl-1,4-bis(tetradecyldimethylammonium bromide) (14–4–14), has been studied by conductance and steady state fluorescence at 298 K. The weight percentage of two co-solvents varied in between 0 and 50 % at an interval of 5 % up to 20 % and then 10 % up to 50 %. It was found that micellization process is delayed by the inclusion of both the co-solvents; consequently, a progressive increase was observed in critical micelle concentration (cmc) and Gibbs free energy of micellization (∆G0m), whereas a rough increase was observed in the values of degree of counter ion dissociation (α) and a decrease was obtained in values of average aggregation number (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (KSV). At low weight percentage (up to 15 %) of co-solvents, 14–4–14 geminis were found to be almost equally prone to micellization both in EG–water (EG–WR) and in PG–water (PG–WR) mixed media while at high weight percentages they are more prone to micellization in EG–WR than in PG–WR mixed media.

Keywords: aggregation number, gemini surfactant, micellization, non aqueous solvent

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231 Gas Aggregation and Nanobubbles Stability on Substrates Influenced by Surface Wettability: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Tsu-Hsu Yen

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The interfacial gas adsorption presents a frequent challenge and opportunity for micro-/nano-fluidic operation. In this study, we investigate the wettability, gas accumulation, and nanobubble formation on various homogeneous surface conditions by using MD simulation, including a series of 3D and quasi-2D argon-water-solid systems simulation. To precisely determine the wettability on various substrates, several indicators were calculated. Among these wettability indicators, the water PMF (potential of mean force) has the most correlation tendency with interfacial water molecular orientation than depletion layer width and droplet contact angle. The results reveal that the aggregation of argon molecules on substrates not only depending on the level of hydrophobicity but also determined by the competition between gas-solid and water-solid interaction as well as water molecular structure near the surface. In addition, the surface nanobubble is always observed coexisted with the gas enrichment layer. The water structure adjacent to water-gas and water-solid interfaces also plays an important factor in gas out-flux and gas aggregation, respectively. The quasi-2D simulation shows that only a slight difference in the curved argon-water interface from the plane interface which suggests no noticeable obstructing effect on gas outflux from the gas-water interfacial water networks.

Keywords: gas aggregation, interfacial nanobubble, molecular dynamics simulation, wettability

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230 Automatic Aggregation and Embedding of Microservices for Optimized Deployments

Authors: Pablo Chico De Guzman, Cesar Sanchez

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Microservices are a software development methodology in which applications are built by composing a set of independently deploy-able, small, modular services. Each service runs a unique process and it gets instantiated and deployed in one or more machines (we assume that different microservices are deployed into different machines). Microservices are becoming the de facto standard for developing distributed cloud applications due to their reduced release cycles. In principle, the responsibility of a microservice can be as simple as implementing a single function, which can lead to the following issues: - Resource fragmentation due to the virtual machine boundary. - Poor communication performance between microservices. Two composition techniques can be used to optimize resource fragmentation and communication performance: aggregation and embedding of microservices. Aggregation allows the deployment of a set of microservices on the same machine using a proxy server. Aggregation helps to reduce resource fragmentation, and is particularly useful when the aggregated services have a similar scalability behavior. Embedding deals with communication performance by deploying on the same virtual machine those microservices that require a communication channel (localhost bandwidth is reported to be about 40 times faster than cloud vendor local networks and it offers better reliability). Embedding can also reduce dependencies on load balancer services since the communication takes place on a single virtual machine. For example, assume that microservice A has two instances, a1 and a2, and it communicates with microservice B, which also has two instances, b1 and b2. One embedding can deploy a1 and b1 on machine m1, and a2 and b2 are deployed on a different machine m2. This deployment configuration allows each pair (a1-b1), (a2-b2) to communicate using the localhost interface without the need of a load balancer between microservices A and B. Aggregation and embedding techniques are complex since different microservices might have incompatible runtime dependencies which forbid them from being installed on the same machine. There is also a security concern since the attack surface between microservices can be larger. Luckily, container technology allows to run several processes on the same machine in an isolated manner, solving the incompatibility of running dependencies and the previous security concern, thus greatly simplifying aggregation/embedding implementations by just deploying a microservice container on the same machine as the aggregated/embedded microservice container. Therefore, a wide variety of deployment configurations can be described by combining aggregation and embedding to create an efficient and robust microservice architecture. This paper presents a formal method that receives a declarative definition of a microservice architecture and proposes different optimized deployment configurations by aggregating/embedding microservices. The first prototype is based on i2kit, a deployment tool also submitted to ICWS 2018. The proposed prototype optimizes the following parameters: network/system performance, resource usage, resource costs and failure tolerance.

Keywords: aggregation, deployment, embedding, resource allocation

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229 Deployment of Beyond 4G Wireless Communication Networks with Carrier Aggregation

Authors: Bahram Khan, Anderson Rocha Ramos, Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez

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With the growing demand for a new blend of applications, the users dependency on the internet is increasing day by day. Mobile internet users are giving more attention to their own experiences, especially in terms of communication reliability, high data rates and service stability on move. This increase in the demand is causing saturation of existing radio frequency bands. To address these challenges, researchers are investigating the best approaches, Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the newest innovations, which seems to fulfill the demands of the future spectrum, also CA is one the most important feature for Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-Advanced). For this purpose to get the upcoming International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) mobile requirements (1 Gb/s peak data rate), the CA scheme is presented by 3GPP, which would sustain a high data rate using widespread frequency bandwidth up to 100 MHz. Technical issues such as aggregation structure, its implementations, deployment scenarios, control signal techniques, and challenges for CA technique in LTE-Advanced, with consideration of backward compatibility, are highlighted in this paper. Also, performance evaluation in macro-cellular scenarios through a simulation approach is presented, which shows the benefits of applying CA, low-complexity multi-band schedulers in service quality, system capacity enhancement and concluded that enhanced multi-band scheduler is less complex than the general multi-band scheduler, which performs better for a cell radius longer than 1800 m (and a PLR threshold of 2%).

Keywords: component carrier, carrier aggregation, LTE-advanced, scheduling

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228 Mitigating the Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide with Nanomaterials

Authors: Ava Faridi, Pouya Faridi, Aleksandr Kakinen, Ibrahim Javed, Thomas P. Davis, Pu Chun Ke

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Human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a hormone associated with glycemic control and type 2 diabetes. Biophysically, the chirality of IAPP fibrils has been little explored with respect to the aggregation and toxicity of the peptide. Biochemically, it remains unclear as for how protein expression in pancreatic beta cells may be altered by cell exposure to the peptide, and how such changes may be mitigated by nanoparticle inhibitors for IAPP aggregation. In this study, we first demonstrated the elimination of the IAPP nucleation phase and shortening of its elongation phase by silica nanoribbons. This accelerated IAPP fibrillization translated to reduced toxicity, especially for the right-handed silica nanoribbons, as revealed by cell viability, helium ion microscopy, as well as zebrafish embryo survival, developmental and behavioral assays. We then examined the proteomes of βTC6 pancreatic beta cells exposed to the three main aggregation states of monomeric, oligomeric and amyloid fibrillar IAPP, and compared that with cellular protein expression modulated by graphene quantum dots (GQDs). A total of 29 proteins were significantly regulated by different forms of IAPP, and the majority of these proteins were nucleotide-binding proteins. A regulatory capacity of GQDs against aberrant protein expression was confirmed. These studies have demonstrated the great potential of employing nanomaterials targeting the mesoscopic enantioselectivity and protein expression dysregulation in pancreatic beta cells.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, IAPP, silica nanoribbons, protein expression, toxicity

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227 Preventing Neurodegenerative Diseases by Stabilization of Superoxide Dismutase by Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Danish Idrees, Vijay Kumar, Samudrala Gourinath

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The use of small molecules has been shown to stabilize the SOD1 dimer and preventing its dissociation and aggregation. In this study, we employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the interactions between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds. In order to explore the noncovalent interaction between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed to gain insights into the binding modes and free energies of SOD1-polyphenolic compounds. MM/PBSA methods were used to calculate free energies from obtained MD trajectories. The compounds, Hesperidin, Ergosterol, and Rutin showed the excellent binding affinity in micromolar range with SOD1. Ergosterol and Hesperidin have the strongest binding affinity to SOD1 and was subjected to further characterization. Biophysical experiments using Circular Dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy results show that the binding of these two compounds can stabilize SOD1 dimer and inhibit the aggregation of SOD1. Molecular simulation results also suggest that these compounds reduce the dissociation of SOD1 dimers through direct interaction with the dimer interface. This study will be helpful to develop other drug-like molecules which may have the effect to reduce the aggregation of SOD1.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, molecular dynamics simulation, surface plasmon resonance, superoxide dismutase

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226 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah

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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: aggregation, alkalinity, colloid, nanoparticle

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225 The Role of Piceatannol in Counteracting Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Aggregation and Nuclear Translocation

Authors: Joanna Gerszon, Aleksandra Rodacka

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In the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, protein and peptide aggregation processes play a vital role in contributing to the formation of intracellular and extracellular protein deposits. One of the major components of these deposits is the oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to answer the question whether piceatannol, a stilbene derivative, counteracts and/or slows down oxidative stress-induced GAPDH aggregation. The study also aimed to determine if this natural occurring compound prevents unfavorable nuclear translocation of GAPDH in hippocampal cells. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis indicated that one molecule of GAPDH can bind up to 8 molecules of piceatannol (7.3 ± 0.9). As a consequence of piceatannol binding to the enzyme, the loss of activity was observed. Parallel with GAPDH inactivation the changes in zeta potential, and loss of free thiol groups were noted. Nevertheless, the ligand-protein binding does not influence the secondary structure of the GAPDH. Precise molecular docking analysis of the interactions inside the active center allowed to presume that these effects are due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149) which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Molecular docking also showed that simultaneously 11 molecules of ligand can be bound to dehydrogenase. Taking into consideration obtained data, the influence of piceatannol on level of GAPDH aggregation induced by excessive oxidative stress was examined. The applied methods (thioflavin-T binding-dependent fluorescence as well as microscopy methods - transmission electron microscopy, Congo Red staining) revealed that piceatannol significantly diminishes level of GAPDH aggregation. Finally, studies involving cellular model (Western blot analyses of nuclear and cytosolic fractions and confocal microscopy) indicated that piceatannol-GAPDH binding prevents GAPDH from nuclear translocation induced by excessive oxidative stress in hippocampal cells. In consequence, it counteracts cell apoptosis. These studies demonstrate that by binding with GAPDH, piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation as well as it prevents hippocampal cells from apoptosis by retaining GAPDH in the cytoplasm. All these findings provide a new insight into the role of piceatannol interaction with GAPDH and present a potential therapeutic strategy for some neurological disorders related to GAPDH aggregation. This work was supported by the by National Science Centre, Poland (grant number 2017/25/N/NZ1/02849).

Keywords: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotection, piceatannol, protein aggregation

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224 Multi Tier Data Collection and Estimation, Utilizing Queue Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amirhossein Mohajerzadeh, Abolghasem Mohajerzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, target parameter is estimated with desirable precision in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSN) while the proposed algorithm also tries to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, using efficient data collecting algorithm. Target parameter distribution function is considered unknown. Sensor nodes sense the environment and send the data to the base station called fusion center (FC) using hierarchical data collecting algorithm. FC builds underlying phenomena based on collected data. Considering the aggregation level, x, the goal is providing the essential infrastructure to find the best value for aggregation level in order to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, while desirable accuracy is guaranteed (required sample size is fully depended on desirable precision). First, the sample size calculation algorithm is discussed, second, the average queue length based on M/M[x]/1/K queue model is determined and it is used for energy consumption calculation. Nodes can decrease transmission cost by aggregating incoming data. Furthermore, the performance of the new algorithm is evaluated in terms of lifetime and estimation accuracy.

Keywords: aggregation, estimation, queuing, wireless sensor network

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223 A Fuzzy Nonlinear Regression Model for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

Authors: O. Poleshchuk, E. Komarov

Abstract:

This paper presents a regression model for interval type-2 fuzzy sets based on the least squares estimation technique. Unknown coefficients are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to determine aggregation intervals for type-1 fuzzy sets, membership functions of whose are low membership function and upper membership function of interval type-2 fuzzy set. These aggregation intervals were called weighted intervals. Low and upper membership functions of input and output interval type-2 fuzzy sets for developed regression models are considered as piecewise linear functions.

Keywords: interval type-2 fuzzy sets, fuzzy regression, weighted interval

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222 Aggregation of Fractal Aggregates Inside Fractal Cages in Irreversible Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation Binary Systems

Authors: Zakiya Shireen, Sujin B. Babu

Abstract:

Irreversible diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) of binary sticky spheres was simulated by modifying the Brownian Cluster Dynamics (BCD). We randomly distribute N spheres in a 3D box of size L, the volume fraction is given by Φtot = (π/6)N/L³. We identify NA and NB number of spheres as species A and B in our system both having identical size. In these systems, both A and B particles undergo Brownian motion. Irreversible bond formation happens only between intra-species particles and inter-species interact only through hard-core repulsions. As we perform simulation using BCD we start to observe binary gels. In our study, we have observed that species B always percolate (cluster size equal to L) as expected for the monomeric case and species A does not percolate below a critical ratio which is different for different volume fractions. We will also show that the accessible volume of the system increases when compared to the monomeric case, which means that species A is aggregating inside the cage created by B. We have also observed that for moderate Φtot the system undergoes a transition from flocculation region to percolation region indicated by the change in fractal dimension from 1.8 to 2.5. For smaller ratio of A, it stays in the flocculation regime even though B have already crossed over to the percolation regime. Thus, we observe two fractal dimension in the same system.

Keywords: BCD, fractals, percolation, sticky spheres

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221 Computer Simulation to Investigate Magnetic and Wave-Absorbing Properties of Iron Nanoparticles

Authors: Chuan-Wen Liu, Min-Hsien Liu, Chung-Chieh Tai, Bing-Cheng Kuo, Cheng-Lung Chen, Huazhen Shen

Abstract:

A recent surge in research on magnetic radar absorbing materials (RAMs) has presented researchers with new opportunities and challenges. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the wave-absorbing phenomenon of magnetic RAMs. First, we hypothesized that the absorbing phenomenon is dependent on the particle shape. Using the Material Studio program and the micro-dot magnetic dipoles (MDMD) method, we obtained results from magnetic RAMs to support this hypothesis. The total MDMD energy of disk-like iron particles was greater than that of spherical iron particles. In addition, the particulate aggregation phenomenon decreases the wave-absorbance, according to both experiments and computational data. To conclude, this study may be of importance in terms of explaining the wave- absorbing characteristic of magnetic RAMs. Combining molecular dynamics simulation results and the theory of magnetization of magnetic dots, we investigated the magnetic properties of iron materials with different particle shapes and degrees of aggregation under external magnetic fields. The MDMD of the materials under magnetic fields of various strengths were simulated. Our results suggested that disk-like iron particles had a better magnetization than spherical iron particles. This result could be correlated with the magnetic wave- absorbing property of iron material.

Keywords: wave-absorbing property, magnetic material, micro-dot magnetic dipole, particulate aggregation

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220 Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks

Authors: Viktor R. Stoynov, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis

Abstract:

The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.

Keywords: comparative factor, carrier aggregation, indoor mobile network, resource allocation

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219 Mechanisms Leading to the Protective Behavior of Ethanol Vapour Drying of Probiotics

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo

Abstract:

A new antisolvent vapour precipitation approach was used to make ultrafine submicron probiotic encapsulates. The approach uses ethanol vapour to precipitate submicron encapsulates within relatively large droplets. Surprisingly, the probiotics (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) showed relatively high survival even under destructive ethanolic conditions within the droplet. This unusual behaviour was deduced to be caused by the denaturation and aggregation of the milk protein forming an ethanolic protective matrix for the probiotics. Skim milk droplets which is rich in casein and contains naturally occurring minerals provided higher ethanolic protection when compared whey protein isolate and lactose droplets.

Keywords: whey, skim milk, probiotic, antisolvent, precipitation, encapsulation, denaturation, aggregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 405